Convolvllaceae Juss Dicotyledons

This family contains plants of very diverse habit, including some parasitic species. The showy, campanulate flowers are usually white or pink.

Distribution: widespread.

Genera Illustrated

Ipomoea L.

A large and variable genus of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. The species cultivated by succulent enthusiasts have tuberous roots and slender stems. Several 'new species' are being imported. Distribution: tropical and subtropical regions. Merremia Dennst.

These small, climbing plants have lobed or compound leaves. They are very similar to Ipomoea, from which they may be distinguished by differences in the pollen struc-

Distribution: tropical regions.

CRASSULACEAE DC. (DICOTYLEDONS) The family of Crassulaceae contains a large number of widely found annual, biennial and perennial species, with more or less succulent leaves, which grow in a wide range of climatic conditions (from wetlands to deserts). The inflorescence usually bears small flowers (Fig. 3). The seeds are dust-like, but plants are easily propagated from stem and leaf cuttings.

Fig. 3 The flowers of members of the Crassulaceae family arc very simple and are arranged in inflorescences. The number of stamens is equal to the number of petals or is a multiple of them.

Fig. 3 The flowers of members of the Crassulaceae family arc very simple and are arranged in inflorescences. The number of stamens is equal to the number of petals or is a multiple of them.

Genera Illustrated

Adromischus Lem.

Succulent herbaceous or shrubby plants with fleshy, persistent leaves. The inflorescences have flowers at right angles to the peduncles.

Distribution: Namibia and South Africa (Cape Province). Aeonium Webb & Berthel.

Shrubs with simple or branched stems and leaves arranged in rosettes at the tips of the branches. The characteristic rosettes die after flowering. Distribution: north Africa, Canary Islands, Madeira and Mediterranean regions. Aichryson Webb & Berthel. Very close to Aeonium.

Distribution: Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira. Cotyledon L.

Branching shrubs with opposite waxy leaves. The campanulate flowers, which may be red, yellow or orange, are pollinated by birds.

Distribution: Arabian Peninsula, Namibia and South Crassula L.

Herbaceous plants or shrubs with succulent leaves of various shapes. There are 250-300 species, which are found in habitats ranging from wetland to desert. The southern African species are widely cultivated. Distribution: southern and tropical Africa; a few species are widespread. Dudleya Br. & R.

Low-growing plants with leaves arranged in rosettes. The branched inflorescences bear star-shaped flowers. Distribution: Mexico and USA (Arizona, California, Nevada). Echeveria DC.

Low-growing rosettes bear erect stems of lateral inflorescences with numerous bracts. Distribution: Central America and Mexico. Graptopetalum Rose

A genus that is closely related to Echeveria, from which it is distinguished by its star-like flowers and the red spots on the petals.

Distribution: Mexico. Creenovia Webb & Berthel.

The rosettes are very similar to those of Sempervivum. The flowers are golden yellow, and the rosette dies after flow-

Distribution: Canary Islands.

lovibarba Opiz

A very small genus, closely allied to Sempervivum. The flowers are campanulate.

Distribution: east Europe (Balkans and eastern Alps). Kalanchoe Adans.

A very variable genus containing herbaceous plants, shrubs and climbers. The leaves in some species produce plantlets. The terminal inflorescence bears showy flowers. Distribution: southern and tropical Africa, Asia and Madagascar. Monanthes Haw.

A genus of small plants with fleshy leaves and hairy inflorescences.

Distribution: Canary Islands and Madeira. Orostachys (DC.) Fisch.

The small rosettes die after producing a tall inflorescence.

Distribution: Asia.

Pachyphytum Link, Klotzsch & Otto

The fleshy-leaved rosettes may be distinguished from

Echeveria by the presence of a pair of scales inside each

Distribution: Mexico. Rosularia (DC.) Stapf

The plants in this genus are similar to Sedum and Sempervivum, but the rosettes have lateral inflorescences. Distribution: cast Europe and Asia (Caucasus and Himalayas). Sedum L.

There are approximately 600 species of herbaceous or shrubby plants, with erect or decumbent stems. The star-shaped flowers are various colours. European and Asiatic species are hardy and suitable for the rock garden. Distribution: Asia, Europe, north Africa and North America.

S emperviveUa Stapf

These small plants have leaves arranged in roseltes and white or pink flowers. Distribution: Asia (Himalayas). Sempervivum L.

The leaves of these stoloniferous plants are arranged in rosettes, and the flowers are star-shaped. There are about 40 species and more than 250 cultivars, all of which are

Distribution: north Africa, Asia and Europe. Sinocrassula A. Berger A small genus, similar to Sedum. Distribution: Asia (Himalayas to China).

succulent families and genera Tacitus Moran & J. Meyran See Graplopetalum. Tylccodon Toelken.

Distinguished from Cotyledon by the non-waxy leaves arranged in spirals and by the presence of bracts on the flowering stems. Distribution: southern Africa. Villadia Haw.

A genus that is closely related to Sedum, from which it differs in having petals united into a distinct tube. Distribution: Mexico to Peru.

CUCLKBITACEAE Juss. (DICOTYLEDONS) This is a family of fast-growing, climbing plants with tendrils. Several species produce edible fruits. The species cultivated by succulent collectors usually have tuberous rootstocks or swollen bases.

Distribution: tropical and warm temperate countries.

Genera Illustrated

Cephalopentandra Chiov. A monotypic genus.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. Corallocarpus Welw. ex Hook.f.

A genus of about 20 species of plants with climbing or trailing stems arising from a tuberous root. Very few species are of interest to the succulent grower. Distribution: Africa, India and Madagascar. Gerrardanthus Harv.

A genus of plants with a tuberous rootstock from which climbing stems with tendrils are produced. Distribution: central, eastern and southern Africa. Ibervillea B.D. Greene

The glabrous stems are swollen at the base, and the climbing branches have tendrils. Distribution: north Mexico and southwest USA. Kedrostis Medik.

These climbing plants have swollen, caudiciform bases. Distribution: Africa to tropical Asia. Melothria L.

A genus containing approximately 10 species of climbing-or trailing-stemmed plants with tendrils, very few of which are of interest to the succulent collector. distribution: tropical and subtropical America.

Momordica L.

About 60 species of climbing plants with fleshy rootstocks. The fruits are more attractive than the flowers. Distribution: Africa. Seyrigia Keraudren

A genus containing a few species of climbing plants, with slender or succulent, little-branched stems with tendrils. Distribution: Madagascar. Xcrosicyos Humbert

A genus of climbing plants with glabrous or hairy stems and thick, succulent leaves. Distribution: Madagascar. Zygosicyos Humbert

Climbing stems with tendrils are produced by tuberous Distribution: Asia and Madagascar.

DIDIEKEACEAE Drake (DICOTYLEDONS)

This family, which is related to the Cactaceae, contains xerophytic spiny shrubs and small trees.

Genera Illustrated

Alluiwdia Drake

A genus of spiny shrubs with erect, spreading branches. Distribution: Madagascar. Didierea Baill.

The stems have thick, tuberculate branches, which bear narrow leaves and spines. Distribution: Madagascar.

DI0SC0KEACEAE K. Br. (MONOCOTYLEDONS)

The plants in this family have large rhizomes or tubers with twining shoots.

Distribution: southern Africa and South and Central America.

Genus Illustrated

Dioscorea L.

The very large, spherical caudex is covered with bark, which cracks into polygonal warts. Several species have edible tubers, and some have pharmacological uses. Distribution: southern Africa, Central and South America.

EUl'IIOitBIACEAE Juss. (DICOTYLEDONS) The Euphorbiaceae family contains about 320 genera and over 8,000 species of geographically widespread plants, which range from annual herbs to large trees. All Euphorbiaceae have a milky sap that may be harmful to the touch. The inflorescence has a complicated structure, based on the cyathium, which consists of an involucre containing one reduced female flower and several male flowers. There are protective bracts and nectaries. The fruit is a capsule, which explodes on reaching maturity. Genera Illustrated Euphorbia L.

There are over 2,000 species of very diverse habit, from annual plants to large trees, and including several succulent species. All species contain a poisonous, irritant white latex. Cyathia are enclosed in a five-lobed involucre bearing nectaries and subtended by enlarged, coloured bracts (Fig. 4). Some species make suitable house-plants. Distribution: widespread but the succulent species are more common in Africa and Madagascar.

Fig. 4 In Euphorbiaceae the inflorescence consists of complicated power structures called cyathia (singular, cyathium). These consist of an involucre (a series of bracts), which contains one reduced female flower and several male ones. The flowers are usually inconspicuous. Pollinators are attracted by the protective bracts (modified leaves), which can be very showy, and by the secretion of the nectaries. The illustration is based on the cyathia of Euphorbia milii. Jatroplw L.

A genus of trees or shrubs with simple, palmately veined leaves, sometimes covered with hairs. The inflorescence has many branches and bears scarlet flowers. Distribution: tropical and temperate regions.

Fig. 4 In Euphorbiaceae the inflorescence consists of complicated power structures called cyathia (singular, cyathium). These consist of an involucre (a series of bracts), which contains one reduced female flower and several male ones. The flowers are usually inconspicuous. Pollinators are attracted by the protective bracts (modified leaves), which can be very showy, and by the secretion of the nectaries. The illustration is based on the cyathia of Euphorbia milii. Jatroplw L.

A genus of trees or shrubs with simple, palmately veined leaves, sometimes covered with hairs. The inflorescence has many branches and bears scarlet flowers. Distribution: tropical and temperate regions.

succulent families and genera

Monadenium Pax

These succulent shrubs have several species with spirally tuberculate stems. Inflorescences are borne at the stem apices, and the lobes and glands are fused together. Distribution: tropical Africa.

Fig. 5 A typical Monadenium flower. Pedilanthus Neck.

A genus of shrubs with several branches and small leaves. Distribution: Central America. Phyllanthus L.

Trees or shrubs that often have leaf-like stems. The leaves themselves are of variable sizes. The inflorescences are borne from the axils, and the fruit is a capsule containing

Fig. 5 A typical Monadenium flower. Pedilanthus Neck.

A genus of shrubs with several branches and small leaves. Distribution: Central America. Phyllanthus L.

Trees or shrubs that often have leaf-like stems. The leaves themselves are of variable sizes. The inflorescences are borne from the axils, and the fruit is a capsule containing

Distribution: tropical regions. Synadenium Boiss.

A genus of shrubs with thick, succulent stems and large, pale green leaves. The lobes and glands are fused together into a single unit. Distribution: tropical Africa.

FOUQUIERIACEAE DC. (DICOTYLEDONS)

Fouquieriea H.B.& K.

This is the only genus of this family. There are a few species of spiny shrubs or trees with stems over 10 m tall. The genus Idria is considered to be a synonym. Distribution: Mexico and southwestern USA.

GERANIACEAE Juss. (DICOTYLEDONS)

The shrubs or herbs in this family usually have aromatic oils in glandular hairs, jointed stems and spirally arranged

Distribution: temperate and tropical regions.

Genera Illustrated

Pelargonium L'Hér.

A genus of low-growing shrub species, some with succulent or swollen stems and roots. The leaves, which may be simple or compound, are often aromatic. Some of the commonly cultivated geraniums are included in Pelargonium. Distribution: temperate and tropical regions. Sarcocaulon (DC.) Sweet.

The succulent stems of the plants within this genus are covered with protective bark. The spreading branches are spiny and have small leaves.

Distribution: temperate and tropical regions; most succulent species are common in southern Africa, especially Namibia.

GESNERIACEAE Dumorl. (DICOTYLEDONS) A family of shrubs, herbs or lianas, rarely trees, with opposite leaves and showy flowers. Very few species are of interest to succulent growers. Distribution: widespread. Genera Illustrated Rechsteineria C. Regel

The species within this genus have tuberous roots, velvety or hairy leaves and flowers borne in short panicles. Distribution: South America. Sinningia Nees

The shrubs in this genus are tuberous and have opposite leaves. The flowers are borne at the axils of the leaves. Distribution: Mexico to Argentina.

ICACINACEAE Miers (DICOTYLEDONS)

The trees, shrubs and lianas in this family have stems that may exhibit peculiar growth forms. Only one genus,

Pyrenacantha Wright, which is native to eastern Africa, is illustrated in this dictionary.

Distribution: tropical and temperate regions.

LABIATAF. Juss. (DICOTYLEDONS)

The shrubs and herbaceous plants within this family usually contain fragrant oils. The leaves are simple.

Several plants are of interest in horticulture, but few of them are succulents.

Distribution: widespread.

Genera Illustrated

Ocimum L.

There are about 35 species of aromatic shrubs and herbaceous plants within the genus. Many species are important for cooking - O. basilicum (basil) is one of the best known culinary herbs - or for medicinal purposes. Very few species are suitable for collections of succulent plants, however.

Distribution: tropical regions. Plectranthus L'Hér.

A genus of shrubs or herbs of which only a few species have succulent leaves or stems. DISTRIBUTION: Africa, Asia and Australia.

LECUMINOSAE .luss. (DICOTYLEDONS) A very large family containing over 16,000 species with very diverse habits. Several species are important as cultivated crops. Only one genus, Dolichos L., is included in this dictionary. Distribution: widespread.

LILIACEAE Juss. (MONOCOTYLEDONS) A family of largely herbaceous plants but containing a few tree-like species. Several genera have succulent leaves and are adapted to live in dry conditions. Genera Illustrated Aloe L.

A large genus of plants with succulent leaves arranged in spirals. The plants are stemless or have short, rarely

Distribution: southern Africa and Madagascar. Aslroloba Uitewaal

A genus containing a few species; closely related to Haworlhia.

Distribution: South Africa. Bulbine L.

A genus containing plants with succulent leaves and subterranean bulbs. Distribution: southern Africa. Eriospermum Endl.

Solitary or stoloniferous plants with globose, tuberous roots and with reduced, scale-like leaves and one or more well-developed leaf. Distribution: southern Africa.

Gasteria C.-J. Duval

Stemless plants with succulent leaves that are arranged in rosettes in mature specimens; younger plants have distichous leaves, an arrangement that may persist in mature specimens.

Distribution: southern Africa. Haworthia C.-J. Duval

Plants in dwarf rosettes that may be solitary or clustering. The succulent leaves are very diverse shapes. Distribution: southern Africa and Madagascar. Poellnitzia Uitewaal A monotypic genus. Distribution: South Africa. Scilla L.

A genus of bulbous plants with linear leaves. Distribution: Africa and Europe.

MESE M B K Y A NTH E M ACE AE Bai 11. (DICOTYLEDONS)

The family of Mesembryanthemaceae consists of about 100 genera with approximately 2,000 species, all of which have succulent leaves. The species range from small shrubs to creeping and the extremely specialized stemless plants. The flowers are usually showy and have many petals. The fruit is a hygroscopic capsule, which opens when wet, so releasing the seeds, and closes when dry. This adaptation is a response to arid environments: the fruit protects the seeds until water is available for germination. The family is widespread in southern Africa, and several species are naturalized in Mediterranean regions. The classification of the genera is based on the characteristics of the fruit, but it is possible to distinguish some by their habit. The great variablity within the family has led to the proliferation of genera and species, and any revision would considerably reduce their number.

In this dictionary the names currently in use in private and public collections as well as in trade catalogues have been followed. More than 50 genera and 296 species are illustrated and described in the alphabetical section. Genera Illustrated Aloinopsis Schwantes Argyrodcrma N.E. Br. Aspazoma N.E. Br. Astridia Dinter & Schwantes Bergeranthus Schwantes Biilja N.E. Br. Cammnlhus Schwantes

Cephalophyllum N.E. Br.

Ceroclamys N.E. Br.

Clieiridopsis N.E. Br.

Conophyttum Schwantes

Conophytuiii N.E. Br.

Cylindropliyllum Schwantes

Dactylopsis N.E. Br.

Delosperma N.E. Br.

Dinteranthus Schwantes

DracopliHiis Dinter & Schwantes

Drosanthemum Schwantes

Eberlanzia Schwantes

Enarganlhe N.E. Br.

Faucaria Schwantes

Fenestraria N.E. Br.

Gibbaeum Haw.

Glotlipliylliim Haw.

Hereroa Dinter & Schwantes jordaniella H. Hartmann.

Lampranlhiis N.E. Br.

Lapidaria Schwantes

Leipoldlia L. Bol.

Litliops N.E. Br.

Machairophylliim L. Bol.

Malephora N.E. Br.

Mestoklema N.E. Br.

Mitrophylluin Schwantes

Monilaria Schwantes

Namaquanthus L. Bol.

Namibia Dinter & Schwantes

Nelia Schwantes

Neoherincia L. Bol.

Odontophorus N.E. Br.

Oplilalmophyllum Dinter & Schwantes

Pleiospilos Dinter & Schwantes

Polymita L. Bol.

Rhombophyllum Schwantes

Riiscliia Schwantes

Ruschianthus L. Bol.

Sceletium N.E. Br.

Schwantesia Dinter

Smicrostigma N.E. Br.

Slomalium Schwantes

Tanqiiana Hartmann & Liede

Tilanopsis Schwantes

Trichodiadema Schwantes

Vanheerdea L. Bol.

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