Artificially Propagated Plants

A less strict regime applies to artificially propagated plants. If these plants are of species listed in Appendix I they are treated as if they were in Appendix II, so that only an export licence is required. Although an import licence is not required under CITES, some countries may still demand it as a consequence of

Artificially propagated plants of species listed in Appendix II are subject to a number of exemptions from CITES controls. Flasked seedlings, cut flowers, seeds and pollen are not covered by the Convention. They may also be traded with a certificate of artificial propagation. A number of European countries use the phytosanitary certificate for this purpose.

The above is a brief summary of the work of CITES. The Convention is implemented in many other ways, and interested readers are directed to The Evolution of CITES by W. Wijnstekers (see Further Reading).



Sara Oldfield

This Code was first published in 1990 in volume 10 (supplement to no. 4) of Piante Grasse, the journal of the Italian Cactus and Succulent Society, and it has since been printed in several specialist journals. It is reprinted with kind permission of the author, Sara Oldfield. The original edition of the Code contains much useful information that, for reasons of space, cannot be included here. Copies of the full Code may be obtained from Sara Oldfield or from the IOS or the AIAS.

TO TIIE COLLECTOR IN THE FIELD Before you collect anything:

• DO acquaint yourself with CITES and national and state controls, and find out which species are protected.

• DO obtain all necessary permits, both for collecting and for export and import to other countries.

• DO notify interested local organizations of your intentions. Then:

• DO strictly observe restrictions on what may be collected (which species, how many specimens, what kind of material). Where possible, collect seeds, offsets or cuttings, not the whole plant.

• DO leave mature plants for seed production. They are needed to perpetuate the wild population, and are unlikely to transplant successfully.

• DO collect discreetly; do not lead local people to believe that the plants are valuable or encourage or pay them (or their children) to collect for you.

• DO make careful field notes, including precise locality, altitude, type of vegetation and soil, date of collection and your own field number. Try to assess the number of individuals and extent of the population, the amount of seed setting and the frequency of seedlings.

• DO note possible threats to the habitat - e.g., through grazing, drainage or cultivation, urban spread or road widening.

• DO take photographs and/or preserve representative herbarium material. Submit this material, with a copy of your notes, to an appropriate institution or organization.

• DO NOT underrate the value of your field observations: carefully recorded they will be a useful contribution to science and to conservation.


• you plan to collect in commercial quantities, don't.

• you plan to soli any of the plants you collect to defray the cost of your trip,

• you plan to collect for research or study, obtain the agreement (and preferably the collaboration) of competent scientific authorities, such as a government agency or university department, in the host country.

• you think 'two or three plants won't be missed', remember someone else may be thinking the same tomorrow, and the next day, and the next...

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