General Reading List

BAILEY, L. H. and E. Z. Hortus Third Macmillan, New York and London 1976

CHIDAMIAN. CLAUDE Book ol Cacti and Other Succulents Doubledav, New York 1958 GLASS. C. and FOSTER, R Cacti and Succulents lor the Amateur Blandford Press, Poole 1977: Van Nostrand Remhold, New York 1977 GRAF, A. B. Exotica III Scribner. New

York 1975. HAAGE, W. Cacti and Succulents Vista Books. London 1963: Dutton. New York 1963. HIGGINS. V. Succulents in Cultivation

St. Martins, New York 1960. IVIMEY-COOK. R. B. Succulents-A glossary of terms and definitions National Cactus & Succulent Society, Oxford 1974. JACOBSEN. H. Handbook ol Succulent Plants (Volumes 1-3) Blandford. London 1960; Humanities. New York 1973.

JACOBSEN, H. Lexicon ol Succulent Plants Blandford Press. Poole 1975: Humanities. New York 1975. LAMB. E. and B. Illustrated Reference on Cacti and Other Succulents (Volumes 1-4) Blandford, London 1955-66; International Publications Service, New York 1955-69. MARTIN, M J. and CHAPMAN, P R. Succulents and Their Cultivation Faber & Faber, London 1977 RAUH, W Die grossartige welt der

Sukkulenten Hamburg 1967 RAWE, R Succulents in the Veld Howard

Timmins. Cape Town 1968 ROWLEY. G. D. and NEWTON. L. E Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum An annual index of all new names of succulent plants. Published for the International Organisation for Succulent Plant Research, 1960 etseq SHREVE, W. F and WIGGINS, I. L. Vegetation and Flora ol the Sonoran Desert (Volumes 1-2) Stanford University Press 1964. STEARN. W. T Botanical Latin Nelson, Edinburgh 1966; Lubrecht & Cramer 1966.

TATE, J. L Cactus Cook Book-Succulent Cookery International Cactus & Succulent Society of America, California 1971 WILLIS. J. C. A Dictionary olthe Flowenng Plants and Ferns (Edition 8 edited by H. K. AIRY-SHAW) Cambridge University Press, London and New York 1973.

Glossary

Words in italics refer to separate entries within the glossary.

Acicuiar Needlelike Actlnomorphy Radial symmetry; said of a (lower that can be divided into equal halves across many diameters Adj. actinomorphic. Cel. zygomorphy) Adventitious Said ol roots lhat arise anywhere other than from a pre-existing root Allele One of two or more alternative states of a gene and occupying the same site on a chromosome. Anatomy The study of the microscopic structure of plants

Androecium The male organs of the flower, collectively the stamens Anemophily Transfer of pollen by the agency of wind Adj. anemophilous. (cf. entomophily. ormthophily I Aneuploid Having a chromosome number lhat is not a regular multiple of the basic (haploidj number Annulus A ringlike outgrowth of the corolla in Stapelieae Adj. annular.

Anthecology Floral biology Ihe functioning of flowers in relation to their pollinators Anther The lop part of a stamen that contains the

9eneric name followed bv a specific epithet Biochemistry The study of the chemical substances within an organism: the chemistry of lile

Bisexual Said of a flower that includes both lunctional stamens and carpels (cf unisexual)

Bract A modified leaf at the base ota pedicel or peduncle uracteole A small bract subtending a single pedicel. when the bract itself subtends a peduncle

Bulb A usually underground storage organ comprising an enlarged bud of fleshy, sheathing leaves or leaf bases Adj. bulbous. Bulbil A small bulb borne above ground and functioning as a means of vegetative reproduction and associated division ol labour into a permanent water and food store and usually short-lived aerial photosynthetic organs a plant of this nature Cell The basic unit or brick' from which plani life is built Each cell comprises a cell wall, the cytoplasm, the nucleus and various cell inclusions such as chloroplasts

Cephalium A special crown of wool or bristles from which the flowers are borne in certain cacti.

Cereiform, Cereold Having the general habit of columnar cacti (cf caciilorm. cactoid) Chlorophyll The green pigment ol plants, located in

Anthocyanin A widespread pigment in plants responsible for purplish-red as well as some blue shades Apetalous Lacking petals Arborescent Becoming tree-

Areole The spine cushion of a cactus; the organ from which arise wool, spines, leaf (when present), lateral branches and llowers Aril A lleshy or bony outgrowth of a seed. Adi arillate

Armature Plant defences prickles, thorns, spines, etc Axil The upper angle between a stem and a leaf (or tubercleI arising from the stem Adi axillary.

Berry A fleshy fruit containing two or more seeds. Betacyanin A nitrogenous pigment exclusive to members of the Caoraphyllales and replacing anthocyamn in this Order. Binomial The scientific name of a species, comprising a

C* C4 Symbols for variant pathways in the respiration cycle of certain plants involving the intermediate formation o, 3. and4.carbon ffStaclds ,eSDec,ively

Cactiform; Cactoid Having the general habif ol globular cacti, (cf cereiform. cereoidj Cactophlle A lover of cacti Loosely applied to lovers of all succulents (cf. cactophobe) Cactophobe A hater of cacti (cf. cactophile). Cactus A member of the Cactaceae. the cactus Family. ¡P"cac,i: rarely cactuses Caespltose; Cespitóse Forming tufted growth Callus The protective corky tissue covering a cut or bruised surface; to form such a layer

Calyx The outermost envelope of the flower, made up of usually greenish, protective sepals CAM Symbol lor Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, the unusual respiration cycle of most succulents (cf C* C.) Capltulum A flower head in which many small sessile flowers arise at the same level on a flattened axis surrounded by an involucre of bracts, ihe whole simulating a single large

Capsule A dry fruit composed more united carpels Carpel A modified leaf containing the ovules and with a stigma al the tip Caudex An enlarged storage organ at soil level, composed of a swollen stem base, or root, or both. Adj caudiciform.

1 Having a caudex

Chloroplast Lens-shaped body located in the cytoplasm — 01 the green tissue of plants and containing the chlorophyll

Chromosome An elongated structure wilhin the cell nucleus which carries the genes in linear sequence Ciliate Fringed with hairs like eyelashes

Cladode See phylloclad Claw The tapered lower pan 01 a petal (or sepal), (cf limb) Cleistogamy Ability of a flower to set viable seed without opening. Adj cleislogamous Clone A group of genetically identical plants, such as those derived by vegetative propagation from one individual

Connate Organically united with one another (cf Free) Convergence The phenomenon whereby unrelated organisms come to look alike in response to the same selection processes Cordate Heart-shaped Corolla The inner of the two perianth whorls, made up ol usually coloured, aitractive

Corona An extra whorl of appendages in a flower similar 10 a crown. Corymb A flat-lopped inflorescence in which the Pedicels arise al different levels up ihe axis. Adj corymbose, (cf umbel) Cotyledon The first leaf or leaf of a pair produced by a seedling

Crest, Cristate A fasciated fanlike development of a stem Adj crested, cristate Crossing Cross-pollinalion transfer of pollen between two genetically different individuals (cf setting) Cultlvar a laxonomic group of cultivated plants distinguishable by any characters that are stable and racoQnlzabte; a cultivated

Cutlcto Varnish-like impervious coating of an epidermis Adj cuticuiar Cyathlum The unique inflorescence of Euphorbieae in which a single female flower is surrounded by several males, the whole being enveloped in an involucre and simulating a single flower

Cyme One of two basic types °'f?,?Sce"ce in which the oldest llower is at the centre and terminates the axis subsequent growth being from branching beneath it Adj cymose (cf raceme) Cytology The study of cells in particular the chromosomes within them

Cytoplasm The cell sap

Decussate Crossed pairs each pair ol organs being at upan^seS 10'tS predecessor Dehiscence The way in which a fruit or anther splits open al maturity Adj dehiscent V dehisce. Desert A region averaging ¡■aMfal|an 25cm(10in) annual Dichasium A type of cymose inflorescence in which two side branches grow out from beneath the terminal flower Adj. dichasial (cf. monochasium) Dicotyledon A plant having two cotyledons: one ol two major subdivisions of flowering plants, (cf monocotyledon) Dimorphism Existence in two states. Adj. dimorphic Dioecious Having separate male and female flowers on different plants (cf. monoecious)

Diploid Containing a double set of chromosomes one from either parent, as in the non-reproductive cells ol the plant body. (cf. haploid polyploid). Disc (1) The area surrounding the ovary in certain flowers when adapted for nectar secretion (2) The flattened axis supporting the flowers in a capiiulum. (cf, ray) Discontinoou« See disjunct Disjunct Occupying two or more separate areas discontinuous in distributon

Distichous in two oppositp series

Dominant Said of a gene which obscures the action of its allele when both occur in a hybrid, (cf. recessive)

Ecology The study of organisms in relation to their environment.

Endemism Occurence in a smaller than average area. Adj endemic, (cf. widespread). Entomophily Transfer of pollen through the agency ol insects. Adj. entomophilous. (cl. anemophily, ornilhophily). Epicactus One ol a range of hybrid cacti descended from epiphytic ancestors and grown primarily for the large and showy flowers. Epidermis The surface layer of cells comprising the skin of a plant. Adj. epidermal Epigynous Having an interior ovary, (cf. hypogynous). Epiphyte A plant growing upon another for support only. Adj. epiphytic, (cf. parasite).

Epithet In nomenclature, the second word in a binomial name, also called the trivial

Evolution The process whereby all living things have descended from fewer and simpler ancestors.

F, The first filial generation following hybridization. F2: the second generation, and so

Family A laxonomic grouping made up of related genera. Most Family names end in

Fasciation An abnormal type of growth in which the stem apex broadens into a fan. Adj. fasciated.

Fertilization The fusion of male and female gametes in sexual reproduction. Fibrous Thin and wiry, as in lateral roots. Filament The usually threadlike base of a stamen that bears the anther above. Floret A small flower, as found in the tightly packed capilulum of Compositae. Fluctuation A non-heritable change brought about by nutrition or other environmental influence. Follicle A dry Iruil composed of a single carpel that dehisces longitudinally down one side.

Form A laxonomic subdivision of a variety, normally the smallest degree of differentiation considered worthy of a scientific name. Free Separate from one another and not united, (cf. connate).

Fruit The seeds and their enclosing ovary at maturity, sometimes including also parts of the flower and axis.

Gamete A haploid sex cell that fuses with another gamete in sexual reproduction.

Gene The unit of inheritance, located on a chromosome at a specific site and able to reproduce itself. Genetics the study of heredity and the mechanisms of inheritance.

Genus A laxonomic group composed of related species. Adj. generic. PI. genera. Glabrous With a smooth, hairless surface. Glaucous With a fine waxy surface like a plum. (cf. pruinose).

Glochld The small, barbed, readily detached spine characteristic of Opunlia. Gynoecium The female organs of the flower; collectively the carpels.

Halophyte A salt-tolerant plant, typically of maritime habitats and salt marshes, and showing usually a degree of succulence. Haploid Containing a single, reduced set ol chromosomes, as in the gametes, (cl. diploid, polyploid).

Herbarium A collection of preserved plants; the building in which such a collection is housed.

Hermaphrodite Possessing both male and female sex organs.

Hirsute Coarsely hairy Hispid Rough from short bristles or stiff hairs. Homonym A name exactly duplicating that of another plant. In such cases the later name must be replaced by another, (cf synonym). Hygroscopic Able to change shape as a result of change in water content. Hypocotyl The part of a seedling between the radicle and the cotyledon(.s)\ the transitional area between root

Hypogynous Having a superior ovary, (cf. epigynous).

Inbreeding Self-pollinating, (cf. outbreeding) Indehiscent Not breaking open at maturity, (cl. dehiscence). Inferior Growing below, as said of an ovary when the perianth arises from its apex, (cf. superior). Inflorescence The axis bearing the flowers. Internode That part of a stem between two nodes. Involucre A circle ol protective leal-like organs, such as the bracts surrounding a capitulum. Adj. involúcrate.

Lamina The blade of a leaf. Lateral On the side, as in the fine roots developed as branches from a taproot, (cf. terminal).

Latex White milk-like liquid that exudes from the cut surface of certain plants. That of euphorbias is often poisonous.

Leaf Succulent Having enlarged, fleshy, water-storing foliage: a plant of this nature. Limb The broad expanded upper portion of a petal (or sepal), (cf. claw). Lithophyte A plant that grows on the surface of rocks like a lichen.

Long-Day Plant A plant that flowers only in response to increasing day length, (cf. short-day plant). Lumper A botanist who classifies into few, broadly conceived units, (cf. splitterJ.

Meiosis Reduction division; a special stage in the formation of gametes in which half the original total ol chromosomes passes into each pollen grain or egg cell. Adj. meiotic. Mendelian Ratio The mathematical ratio whereby, according to the laws of chance, the progeny of a cross will segregate for dominant and recessive factors. So called in tribute to Gregor Mendel. Mericarp A part-fruit, made up of one or more seeds enclosed in an ovary segment and derived by the break-up of a schizocarp. Meristem The mass of undifferentiated cells forming the growing tip of any organ. Mesophyte A plant of average water requirements, (cf. xerophyte). Metabolism The sum total of all chemical processes going on within a living organism. Mimicry Natural camouflage; resemblance to the background, for whatever

Mitosis That part of cell division in which each chromosome duplicates itself and an identical set passes to each of the two daughter nuclei. Adj. mitotic. Monochasium A type of cymose inflorescence in which only one branch grows out from beneath the terminal flower. Adj. monochasial. (cl. dichasium).

Monocotyledon Having one cotyledon, one of two major subdivisions of flowering plants, (cf. dicotyledon). Monoecious Having separate male and female flowers on the same plant, (cf. dioecious).

Monotypic Having only one subordinate component; said of a Family containing only one genus, a genus containing only one species.

Monstrous In succulents, applied to a type of abnormal growth resulting from multiple growing points, (cf. fasciation).

Morphology The study of the form and development of parts of a plant Mutation A permanent genetic change; a sport.

Natural Selection The process whereby environmental forces select those individuals best adapted and eliminate the unfit. Nectar The sugary secretion produced by a nectary. Nectary A gland or secretory tissue that produces nectar Neoteny Arrested juvenility: the retention of youthful characters in an adult plant. Node That pan of a stem from which the leaf arises, (cf. internode).

Nomenclature A branch of taxonomy concerned with names and naming. Nucleus The organizing body of a cell, largely made up of the chromosomes. Adj. nuclear.

Order A major taxonomic group made up of one or more related Families. Order names end in -ales. Ornithophily Transfer of pollen by the agency of birds. Adj. ornithophilous. (cf. anemophily, entomophily). Outbreeding; Outcrossing Cross-pollinating, (cf. inbreeding).

Ovary The central, lemale part of a flower made up of carpels containing ovules. Ovule The egg" of a plant which, on fertilization, develops into a seed

Pachycaul Having a swollen intermediate condition to the caudiciform habit. Panicle A raceme of racemes. Adj. paniculate. Papillate, Papulose Covered in minute, glossy, rounded, blister-like projections. Parasite A plant that unites organically with another (the host) and derives nutriment directly from it. Adj. parasitic, (cf. epiphyte]. Pathology The study of

Pectinate Set with projections like Ihe teeth of a comb Pedicel The ultimate stalk supporting a single flower Adj. pedicellate (cf. peduncle)

Peduncle The secondary axis of an inflorescence that bears the pedicels. Adj pedunculate. Perianth The protective envelope of a flower, made up of uniform lepáis, or of an outer calyx and an inner corolla.

Perlgynous Halfway between hypogynous and epigynous, that is, with the perianth arising halfway up the ovary. Petri One member of the corolla. Adj. petaloid. Petiole The stalk of a leaf pH Mathematical notation for the degree of acidity or alkalinity. pH 7 is neutral, a soil with pH 8 is alkaline, and with pH 4 very acid. pH 6.5 suits most succulents Photoperiod The length ol the daily exposure to light insofar as it effects plant growth and flowering. Photosynthesis The process unique to plants whereby elaborate organic compounds (carbohydrates) are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light and chlorophyll. Adj. photosynthetic. Phylloclad A flattened stem that looks and functions like a leaf.

Phyllotaxy The arrangement

Phytogeny Race pedigree; the evolutionary history of a /axon. Adj. phylogenetic, phyletic.

Physiology The study of Ihe life processes within an organism.

Placenta Thai part of an ovary bearing the ovules. Pollen Dust-like grains produced by the anthers of flowering plants carrying the male gamete in fertilization. (cf. pollination). Pollination The placing ol pollen on Ihe receptive stigma of a flower (cf. fertilization). Poilinium Pollen-mass; a structure comprising the contents of an anther packaged for transfer as one unit. PI. pollinia. Polygenes Linked genes which collectively determine the expression of a given character to different degrees. Polyploid Containing three or more basic sets of chromosomes (cf. haploid. diploid).

Prickle A pointed, superficial outgrowth not linked to the vascular system of the plant.

Priority In nomenclature, the principle whereby the earliest validly published name takes precedence over others Proliferation Growth of buds that normally remain dormant. V. proliferate. Protandry The maturing of anthers before stigmas in one flower. Adj. protandrous (cf. protogyny).

Protogyny The maturing of stigmas before anthers in one flower. Adj. protogynous. (cf. protandry). Pruinose Having a broken down to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of energy Root Hairs Elongated cells

'iable J

selling -, s (cf. self-incompatible) Self-incompatible Unable t set viable seed as a result o selling, sell-sterile, (cf. sell-compatible).

Systemic Said o that are absorbed by the plant and poison the cells against predators; a pesticide of this

Short-Day Plant A plant that flowers only in response to shortening day length, (cl. long-day plant). Shrublet A miniature shrub, (cf. subshrub). Species A group of actually or potentially interbreeding lother than I any other spe they show sor arto i i the plants

Raceme One of two basic types of inflorescence in which Ihe axis has unlimited growth at the tip. the oldest flowers being at the bottom. Adj. racemose, (cf. cyme). Radical Arising from the root or at ground level Radicle The first root developing from a seed. Ray A radiating organ, such as the outer ring of florets in Compositae. (cf. disc). Receptacle The modified tip of the axis of a plant from which the floral parts develop. Recessive Said of a gene whose action is obscured by its allele when the two are both present in a hybrid, (cf.

Thorn Br sharp, pointed and containing linted

Schizocarp A dry fruit that breaks up at maturity into two or more mericarps. Scion The upper hall of a graft, (cf. stock). Seed The end-product of a fertilized ovule. The gardener accepts "seeds" in a less rigid sense, some being whole fruits or parts of fruits. Sell-compatible Able

Splitter A botanist who classifies into many, finely divided units, (cf. lumper). Sport See mutation. Stamen The male organ of a flower, comprising a filament bearing an anther on top. Staminode A barren stamen that may be modified to function as a petal or nectary. Stem Succulent Having enlarged, fleshv, water-storing stems; a plant of this nature. Stigma The receptive tip of the style on which the pollen alights.

Stipule One of a pair of lateral outgrowths from the base of a petiole, usually present as a scale, but spiny in euphorbias

Stock The lower half of a graft, supplying the root system, (cf. scion). Stoma The breathing pore of a plant. PI. stomata. Style Prolongation of the tip of a carpel, bearing the stigma.

Subshrub A smallish, soft-wooded shrub, (cf. shrublet). Succulence Possession of id of the modified as ;

from plants by evaporation Tubercle Anv conical or cylindrical outgrowth. Adj.

sheaths.

Type Specimen The actual plant, preserved, that served as the basis lor a new name.

Umbel An inflorescence in which three or more pedicels arise from Ihe same level. Adj. umbellate, (cf. corymb}. Unisexual Said of a flower

3t both. let.bisexual).

elopment of pigment, ¡negated.

gnomic

Succulent Storing water in specially enlarged spongy leaves; a plant of this tvpe. Sucker A shoot arising from below soil level close to the parent plant.

Superior Growing above, as said of carpels when they arise from the axis above Ihe level of insertion of the perianth, (cf. inferior).

subdivision Vascular Provided conducting systerr ol specialized tissu of fluid within the [

Widespread Havir distribution than a\ endemic).

Ceromorphlc Preventmc vater loss, as in characti ;uch as a thick cuticle oi

Xerophyte A plant adapted tc survive with less than average water supply, (cf. mesophyte)

Zygomorphy Symmetry about one plane only, which divides an organ (such as a

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