Above left (8. t): Adrian Hardy Haworth, (1768-1833] named many new species and is commemorated by the genus Haworthia.

although the "gravestones ", necessary for legibility in botanical gardens are too large tor a private collection.

journal offered to the general public. It greatly helps if the author adds illustrations, a description in a second, living language, and indications of how his new species differs from its allies, but none of these is obligatory.

Nomenclature is a complicated subject and the majority of growers will be happy to give it a miss. But there are always a few who, after the first flush of enthusiasm for succulents, feel inspired to embark upon reclassifying them or describing new taxa. Before starting to do this, it is imperative that they become acquainted with the Code and understand how it operates. Not a year goes by without appalling bungles in plant naming being perpetrated by well-meaning amateurs, some of whom are blissfully unaware that naming plants follows any rules at all. What is so distressing is that other amateurs are unaware which are the good names and which are bad. and these errors are there for all time and must be taken into account by future monographers. For a simple introduction to plant naming, I recommend the primer by C. Jeffrey3.

Names for garden plants The unit here is the cultivar, and the gospel the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants4. A cultivar is defined as: "an assemblage of cultivated plants which is clearly distinguished by any characters (morphological, physiological, cytological, chemical or others), and which, when reproduced (sexually or asexually), retains its distinguishing characters." Cultivars may have their origin in cultivation or in the wild, as mutations or hybrids (8.3, 4). Many are unvarying clones (page 48), in contrast to species having an internal range of variability (5.1). The cristate, monstrous and variegated succulents mentioned in Chapter 2 are almost all examples of clones.

Names of cultivars are distinguished typographically from those of species by being enclosed in single (not double) quotes, or preceded by "cv.". Unlike specific epithets, they begin with a capital initial and are not set in italic type. In the

past, cultivars were often given botanical names, although known only from gardens and never found wild. Such names, if given before 1959. can be retained, but they are written as cultivars. thus: Echeveria 'Hoveyi' instead of £ hoveyi Rose. Thus we can distinguish names of wildings from those of garden plants by their typographical presentation.

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