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Dorn Spinal Therapy

Dorn Spinal Therapy has been in uses in the past 40 years. The credit of this method goes to Dieter Dorn, who has made a significant impact in the medical field. DORN- Method has been used on various patients where results could get witnessed instants. Due to the impact, this method has brought in the country. It has been declared the standard practice in treating Pelvical Disorders, Spinal, and Back pain. Dieter Dorn first used this method on his family, which was a sign of confidence in a method, which later gained much attention from different people in the country and also globally. Every day Dorn was able to offer treatment to 15- 20 patients in a day. His services were purely free which attracted attention both in the local and also global. The primary treatment that DORN-Method which could be treated using this method include spine healing therapy, misalignments of the spine, resolving pelvis and joints, and also solving out significant problems which could get attributed to vertebrae. Continue reading...

Dorn Spinal Therapy Summary

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Introduction to the Genus Coryphantha

The tubercles of Coryphanthas have a groove on their upper surface which usually reaches from the spine-bearing areole to the axil. The flowers originate from this groove, from which the plants may also sprout. Different types of areole development exist, which gives hints about the possible developmental history of the genus (phylogenesis).

Acanthocalycium Backeberg 1935

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribeTrichocereeae. Plants usually solitary, globose to somewhat elongate, depressed apically, pale to dark green, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 16-20, acute, somewhat tuberculate. Areoles 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) apart, usually yellowish brown. Spines 10-20, straight, needle- or awl-like, flexible, yellowish to brown, with dark tips, becoming gray with age. Flowers borne near the stem tips, open during the day, erect, funnelform to bell shaped, pink to white, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and in diameter peri-carpels and floral tubes with spine-tipped woolly scales. Fruits globose, dehiscingvertically, hard, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter, with persistent scales. Seeds brown to black, ovoid, papillate, with a small sunken hilum. Distribution Argentina. Plants solitary, globose to cylindrical, green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 18, rounded, swollen at areoles. Areoles oval, whitish. Spines horn colored to brown, usually straight, awl shaped. Central...

Pereskia zehntneri sp nov

Shrub, 2 to 3 meters high, with a central erect trunk, very spiny branches numerous, horizontal, usually in whorls, sometimes as many as 10 in a whorl branches terete, green, fleshy, very easily detached from the stem leaves stiff, fleshy, numerous, small, 2 to 4 cm. long, ovate to orbicular, acute, standing at right angles to the branches areoles large, filled with short white wool and numerous slender white spines flowers at tops of branches, large, 7 to 8 cm. broad, bright red, appearing in November petals broad, retuse ovary borne in the upper end of the branch, very narrow, 3 to 4 cm. long, bearing the usual leaves, areoles, and spines of the branches. Small tree or shrub, 6 to 8 meters high branches green and smooth, but in age becoming yellowish or light brown leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 8 to 12 cm. long, cuneate at base, more or less pointed at apex young areole with 1 to 3 spines, the longest 5 cm. long, the others when present not over half as long, all acicular and...

Pereskia moorei sp nov

A much branched shrub about 1 meter high, covered with brown bark branches stout leaves orbicular or obovate-oblong, rounded or apiculate at the apex, somewhat cuneately narrowed at the base, thick and fleshy, 4 to 8 cm. long, 3.5 to 6 cm. wide areoles suborbicular, 4.5 mm. in diameter, the wool gray spines at each areole mostly 2 to 4, very unequal, the longest 7.5 cm. long or less, ashy gray, blackish toward the apex flowers purplish red, about 4.5 cm. long ovary few-leafed, its leaves obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, bearing 1 to 3 black spines about 5 mm. long in the axils sepals narrowly oblong-obovate, bluntly acute, 2.5 cm. long, bearing long bristles in their axils petals obovate, obtuse, 3.5 cm. long, rose-colored stamens about 2 cm. long areoles on the ovary large, filled with a mass of short, white wool and bearing an occasional short spine fruit not known.

Man are content to grow them alone in preference to all other cacti

Of the sixteen genera in this subtribe two are outstanding, Mammiitaria (mam-ee-Jay'-ree-ah) and Coryphantha (koh-ree-fan'-tha). They are distinguished from other members of the Cereus tribe in having lines of tubercles or nipples (mamillae) instead of ribs, and from the other members of the Cactus family in having the spine-producing and flower-producing centers of their areoles separated. In the genus Mammillaria. for example, the flowers do not arise from the spiny areole which lips each tubercle, but from a generally hairy or woolly areole which lies between the older tubercles at the top of the plant. In other genera, such as Coryphantha.

Lobivia caespitosa J A Purpus

Cespitose, the joints erect or spreading, short, cylindric ribs 10 to 12, somewhat undulate, acutish areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, white-woolly radial spines acicular, 12, brownish, 1 to 2 cm. long central spine solitary, brown, somewhat curved, 5 cm. long or less flowers from the side of the plant near the middle, short-funnelform, 6.5 to 8 cm. long, reddish within, yellowish red without perianth-segments oblong, obtuse.

Coryphantha grata I Bremer 1981

Plants solitary, globose, depressed apically, dull dark green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Roots carrotlike. Tubercles somewhat flaccid, round, with distinct grooves, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, axils with white wool at first, later naked, glands present. Central spine one, heavy, needlelike, stiff, straight, pointing downward, yellow, becoming gray with age, with dark tip, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 11-12, needle-like, stiff, straight, dirty white with dark tips, 0.8-1.1 cm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Flowers funnelform, glossy bright yellow, to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter. Fruits elongated ovate, green with whitish base, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long, 1.2-1.4 cm (0.5-0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution Palmillas, Tamaulipas, Mexico. gland. Central spines 2-4, whitish gray, erect, somewhat curved toward the tips. Radial spines 7-12, gray, diverging, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Flowers yellow. Distribution Durango, Mexico.

Coryphantha maliterrarum L Bremer 1984

Plants solitary, clustering with age. Stems slightly depressed globose, dull leaf green, to 11 cm (4.3 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter, not densely covered by spines. Tubercles firm, conical, angled upward, somewhat rhomboid with age, to 12 mm (0.5 in) high, axils with white wool, later naked, without glands. Central spine usually one, sometimes absent, awl shaped, strong, stiff, curved downward, black, becoming gray with age, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines 12-14, thin, awl shaped, straight to slightly curved, dirty white with dark tips, 12-15 mm (0.5-0.6 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits obovate, gray-green. Distribution Queretaro, Mexico.

Coryphantha vaupeliana Boedeker 1928

Plants solitary, globose to ovoid, leaf green, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) high, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Tubercles large, more or less conical, polygonal basally, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long, axils woolly and with red glands. Central spines 3-4, stout, straight or somewhat curved, dark brown or black, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Radial spines about 17, upper ones white with dark tips and directed upward, lower ones yellowish with dark tip and radiating, 8-18 mm (0.3-0.7 in) long. Flowers yellow. Fruits green. Distribution Tamaulipas, Mexico. Plants solitary or forming low clumps. Stems globose, usually deeply embedded in the soil, dark green to blue-green, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) in diameter. Tubercles loosely arranged, conical to ovoid, to 17 mm (0.7 in) long, axils densely woolly, with glands. Central spine one, hooked, erect or descending, horn colored, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines 4-6, needle-like, whitish with dark tips, spreading horizontally, 7-13 mm (0.3-0.5 in)...

Coryphantha wohlschlageri E Holzeis 1990

Plants solitary, occasionally branching dichotomously, globose, dark green, becoming olive green with age, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles ovoid to short conical, to 13 mm (0.5 in) high, axils naked. Central spine usually one, as many as 4 on older areoles, brownish with dark tip, straight, erect, 8-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 9-11, whitish to brownish, with dark tips, radiating,

Cylindropuntia xtetracantha Toumey f M Knuth

Plants low and sprawling to short and erect shrubs, 20-80 cm (7.9-31 in) high with frequent dichotomous or tricho-tomous branching. Stem segments very slender, pale green to brownish green, with purple tinge around areoles, glabrous to papillate, 3-11.5 cm (1.2-4.5 in) long, 0.5-1.2 cm (0.2-0.5 in) in diameter, with low and inconspicuous tubercles. Areoles cream to gray. Glochids conspicuous, yellow to rust, 2-4 mm long. Spines restricted to uppermost areoles, sometimes absent. Principal spine 0-1, erect, yellow to orange, sheathed, Plants shrubby with dispersed, separated branches, 1.5-4 m (4.9-13 ft) high. Stem segments thin, long, green with purplish or reddish tint, sometimes glaucous, 10-25 cm (3.9-9.8 in) long, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter, with wide tubercles. Areoles with yellowish or brown wool, round to elliptical. Glochids present or absent. Spines 3-7, spreading, needle-like, delicate, yellow to brownish, 0.5-1.2 cm (0.2-0.5 in) long sheaths yellowish, papery. Flowers...

Lobivia andalgalensis Weber

Plants single or clustered, globular or a little flattened, 3 to 10 cm. in diameter, green ribs about 13, stout, hardly crenate areoles 5 to 10 mm. apart, circular spines white, subulate, straight radial spines 8 to 10, about equal, 5 to 7 mm. long central spine solitary, stouter than the radials, 10 to 25 mm. long, porrect flowers fugacious, short-funnelform, about 6 cm. long, green without flower-tube and ovary bearing scales, with long, gray appressed hairs in their axils inner perianth-segments red, oblanceolate or subspatulate, 1.8 to 2.5 cm. long, obtuse or retuse filaments reddish purple style pale red or yellow stigma-lobes about 9. Somewhat depressed, globose, 5 cm. high, 6 cm. in diameter, greenish, somewhat shining ribs 11, somewhat tuberculate, obtuse areoles nearly circular, 5 to 6 mm. in diameter, white-felted radial spines 6 to 8, slender, 5 to 10 mm. long, more or less appressed central spines 3, stouter than the radials, 5 cm. long, pale gray with yellowish tips...

Discocactusplacentiformis Lehmann K Schumann 1894

Plants solitary, flattened globose, dark green, 3-5.5 cm (1.22.2 in) high, 12-14 cm (4.7-5.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-15, more or less distinguishable into tubercles, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) high with deep furrows between them. Spines black to reddish black, becoming gray with age, clawlike, bent downward, often grooved. Central spine 0-1, erect, 1.5-2 cm (0.60.8 in) long. Radial spines 3-5, lower one to 2.5 cm (1 in) long, lateral ones 1.3-2 cm (0.5-0.8 in) long. Cephalia 2.53.5 cm (1-1.4 in) high, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) in diameter, with gray or white wool and black bristles 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) long. Flowers slender funnelform, to 7.5 cm (3 in) long. Fruits club shaped, white, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 0.8 cm (0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution Minas Gerais, Brazil. Plants solitary, flattened globose, light green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 21 cm (8.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-13, straight, very acute, slightly raised between areoles, with poorly developed tubercles. Spines stout, sharp,...

Echinopsis ibicuatensis Crdenas 1956

Plants solitary, flattened globose to globose, depressed api-cally, light green, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) high, 8-14 cm (3.1-5.5 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 13, acute, to 2.5 cm (1 in) high. Areoles round, prominent, gray, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines needle-like, light gray. Central spine usually one, sometimes as many as 3, straight, to 1.2 cm (0.5 in) long. Radial spines about 10, spreading, slightly curved, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers open at night, narrow funnelform, white, to 18

Echinopsis spegazziniana sp nov

Stem simple, slender, dull green, about 3 dm. high and 9 cm. thick ribs 12 to 14, low, slightly crenate radial spines 7 or 8, straight, subulate, brown central spine one, a little curved, much longer than the radials, 2 cm. long flowers lateral, from near the middle of the plant, 15 to 17 cm. long perianth-segments short, broad, acute, white scales on ovary and tube small, very hairy in their axils.

Echinopsis werdermannii Fric ex Fleischer 1962

Plants solitary, globose, gray-green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high, to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12, acute, straight. Central spine one, black, to 2 mm long. Radial spines 3-8, blackish. Flowers light pink, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Distribution Paraguay. Echinopsis werdermannii is closely related to or the same as E. subdenudata. Plants commonly forming clumps, sometimes with 100 heads. Stems globose to short cylindrical, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-16, forming distinct tubercles to 10 mm (0.4 in) high. Areoles round to oval, white. Spines needle-like, sharp, brownish. Central spines about 4, often forming a cross, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Radial spines 9-11, radiating, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers red, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits oval, semidry, dehiscent. Distribution Chuquisaca, Bolivia.

Subtribe 4 Echinocactanae

Plants usually low and small, but sometimes several meters tall and then of considerable size, simple or cespitose, terrestrial stems normally one-jointed but sometimes budding or cespitose or making other joints when injured ribs few to many, straight or spiral, usually spine-bearing flowers always solitary at areoles near the apex of the plant, usually from the nascent areoles fruit more or less scaly or naked, usually dry, in some cases a little fleshy and then somewhat edible, usually dehiscing by a basal pore, but sometimes irregularly breaking apart, or by a circumscissile opening seeds black or sometimes brown, smooth or papillose.

Copiapoa cinerea Philippi

Simple, cylindric, 20 cm. high, 10 cm. in diameter, covered with wool at the apex ribs 18, broad, obtuse spine solitary or sometimes 5 or 6, terete, black upper radials 4 mm. long lower radials 12 to 16 mm. long central spine 18 to 20 mm. long flowers funnelform, 18 to 30 mm. long, 2.5 cm. broad, yellow ovary naked fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. long seeds black and shining.

Gymnocalycium amerhauseri H Till 1994

Plants usually solitary, flattened globose to globose, dark green to bluish gray-green, glossy, plump, to 2.5 cm (1 in) high, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 8, rounded. Areoles oval, with yellowish white wool, later naked. Central spine one, present only on mature areoles, 12-14 mm (0.50.6 in) long. Radial spines 5-7, radiating, slightly curved to straight, white with dark brown bases, 6-12 mm (0.2-0.5 in) long. Flowers funnelform, widely open, creamy white to pale pink, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits oval to spindle-like, dark green, 32-33 mm (1.3 in) long, to 19 mm (0.7 in) in diameter. Seeds globose. Distribution C rdoba, Argentina. Plants often forming clusters to 15 cm (5.9 in) or more wide. Stems globose, blue-green to blue-gray, to 5 cm (2 in) high and in diameter. Ribs about 8, flat, poorly defined, rounded, with sharp cross-furrows, chinlike protrusions absent. Central spines 1-3, slightly curved upward, dark brown. Radial spines about 7, thin, spreading,...

Gymnocalycium angelae Meregalli 1998

Stems flattened globose, bright to mid-green, shiny, smooth, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-10, flat, wide, rounded, with cross-furrows, obtuse. Areoles oval. Central spines absent. Radial spines 7, yellowish, becoming gray with darker bases, 15-20 mm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Flowers white with rose red base, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long, 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits green, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Distribution San Martin department, Corrientes, Argentina. Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to short columnar, pale green, often with reddish or violet tints, to 10 cm (3.9 in) or more high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 11 with acute tubercles. Central spine usually absent, sometimes one. Radial spines 5-7, slender, twisted, yellowish to brownish, 1-6 cm (0.4-2.4 in) long. Flowers funnelform, white to rose, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Fruits long cylindrical, red, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution...

Copiapoa echinoides Lemaire

Simple, globose, very woolly at apex ribs 8 to 13, straight, rounded, green radial spines 5 to 7, stout, straight or somewhat curved central spine solitary, porrect, 3 cm. long flowers pale yellow outer perianth-segments narrowly ovate, acute, reddish inner perianth-segments broadly oblong, obtuse scales of ovary and flower-tube described by Schumann as woolly in their axils, but undoubtedly he is wrong.

Eric Mellink andMnica E Riojas Lpez

Consumption of Vegetative Structures Cladode Preferences Seasonal Effects for Herbivory Nutritional Qualitites of Cladodes Spine Effects on Herbivory Consumption of Reproductive Structures Flower Consumption Fruit Consumption Evolutionary and Ecological Context Past and Present Herbivory Pressures Gal pagos Islands Alienized Relations Concluding Remarks Literature Cited

Leptocereus scopulophilus Areces 1993

Spines unequal, brown, becoming gray with age. Central spine one, 7-9 cm (2.8-3.5 in) long subcentrals 3-6, diverging, 2.8-5.5 cm (1.1-2.2 in) long. Radial spines 6-13, usually 8,1-2.5 cm (0.4-1 in) long. Flowers borne terminally, open at night, cylindrical, whitish pink to white, 4.5-5.5 cm (1.8-2.2 in) long, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) in diameter pericarpels and floral tubes with clusters of brown spines stamens distinctly exserted. Fruits elliptical to globose, spiny, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter. Distribution La Habana province, Cuba.

Previous Thesis on the Areole Development and Their Discussion

The areoles of Cactaceae, sometimes referred to as spine-bearing cushion, correspond to a shortened lateral shoot with leaves transformed into spines and the disposition of an axillary bud (sleeping eye) which may produce either a flower or a shoot. The long-living meristematic region, from which flowers or shoots may develop, is reduced to the adaxial (upper) end of the areole in many Cac-taceae. However, in some genera, among them Coryphantha, the areole is elongated in such a way that the insertion of the spine bundle represents a small, clearly demarcated appendage of the whole areole.We often refer to this insertion of the spine bundle as areole, because a specific expression for the whole areole does not exist, although an appropriate one would be podarium (Zimmerman). In cactus literature the opinion prevails that in certain genera a serial division of the meristem occurs with production of an areolar meristem on the one hand, which is transferred on to the tip of the areole by...

Mammillaria lasiacantha Engelmann 1856

GOLF-BALL PINCUSHION, LACE-SPINE CACTUS Plants usually solitary, occasionally clustering. Stems small, globose to ovoid, occasionally short cylindrical, gray-green, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, without latex, axils naked. Central spines absent. Radial spines 26-80 in several series, white to pinkish cream, sometimes felted, 3-5 mm long. Flowers white with reddish midveins, to Three subspecies of Mammillaria lasiacantha are recognized. Subspecies lasiacantha has 40-80 chalky white spines that lie close to the body it occurs widely throughout the range of the species. Subspecies egregia may become somewhat cylindrical with age, has about 50 spines, and tends to have brownish flowers it occurs in Chihuahua and Durango. Subspecies hyalina has only 26-36 spines it occurs in Zacatecas.

Mammillaria tonalensis d r Hunt 1979

Plants freely clustering from offsets. Roots fibrous. Stems erect or sprawling, slender cylindrical, light green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) or more high, 2-3.5 cm (0.8-1.4 in) in diameter. Tubercles obtusely conical, axils naked or slightly woolly. Central spine one, hooked, chestnut brown, becoming dark with age, to 18 mm (0.7 in) long. Radial spines 9-12, needle-like, straight, chalky white with brown tips, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers carmine with whitish margins, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long, 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) in diameter. Fruits bright red. Seeds black. Distribution Oaxaca, Mexico.

Melocactus estevesii P J Braun 1989

Plants cylindrical, green, to 22 cm (8.7 in) high, 10-17 cm (3.9-6.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-16, somewhat high and narrow but with rounded edges. Spines round, usually curved, dull red, becoming black. Central spine usually one, sometimes as many as 4,40-60 mm (1.6-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 8-9, lowermost longest, to 80 mm (3.1 in). Cephalia to 13 cm (5.1 in) high and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter, with reddish bristles and white wool. Flowers open in midafter-noon, exserted to 12 mm (0.5 in) above the cephalia, pink, to 37 mm (1.5 in) long, 15-18 mm (0.6-0.7 in) in diameter. Fruits elongate club shaped, red, 30-40 mm (1.2-1.6 in) long, without seeds in lower half. Distribution northern Ro-raima, Brazil.

Acanthocereus horridus sp nov

Plants stout, the joints strongly 3-angled or 3-winged, the young growth 5 or 6-angled wings with deep undulations areoles large, 3 to 6 cm. apart spines brown or blackish when young radial spines 1 to 6, very short, conic, less than 1 cm. long central spine usually 1, sometimes 2, often very stout and elongated, sometimes 8 cm. long flower, including the ovary, 18 to 20 cm. long tube 4 cm. long, including the funnelform throat 12 cm. long throat 4 cm. broad at mouth outer perianth-segments linear, brown or greenish, 6 cm. long inner perianth-segments 3 to 4 cm. long stamens white style thick, cream-colored fruit 3.5 cm. long, light red, glossy, covered with large areoles bearing white felt skin thick, finally splitting as the fruit ripens pulp red.

Key to the Genus Coryphantha

D.2 Upper side of tubercles less than 12 mm long E.1 Central spines 5-7 E.2 Central spines 1-4 F.1 Radial spines up to 15 F.2 Radial spines more than 17 G.1 Body obovoid to clavate G.2 Body semiglobose to globose C.2 Cortex mucilaginous E.1 Central spine darker than radial spines F.1 Tubercles keeled below or bulging G.1 Upper side of tubercles longer than 18 mm G.1 Porrect central spine straight G.2 Porrect central spine hooked E.2 Central and radial spines of same colour F.1 Tubercles in 5 and 8 series F.2 Tubercles in 8 and 13 or 13 and 21 series G.1 Spines uniformly yellow G.2 Spines pines dark-brown tipped D.2 Body clavate, globose or depressed-globose E.1 Tubercles in 5 and 8 series F.1 More than 8 radial spines F.2 Less than 7 radial spines E.2 Tubercles in 8 and 13 series C.1 Majority of radial spines subulate or thin subulate D.1 Radial spines less than 10, majority subulate E.1 Plants solitary D.2 Radial spines more than 10, majority thin subulate C.2 Majority of radial...

Echinofossulocactus continued

Like the species described on the previous page, Echinofossulocactus lancifer. commonly sold as Stenocactus lancifer, is characterized by the presence of deep wavy furrows between the prominent ribs which run up the sides of the stem. It is about the same height as E.hastalus but is a darker green in colour, with grey rather than yellowish spines on the distant areoles. The flowers, which are large and pink in colour, are produced fairly freely on plants between three and four years of age during the late spring and summer. An attractive species which is not commonly seen in collections is E. vaupelianus this has an undoubted value on account of the magnificent while spines which surround the solitary black central spine. The areoles are much denser than on the preceding species and this gives the white radial spines the appearance of being interwoven in one another. A similar contrast can be seen in E. viola-cifiorus where the central spines are brown in colour. As its name implies...

Subgenus Coryphantha

F.2 Radial spines all needle-like G.1 Central spine straight H.1 Central spine pointing upward H.2 1 Central spine porrect G.2 Central spine curved F.1 No central spine, radial spines less than 7 F.2 Central spine always present, radial spines 7-15 G.1 Central spine(s) never hooked G.2 Central spine always hooked H.1 Tubercles at the base more E.3 Tubercles porrect, conical F.1 Central spines 0-1 H.1 Upper radial spines bundled 1.2 Tubercles in 8 and 13 series H.2 Upper radial spines not bundled J.1 Central spine curved downward J.2 Central spine straight, porrect G.2 Tubercles at the base up to 12 mm wide H.1 Upper radial spines bundled or densely set 1.2 Tubercles at the base 11 mm wide H.2 Radial spines radiating regularly F.2 Central spines always 3-4 G.1 Tubercles at the base 15-25 mm wide H.1 Upper radial spines bundled H.2 Radial spines radiating regularly 1.1 Radial spines 14-20 1.2 Radial spines 12-13 1.1 Central spines irregularly protruding 1.2 Central spines in bird's foot...

Artificial Key To The Species

Artificial key can only indicate the group. Even the full descriptions are very compact, all characters not necessary for discrimination having been eliminated. No attempt need be made to determine any species by means of the flowers alone. In most cases more or less of the plant body will be available, presenting spine and tubercle characters, and these are used in the following key. The distinction between Eumamillaria and Coryphantha, on the basis of grooveless and grooved tubercles should always be made out easily. It may be useful to suggest as a caution, however, that often tubercles in drying develop folds which simulate grooves, and especially is this true in quadrangular tubercles. In such cases it is necessary to restore the original plumpness of the tubercle by boiling, before the presence or absence of the groove can be definitely determined. The species and varieties are indicated only by their specific or varietal names in the following key, and the numbers refer to the...

Trichocereus thelegonus Weber

Stems procumbent or sometimes with erect branches, elongated, 4 to 10 dm. long, dark green, cylindric, 4 to 7.5 cm. in diameter ribs 12 or 13, broad and obtuse, divided into prominent, more or less distinctly 6-sided tubercles areoles circular, felted spines at first brown, some turning gray, others black radial spines 6 to 8, acicular, somewhat spreading, 1 to 2 cm. long central spine solitary, porrect, 2 to 4 cm. long flowers white, about 20 cm. long, funnelform outer perianth-segments greenish axils of scales on flower-tube long-woolly fruit about 5 cm. long, hairy, red, splitting on one side seed black.

Echinofossulocactus grandicornis Lemaire

Plants simple, globose to slender-cylindric, 10 cm. high, 5 to 6 cm. in diameter, glaucous-green, the apex hidden by the spines ribs 34 or 35, much compressed, acute, undulate areoles only a few to each rib, tomentose when young, naked in age spines 8 to 11, at first yellowish upper spine erect, stout, flat, 5 cm. long, the 2 lateral ones not so stout, a little shorter and nearly terete, the other spines slender flowers whitish purple.

Opuntia pampeana Spegazzini 1896

Plants forming mats with branches of three to five joints. Stem segments oblong to lance shaped to ellipsoidal, glaucous, 12-15 cm (4.7-5.7 in) long, 8-9 cm (3.1-3.5 in) wide, to 2.5 cm (1 in) thick. Areoles oblong, located on slight protuberances, whitish. Spines 1-3, needle-like, whitish, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) long. Flowers many, borne on the margins, yellow to somewhat rose, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits subglobose, red, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and in diameter. Distribution Patagonia, Argentina. Plants shrubby with many erect branches, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high. Stem segments obovate to elliptical, light green to green, to 25 cm (9.8 in) long, 5-8.5 cm (2-3.3 in) wide. Glochids yellowish. Spine usually absent, occasionally one, yellowish. Flowers orange, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Fruits conical, dark purple, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Distribution Paraguay. long. Spines 1-3, sometimes absent on older segments, needle-like, erect, white or light yellow, 0.6-3.8 cm (0.2-1.5 in)...

Opuntia stenarthra K Schumann 1899

Plants shrubby, to 80 cm (31 in) high with several prostrate to ascending branches to 2 m (6.6 ft) long. Stem segments narrowly oblong, yellowish green, thin, 8-25 cm (3.1-9.8 in) long, 2.5-7 cm (1-2.8 in) wide. Glochids brown. Spine usually absent, sometimes 1,3, or 5, yellowish brown, becoming whitish with age, 0.6-3.5 cm (0.2-1.4 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and in diameter. Fruits pear shaped, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Distribution Estancia Tagatiya, Concepci n department, Paraguay. Plants shrubby, low growing with creeping stems, often forming mats. Stem segments obovate to round, gray-green, sometimes with purplish tint, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) long. Leaves dark red, to 2 mm long. Areoles 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) apart. Glochids abundant in young areoles, brown. Spines 2-4, dark red to black, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers unisexual, reddish orange, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Fruits globose, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, with or without spines. Distribution occurring...

Opuntia undulata Griffiths 1911

Plants treelike, tall, with open branching and trunks to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Stem segments very large, obovate, firm, hard, yellowish green, becoming dark green, glossy, often wavy, 35-55 cm (14-22 in) wide. Areoles small, close set. Glochids to 1 mm long. Spine usually one, sometimes 2-4, sometimes absent, short, white, erect, sometimes twisted, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers creamy white. Fruits red with orange tint, 9-10 cm (3.5-3.9 in) long, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Distribution probably native to Aguas-calientes, Mexico, but Opuntia undulata is widely cultivated.

Peniocereus cuixmalensis Snchez Mejorada 1973

Forked, 25-35 cm (9.8-14 in) long, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) in diameter, brown to pale yellow. Stems elongate, four-angled, 0.8-2.2 m (31-87 in) long, 2.5-3.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter, light green with whitish spots. Ribs 4, wavy. Spines thick, strong, swollen basally, reddish when young, becoming horn colored. Central spine one, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 6-7, radiating, strong, 8-20 mm (0.3-0.8 in) long. Flowers open at night, white, funnelform, 9-11 cm (3.5-4.3 in) long, fragrant. Fruits ovoid, red with juicy red pulp, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long, 3.5-4 cm (1.4-1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution along the Pacific coast in Jalisco, Colima, and Michoacan, Mexico.

Rebuta leucanthema Rausch 1975

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dark green to violet, to 7 cm (2.8 in) high and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-14, spiraling, with distinct tubercles. Areoles oval, brown. Central spine one, sometimes absent, black, to 7 mm (0.3 in) long. Radial spines 7-8, brown, dark basally, covering the stem surface, to 6 mm (0.2 in) long. Flowers white, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits globose, dark violet, to 5 mm in diameter. Distribution Cinti, Chuquisaca, Bolivia.

Ferocactus glaucescens De Candolle

Globular, 2 to 4 dm. in diameter, or a little higher than broad, glaucous ribs is to 15, somewhat flattened, acute, 2 to 3 cm. high areoles 8 to 52 mm. apart, oblong, 52 to 20 cm. long, yellowish, tomentose when young radial spines 6, nearly equal, rigid, only slightly spreading, straight, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, pale yellow at first, when old blackish, more or less banded central spine solitary, similar to the radials flowers yellow, 2 cm. long, perhaps broader when fully expanded outer perianth-segments ovate, acuminate, sometimes brownish on the back, ciliate on the margins inner perianth-segments oblong, usually only acute, somewhat toothed or lacerate stigma-lobes slender, cream-colored scales on the ovary brownish, ovate, acute, ciliate on the margins, imbricate.

Ferocactus uncinatus Galeotti

Plant short-cylindric, 10 to 20 cm. high, bluish, slightly glaucous, with spindle-shaped roots ribs usually 13, straight, strongly tubercled, undulate flowering areoles narrow, extending from the spine-clusters to the base of the tubercles with the flower at the opposite end, felted areoles also bearing one or more large flat yellow glands, these surrounded by a ring of short yellow hairs central spine usually solitary, 12 cm. long or less, erect, yellow below, reddish above, hooked at tip 3 lower radial spines spreading or reflexed, hooked upper radials straight flowers brownish, 2 to 2.5 cm. long, widely spreading perianth-segments numerous, linear-oblong filaments numerous, short scales on ovary and flower-tube triangular, scarious-margined, in age broadly auriculate at base fruit small, oblong, 2 cm. long, at first green, turning brown to crimson and finally scarlet, naked except the appressed scales, somewhat fleshy, edible seeds black, small, oblong, 1 to 1.5 mm. long, with...

Geographical Distribution

Depressed or flattened, simple, unarmed plants, covered with peculiar imbricated tubercles above and their scale-like remains below tubercle with lower and upper parts very different lower part comparatively thin and flat upper exposed part triangular in outline and divergent, very thick and hard, the lower surface smooth and keeled, the upper surface plane or convex, smooth or tuberculate or variously fissured, with a broad wool-bearing groove or simply a more or less evident tomentulose apical areola spine-bearing areola obsolete flower-bearing areola at the summit of the lower peduncle-like portion of the very young tubercle (thus appearing axillary with reference to the exposed According to the present views concerning generic limitations in Cactaceae, Anhalonium must certainly be kept distinct from Mamillaria, and to such a view Dr. Engelmann had finally come. The generic distinction is based upon such characters as (1) the complete suppression of the spine-bearing areolae (2)...

Opuntia bisetosa Pittier 1936

Plants shrubby, branchingbasally, to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high. Stem segments oval to oblong, pale green, to 36 cm ( 14 in) long and 18 cm (7.1 in) wide. Leaves 4-5 mm long. Areoles 3-4 mm apart. Central spine one, erect, twisted, needle-like, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spines 8-10, robust, white. Flowers yellow, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits to 5 cm (2 in) long and 2.2 cm (0.9 in) in diameter. Distribution Lara state, Venezuela. Opuntia bisetosa is very poorly known.

Cereus hildmannianus K Schumann 1890

Plants treelike with numerous branches, to 10 m (33 ft) high with distinct trunks. Stems cylindrical, segmented, blue-green to dull green, often glaucous when young, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 4-6, acute, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) high. Areoles brown. Spines usually absent. Flowers very large, white, 25-30 cm (9.8-12 in) long. Fruits globose, red with white pulp. Distribution very uncertain, probably Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina. Two subspecies of Cereus hildmannianus are recognized. Subspecies hildmannianus occurs widely throughout the range of the species and is almost always spineless. Subspecies uruguayanus occurs only in Uruguay. Plants treelike with a few branches, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, blue-green, becoming olive green with age. Ribs 4-5, rounded. Areoles strongly felted, oblong. Central spine one, stout, awl shaped, whitish gray with dark base, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Radial spines 6-7, whitish gray with darker bases, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long....

Mammillaria napina J a Purpus 1912

Plants solitary, rarely clustering, low growing. Roots tuberous. Stems semiglobose to globose, to 5 cm (2 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles conical, without latex, axils somewhat woolly or naked. Central spine usually absent, rarely one. Radial spines 10-12, slightly curved, glassy white with yellow bases, 8-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, pale carmine or pink, with distinctive whitish throats, to 40 mm (1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits embedded in the plant body, colorless. Seeds black. Distribution Puebla, Mexico.

Echinofossulocactus confusus sp nov

Echinofossulocactus Gladiatus

Simple, pale green, stout, columnar to short-clavate, 6 to 15 cm. high, 6 to 8 cm. in diameter ribs 26 to 30, thin, low, wavy areoles 4 or 5 on each rib, 2 to 3 cm. apart spines all yellow, subulate radial spines 4 or 5, only slightly flattened, 7 to 10 mm. long central spine solitary, up to 4 cm. long, usually porrect flowers purplish, 4 cm. broad perianth-segments oblong, acute. Stems globose, 10 cm. in diameter or more, light green ribs 35 to 40 upper spines 3, flattened, the central one stouter, the longest 35 mm. long lower radial spines 8, slender, spreading, white central spines 2, subulate flowers unknown. Almost globose ribs 27 areoles when young white-woolly, in age naked spines 7, the 3 upper ones flattened, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, yellowish brown, with black tips the lower spines smaller than the upper, 8 to 10 mm. long, whitish flowers and fruit unknown. Obovoid ribs 34, acute areoles 3 cm. apart, white, lanate when young, naked when old radial spines 7 central spine solitary,...

Coryphantha neglecta L Bremer 1979

Stems globose, depressed api-cally and woolly, dull green, to 6 cm (2.4 in) high and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, rhomboid basally, slightly keeled, firm, with faint shallow grooves. Central spine one, sometimes absent, thin, awl shaped, stiff, straight, expanded basally, erect, gray, 13-15 mm (0.5-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 15-17, needle-like, stiff, straight, spreading, black or yellowish, becoming gray with age, 10-20 mm (0.40.8 in) long. Flowers funnelform, pale yellow, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits oblong, juicy, gray-green, to 23 mm (0.9 in) long. Distribution Monclova, Coahuila, to Monterrey, Nuevo Le n, Mexico. Plants solitary to many-stemmed, forming low mats with the stems nearly hidden by overlapping spines. Stems globose, glaucous dark green, to 11 cm (4.3 in) high, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) in diameter. Tubercles bluntly conical, soft, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long, sometimes with glands among the spines. Central spine usually one,...

Opuntia penicilligera Spegazzini 1902

Stem joints circular to obovoid, thin, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) long, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) wide, 0.6-0.8 cm (0.2-0.3 in) thick. Areoles essentially unarmed, some spines in upper ones. Glochids in large, prominent clusters, reddish brown. Spines 1-3, grayish white, arching. Central spine one, 1-5 cm (0.4-2 in) long. Radial spines shorter, weaker, sometimes absent. Flowers rotate, sulfur yellow to lemon yellow pericarpels long cylindrical. Fruits club shaped, pale green with reddish tint, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 1.8 cm (0.7 in) in diameter. Distribution Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants shrubby, low growing. Stem segments obovate, bright green, thick, to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Glochids not evident, yellowish. Spines 1-2, awl shaped, nearly erect, white with dark tips, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Distribution Colombia. Opuntia pennellii is poorly known.

Key to Speciescontinued

Spines very short or none. Areoles nearly E. eyriesii Areoles with several spines, 4 to 7 mm. long 9. E. turbinata Spines subulate, 10 to 12 mm. E. tubiflora Spines becoming E. albispinosa Spines yellow to gray or brown. CC. Spines more or less curved. Spines very delicate, central one E. ancistrophora Spines stout. Central spine solitary. Radial spines straight. Radial spines curved. Central spine up to 10 cm. E. leucantha. Central spine about 2.5 cm. E. obrepanda Central spines several. Ribs 16 spines at first E. intricatissima Ribs 13 or 14 spines gray to blackish. Stems globose or somewhat depressed at apex, 10 cm. in diameter, pale green ribs 14 to 16, acute, usually straight spines subulate, all straight, rosy below, brown or black above, but in age nearly white radial spines 7 or 8 central spine solitary flowers numerous, lateral, 15 to 20 cm. long all perianth-segments long, threadlike, twisted, the outer ones brownish, the inner dull white...

Mammillaria boelderliana Wohlschlager 1988

Stems flattened globose, blue-green, 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) high, 2.5-5.5 cm (1-2.2 in) in diameter. Roots long, thick. Tubercles widely separated, conical, axils naked. Spines 4-5, needle-like, yellowish brown, 4-7 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers funnelform, whitish with pinkish midveins, 18-20 mm (0.7-0.8 in) long, 20-24 mm (0.8-0.9 in) in diameter. Fruits pear shaped, red, 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Seeds dark brown or black. Distribution Zacatecas, Mexico. (2.8-5.5 in) high, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical to cylindrical, firm, occasionally with latex, axils with dense white wool and bristles. Central spines 3-8, yellow with dark tips or reddish brown, lowermost one hooked and to 20 mm (0.8 in) long, others straight and to 11 mm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 30-64, stiff, thin, needle-like, glassy white, to yellowish white to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers funnelform, pink to white, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits pale pinkish...

Melocactus salvadorensis Werdermann 1934

Plants depressed globose to pyramidal globose, grayish blue-green, often very glaucous, 12-20 cm (4.7-7.9 in) high, 12-25 cm (4.7-9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-14, triangular-acute. Spines yellowish to reddish brown, overlaid with gray at first. Central spines 1-4,15-30 mm (0.6-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 7-10, 20-46 mm (0.8-1.8 in) long. Cephalia to 15 cm (5.9 in) high, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter, with dense reddish bristles but sparse grayish white wool. Flowers open in late afternoon, barely exserted above the cephalia, pinkish magenta, to 25 mm (1 in) long and 12 mm (0.5 in) in diameter. Fruits club shaped, somewhat flattened, deep lilac-magenta, to 17 mm (0.7 in) long. Distribution eastern and southern Bahia, Brazil. Plants depressed globose to ovoid, shape dependent on habitat, usually gray-green, slightly glaucous, 8-18 cm (3.1-7.1 in) high, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-15, usually acute. Areoles sunken in notches in the ribs. Spines appearing somewhat weak,...

Parodia saintpieana Backeberg 1957

Parodia Tuberculata

Plants freely dividing to form clusters. Stems flattened globose to globose, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs about 22, spirally arranged, divided into distinct conical tubercles. Areoles yellowish white. Central spines not distinguishable from radials. Radial spines about 17, straight, yellow or pale brown, to 3 mm long. Flowers bright yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits subspherical. Distribution northern Argentina. Plants usually solitary, globose, becoming cylindrical with age, green, to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) high and 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Ribs 21-48, well defined, straight, acute. Areoles very woolly apically, later less so. Spines bristle-like, straight to slightly curved, golden yellow to brown or red, later gray. Central spines 1-3, sometimes absent, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Radial spines usually 4, in two pairs, 7-50 mm (0.32 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow to golden yellow, 4-4.5 cm (1.6-1.8 in) long, 4.5-6.5 cm (1.8-2.6 in) in diameter pericarpels and...

Cleistocactus baumannii Lemaire Lemaire 1861

Cleistocactus

Plants shrubby, branching basally with several stems. Stems fairly stiff, erect or arching, to 2 m (6.6 ft) or more long, 2.53.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-16. Areoles close set. Central spine one, yellowish or dark brown, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Radial spines 8 20, yellowish brown, to 1.8 cm (0.7 in) long. Flowers sharply curving upward, then narrowly S shaped above the pericarpels, yellow to orange-red to red, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter perianth parts oblique stamens red stamens and style exserted. Fruits globose, red with white pulp, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Six subspecies of Cleistocactus baumannii are recognized. Subspecies baumannii has 15-20 radial spines and red flowers it occurs widely in northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Subspecies anguinus has 10-11 radial spines and orange-red flowers it occurs in Paraguay. Subspecies chacoanus has 12-15 radial...

Echinopsis klingleriana Crdenas 1965

Plants solitary, globose, light green, 12-14 cm (4.7-5.5 in) high, to 13 cm (5.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 13, acute, notched. Areoles round, prominent, gray, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) apart. Central spine sometimes one, usually absent. Radial spines 5-6, thin, awl shaped, whitish to yellowish, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. Fruits elliptical, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Distribution Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Plants treelike, branching above the ground, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high, usually with distinct trunks. Stems cylindrical, bright light blue-green, frosted, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 7, rounded, broad. Areoles round, woolly, gray. Central spine one, grayish white, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Radial spines 7, yellowish, becoming grayish white. Flowers large, white. Distribution upper reaches of the Mara n, Peru. Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps. Stems globose to oblong, dull to glossy green, to 30 cm (12 in) in...

Ferocactus covillei sp nov

Plant simple, globular to short-cylindric, often 1.5 meters high ribs 22 to 32, 2 to 4 cm. high, rather thin, when young more or less tubercled, but when old hardly undulate areoles on small plants distant, often 3 to 4 cm. apart, but on old and flowering plants approximate or contiguous, densely brown-felted when young, naked in age, the spine-bearing areoles large and circular the flowering areoles more elongated and complex, divided into three parts, the lower part bearing spines, the central part spinescent glands, and the upper part the flower spines variable as to color, sometimes red to white radial spines 5 to 8, somewhat spreading, subulate, straight or more or less curved backward, 3 to 6 cm. long, annulate central spine always solitary, very variable, straight or with the tip bent or even strongly hooked, annulate, terete to strongly flattened or 3-angled, 3 to 8 cm. long upper areoles of old plants bearing to 7 glands, becoming spinescent, 5 to 6 mm. long flowers described...

Gymnocalycium schickendantzii F A C Weber Britton

Plants solitary, globose, dark olive green to brownish green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-14, distinctly tubercu-late but running together. Spines 6-7, somewhat flattened, Plants solitary, globose, dark green, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-18 or more, low, divided into warty tubercles. Spines 3-7, cream to brownish, straight, thin, flattened against the stem surface, not overlapping, 0.4-1 cm (to 0.4 in) long. Flowers with narrow floral tubes, white or cream, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter. Fruits club shaped, grayish olive, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 1.2 cm (0.5 in) in diameter. Distribution Argentina. Three subspecies of Gymnocalycium schroederianum are recognized. Subspecies bayense is somewhat smaller than subspecies schroederianum and sometimes has a central spine it occurs in Buenos Aires province. Subspecies paucicostatum has 9-11 ribs, fewer than subspecies schroederianum, and 3 spines rather than 5 it occurs in...

Echinopsis sucrensis Crdenas 1963

Lobivia Large Central Spine

Stems globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, 3-7 cm (1.2-2.8 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs about 12, acute above, rounded below. Areoles gray, close set. Spines light gray, swollen basally. Central spine one, directed downward, awl shaped, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 14-16, flattened against the stem surface, needle-like, 0.8-1.5 cm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, to 21 cm (8.3 in) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution Oropeza province, Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Plants shrubby, branching basally with crowded ascending branches to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, robust, dark green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs variable, as many as 9, to 2 cm (0.8 in) high. Areoles white, large, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Spines sometimes not clearly differentiated as centrals and radials, mostly radiating, bristle- to needle-like, sometimes interlacing, white to pink to blackish, 1-6...

Echinopsis calliantholilacina Crdenas 1965

Plants usually solitary, globose, somewhat depressed apically, gray-green, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) high, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12, acute, forming hatchet-shaped tubercles. Areoles elliptical, gray, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Spines gray with brown tips. Central spine one, directed upward, curved inward, awl shaped, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 7-9, curing, pectinate and flattened against the Plants usually solitary, globose to somewhat conical, gray-green, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) high, 12-15 cm (4.7-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 17-19, acute, notched, forming tubercles to 1 cm (0.4 in) high. Areoles elliptical, gray, 1-2.5 cm (0.4-1 in) apart. Spines 12-14, pectinate, flexible, curved, gray, needlelike, 2-6 cm (0.8 2.4 in) long. Flowers long funnelform, bright reddish magenta to fuchsia, with dark midveins, 8-9 cm (3.1-3.5 in) long. Distribution Tapacari province, Co-chabamba, Bolivia. Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose, deep green, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) in...

Frailea perumbilicata F Ritter 1970

Tral spine sometimes one but usually absent. Radial spines 6-10, brown, needle-like, twisted, spreading, 2-3 mm long. Flowers sulfur yellow, 3.4-4 cm (1.3-1.6 in) long. Distribution Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants solitary, flattened globose, dark gray-green, 2-7 cm (0.8-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 30, divided into low tubercles. Areoles brownish black. Spines 6-12, whitish, not differentiated as centrals and radials, 1-4 mm long. Flowers yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution Tacuaremb , Uruguay, and possibly neighboring Brazil. Frailea phaeodisca is a poorly understood taxon that many believe belongs in F. pygmaea. Plants solitary at first, later branching basally to form small clumps. Stems depressed globose, deep green, 2-4 cm (0.81.6 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 15, forming flat, round tubercles. Spines about 10, sometimes fewer, brown, becoming gray, thin, sometimes curved, spreading, to 3 mm long. Flowers funnelform, yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and 3 cm...

Gymnocalycium ambatoense Piltz 1980

Plants flattened globose to globose, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs about 10 with distinct chinlike protrusions. Central spine one, sometimes absent, straight or curved inward. Spines yellowish brown, becoming pinkish gray with age. Radial spines 9-11, stout, slightly curved, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, silky white with light pink midribs, 2.5-4.5 cm (1-1.8 in) long, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits flattened globose, dark green, to 1.7 cm (0.7 in) long. Distribution Catamarca, Argentina.

Ferocactus lindsayi Bravo 1966

Cross Section Cactus Plant

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, gray to glaucous green, to 60 cm (24 in) high and 40 cm (16 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-18. Spines gray, banded. Central spine one, straight, round in cross section, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long. Radial spines 5-6, straight or somewhat curved, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long, 3-4 cm (1.21.6 in) in diameter. Fruits ovoid, purple, 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long and in diameter. Distribution plain of the Rio Balsas, Mi-choac n, Mexico. Ferocactus lindsayi is not well known. Plants solitary, disk shaped, blue-green, usually flat and set well into the soil, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, 30-40 cm (12-16 in) in diameter. Taproots strong. Ribs 13-35, acute, usually tu-berculate, notched, flattened and thick under the widely separated areoles. Spines red or yellow, curved against the plant body, banded. Central spines 4, somewhat flattened, forming a cross, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Radial spines 6-8, mostly round in cross...

Mammillaria neopalmeri R T Craig 1945

Stems elongate globose, gray-green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) high and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Tubercles blunt conical, four-sided basally, without latex, axils with white wool and short twisted bristles. Central spines 3-5, straight or occasionally hooked, brownish with dark tips, 6-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Radial spines 25-30, slender, needle-like, white, 5-6 mm (0.2 in) long. Flowers pale greenish white to light cream, sometimes with pinkish tint, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits club shaped, scarlet, to 13 mm (0.5 in) long. Seeds black. Distribution San Benito and Guadalupe Islands, Baja California, Mexico. Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to short cylindrical, dark green to bronze, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles obtusely conical, laterally compressed, with latex, axils densely woolly. Central spine usually one, similar to radials. Radial spines 6-13, bright yellow to dark brown, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers yellow,...

Echinopsis brasiliensis Fric ex Pazout 1963

Red Globose Cacti

Plants solitary, sometimes branching. Stems globose, small, glossy gray-green. Ribs 9, acute. Areoles small, grayish white, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines 7-9, awl shaped, radiating, yellowish white with dark tips, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers light red, scented, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution southern Brazil. Ritter (1979-1981) believes Echinopsis brasiliensis is a population of E. oxygona. Plants usually forming clumps of three to six stems. Stems globose to oblong, to 40 cm (16 in) high and 13 cm (5.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-12, prominent, not notched. Areoles large, brown. Central spine usually one but sometimes several or absent, gray with dark tip. Radial spines 8-10, very unequal, brownish. Flowers white, 15-18 cm (5.9-7.1 in) long. Distribution La Paz, Bolivia. Plants usually solitary, depressed globose, to 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 50 or more, low, distinct, somewhat inflated or tuberculate between areoles. Areoles white. Spines 12-15,...

Mammillaria solisioides Backeberg 1952 Pitayita

Plants usually solitary, occasionally forming small clumps. Stems globose to depressed cylindrical, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles short conical, without latex, axils naked. Central spines absent. Radial spines about 25, flexible, chalky or dirty white, pectinately arranged and flattened against the stem surface, to 5 mm long. Flowers yellow to yellowish white, to 14 mm (0.6 in) long. Fruits greenish, half-retained within the plant, barely protruding above the spines. Seeds large, black. Distribution Oaxaca and Puebla, Mexico. Mammillaria solisioides is listed in Appendix I of cites. Plants solitary at first, later forming large mounds. Stems flattened globose, dull blue-green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) or more in diameter. Tubercles globose quadrangular, not sharply angled, keeled, firm, with latex, axils woolly but with only occasional bristles. Central spines 1-4, awl- to needlelike, reddish brown, 5-45 mm (0.2-1.8 in) long. Radial spines 8-15, slender, needle-like,...

Coryphantha calochlora Boedeker 1933

Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching basally. Stems globose to oval, dark to blackish green, 9-10 cm (3.5-3.9 in) high, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Tubercles nearly round, conical, with naked axils. Areoles woolly at first, later naked. Central spines 3-5, sometimes absent, gray. Radial spines 12-15, thin, whitish, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers whitish cream to yellow, 2.5-4 cm (1-1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits oblong, gray-green, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution Durango, Mexico. There is considerable confusion about the nature of Coryphantha calochlora, which has been interpreted taxonomically in different ways. furrows, with one or two red glands, axils with white wool. Central spine one, sometimes absent, straight, yellowish to brown, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 8-9, brownish with dark tips, 8-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Flowers pale yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Plants usually solitary....

Echinocactus texensis Hopffer 1842

Cactus Expert

Plants solitary, flattened globose, 12-20 cm (4.7-7.9 in) high, to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-27. Spines dense, reddish, distinctly cross-striated, stout, tapering. Central spine one, curving rigidly downward, flattened, exceeding the radi is in length, 3-7.5 cm (1.2-3 in) long. Radial spines 5-7, spreading, flattened, 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) long. Flowers pale pink to white, with a red center, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits red, fleshy at maturity, 5 cm (2 in) long, 2.5-3.8 cm (1-1.5 in) in diameter, with deciduous scales, irregularly dehiscent. Distribution sea level to 1000 m (3300 ft) in southeastern New Mexico, southwestern Oklahoma, and much of Texas, also to the north and east of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Nuevo Le n, and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Leptocereus carinatus Areces 1993

Plants shrubby, little branched, 2-2.5 m (6.6-8.2 ft) high. Stems ascending, elongate, rarely branching, dull pale green, segmented, 0.6-2 m (2-6.6 ft) long, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 4-6, usually 5, distinctly wavy, flattened. Spines needle-like, straight, yellowish, becoming gray with age. Central spines 2-3,18-25 mm (0.7-1 in) long. Radial spines usually 6, arranged on both sides of the areoles, 8-30 mm (0.3-1.2 in) long. Flowers borne terminally, open at night, tubular, white, 5-6.7 cm (2-2.6 in) long pericarpels and floral tubes with five or six ribs, with a few spines stamens slightly exserted. Fruits elliptical to spindle shaped, green, ribbed, 6-7 cm (2.4-2.8 in) long, 3.5-4 cm (1.4-1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution Camagiiey province, eastern Cuba. Plants shrubby with prostrate to semierect branches, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stems with terminal segments 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 7, distinctly notched. Areoles with brown felt. Spines persistent,...

Mammillaria hutchisoniana H E Gates Boedekerex

Mammillaria Hutchisoniana

Roots fibrous. Stems cylindrical, olive green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high, 4-6 cm (1.62.4 in) in diameter. Tubercles short, conical, without latex, axils with scant wool or naked. Central spines 4, tan with purplish tips, 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long, lowermost one hooked. Radial spines 10-20, straight, slender, needle-like, purplish, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers pinkish to cream, with dark midveins, 25-30 mm (1-1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits club shaped, scarlet, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Seeds black. Distribution widespread on the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. dial spines and cream-colored flowers it occurs widely in Baja California, from La Paz, Baja California Sur, northward. Subspecies louisae usually has about 11 radial spines and white to light pink flowers with lavender-pink midveins it is restricted to a coastal region near Socorro, Baja California. Plants sometimes solitary but usually forming clusters. Roots fleshy. Stems flattened globose,...

Stenocereus queretaroensis F A C Weber Buxbaum 1961

Plants treelike, candelabra-like, much branched, 5-6 m (1620 ft) high with distinct trunks. Stems greens, sometimes reddish, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 6-8, prominent, somewhat rounded, obtuse, widely separated, without areolar notches. Central spines 1-4, whitish to grayish, unequal, lowermost longer, to 4 cm (1.6 in). Radial spines 5-9, whitish, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers borne on the uppermost sides of the stems, open during the day and night, funnelform, scented, white, with bulging nectar chambers, lacking spines and trichomes, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) long. Distribution Queretaro, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Colima, and Michoacan, Mexico. Stenocereus queretaroensis is cultivated for its fruits (Chapter 2, under Cacti as Food). Plants treelike with several erect branches, to 5 m (16 ft) high with distinct trunks. Stems dark green, 1-4 m (3.3-13 ft) long, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-10, transversely furrowed, broadly obtuse, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) high. Central...

Thelocactus lausseri Riha Busek 1986

Plants solitary, globose to short elongate, gray-green, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) high, 5-8.5 cm (2-3.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-10, slightly spiraling. Tubercles somewhat round, 7-9 mm (0.3-0.4 in) wide, 8-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) high. Areoles round, 5-6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter, without extrafloral nectaries. Central spines 4, sometimes as many as 6, reddish to whitish to grayish, erect, somewhat curved, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) long. Radial spines 20-25, silver-white to yellowish, not erect, slightly curved, 1.8-2.8 cm (0.7-1.1 in) long. Flowers white with dark midveins, 3.6 cm (1.4 in) long and in diameter pericarpels scaly. Fruits scaly, dehiscing by basal pores. Seeds 2 mm long, warty. Distribution Sierra de las Ovejas near Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Plants commonly forming clumps to 80 cm (31 in) wide. Stems globose to short cylindrical, yellowish green, 4.5-15 cm (1.8-5.9 in) high, 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 714, vertical to spiraling. Tubercles conical but rounded at the...

Opuntia bravoana E M Baxter 1933

Plants shrubby with much basal branching of erect stems, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high, to 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stem segments oblong, later oval, glabrous to somewhat papillate, green with purplish tint near areoles, sometimes purplish overall, to 36 cm (14 in) long and 14 cm (5.5 in) wide. Leaves conical, reddish, to 3 mm long, soon falling away. Glochids short, yellow. Spines as many as 5 on older areoles, often absent, flattened, sometimes twisted, sometimes curved downward, yellow to gray, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long. Flowers yellow with reddish tint, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Distribution south of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Plants shrubby, low growing with somewhat erect branches, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stem segments elongate, shiny green, attenuate basally, 15-20 cm (5.9-7.9 in) long, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) wide. Areoles round, to 4 cm (1.6 in) apart, with violet spots. Spines 1-2, sometimes absent, white with dark tips, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Flowers orange, 4-4.5 cm...

Opuntia leucotricha A P de Candolle 1828

Plants treelike, much branched and forming large crowns, 3-5 m (9.8-16 ft) high with distinct trunks covered by white bristles to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Stem segments oblong to round, pubescent, 15-30 cm (5.9-12 in) long. Areoles numerous, small, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Glochids yellow, in the upper parts of the areoles. Spines borne on the lower parts of the areoles, 1-3, weak, whitish, flexible, one much longer, to 3 cm (1.2 in). Flowers yellow, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) long. Fruits globose, white to purple, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long. Distribution widely dispersed throughout the Altiplano of central Mexico. Plants shrubby with a few erect branches, to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high. Stem segments wide elliptical to elliptical, tapering basally, obtuse apically, the older ones subcylindrical, not tu-berculate, papillate, to 18 cm (7.1 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) wide, to 1 cm (0.4 in) thick. Areoles round, white. Glochids yellowish white, becoming pale yellow, to 3 mm long. Spines 2-5, needle-like, some...

Cereus fernambucensis Lemaire 1839

Plants shrubby with many branches, clambering, forming dense clumps to 5 m (16 ft) wide. Stems cylindrical, segmented, pale green, often appearing nearly white, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 3-5, prominent, thick, acute, margins wavy. Areoles large, brownish, later whitish. Spines 4-10, needle-like, yellowish brown to bright yellow, to 50 mm (2 in) long. Flowers white, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Fruits narrowly oblong, purplish red with white pulp, 6-7 cm (2.4-2.8 in) long. Distribution coastal Brazil, possibly also Uruguay. Two subspecies of Cereus fernambucensis are recognized. Subspecies fernambucensis is widespread throughout the range of the species. Subspecies sericifer tends to have more spines and occurs only in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plants treelike, to 8 m (26 ft) high with many branches and distinct trunks to 2 m (6.6 ft) long and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Stems cylindrical, nearly erect, dark green. Ribs 4-6, strongly notched with prominent horizontal creases....

Maihueniopsis atacamensis Philippi f Ritter 1980

Puna Bonnieae

Plants forming dense, raised, fairly large cushions to 30 cm (12 in) high, 60-80 cm (24-31 in) wide. Stem segments ovoid to conical, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Areoles as many as 30 and extending well down the segments, very close set, with glochids, the upper half with spines. Central spines 1-2, erect, straight, rounded to somewhat flattened, yellow to darkish red, striped, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Radial spines 1-2, sometimes as many as 4, bent away, 2-3 mm long. Flowers yellow or orange, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long pericarpels spineless but with glochids. Fruits globose, green, with areoles near the rims. Distribution south of the Salar de Atacama, Chile. Plants small, geophytic, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Taproots thick, branched, obconical. Stem segments obconical, globose to cylindrical, firm, broadly attached basally, blue-green, becoming ashy gray with age, 1.2-2.5 cm (0.5-1 in) in diameter. Tubercles low, flat, bordered by grooves. Areoles round, small. Spines 9-20, flattened on the...

Cleistocactus reae Crdenas 1957

Ribs about 19, low, broad, notched. Areoles close set, prominent, gray. Spines 16-20, not differentiated as centrals and radials, spreading, yellowish, thin, needle-like, 5-35 mm (0.2-1.4 in) long. Flowers more or less straight, pink to purple, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long. Fruits globose, shiny red, to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Distribution Inquisivi province, La Paz, Bolivia. Plants shrubby, branching basally with more or less erect branches, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stems bright green, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-16. Areoles brown, becom-ingwhite. Central spines5,yellowish,to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines as many as 30, fine, white. Flowers pointing slightly downward, slightly bent, greenish yellow to lemon yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Fruits globose, yellow, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution Yungas region, La Paz, Bolivia. Plants shrubby to treelike with several more or less erect columnar branches, 1-3 m (3.3-9.8 ft) high....

Cylindropuntia anteojoensis Pinkava E F Anderson 2000

Cylindropuntia Bigelovii

Plants low, intricately branched, shrubby, 30-100 cm (12-39 in) high. Stem segments 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long, with rhombic tubercles. Areoles elongate, extending upward between adjacent tubercles. Glochids white, 1-2 mm long. Principal spine one, borne on uppermost areoles, erect, black, 2.5-7 cm (1-2.8 in) long. Secondary spines to 4 mm long. Flowers yellow. Fruits dry, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) long, 1-1.2 cm (0.4-0.5 in) in diameter, maturing as burs with many spines. Distribution Chihuahuan Desert of Coahuila, Mexico. 4.1 in) long, 0.5-1.3 cm (0.2-0.5 in) in diameter, with narrow, obscure tubercles. Areoles round, with tan to brown wool. Glochids pale yellow. Spines 0-3, distributed sparsely along segments, stout, usually bent downward, yellow to reddish brown, becoming black with age, 0.8-5 cm (0.3-2 in) long sheaths loose fitting, yellowish brown. Flowers dark bronze to orange-bronze, 1.7-2 cm (0.7-0.8 in) long. Fruits fleshy, spineless, green to yellow, 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) long,...

Echinopsis cerdana Crdenas 1959

Plants solitary, globose, gray-green, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) high, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-16, acute, notched. Areoles white, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) apart. Spines all stout, awl shaped, gray with brownish tips. Central spine one, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 8-12,1-3 cm (0.41.2 in) long. Flowers open at night, funnelform, white, to 14 cm (5.5 in) long. Distribution Potos , Bolivia. broad, with transverse furrows above areoles. Areoles arising from the notches. Spines dark brown, becoming lighter with age. Central spines 2-3, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spines 6-10, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers open at night, funnelform, white, to 17 cm (6.7 in) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution near Chala, Arequipa, Peru. Plants shrubby, much branched, creeping to form mats and clumps. Stems slender cylindrical, pale green, to 30 cm (12 in) long, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 6-9, very low. Spines several, short, bristly, whitish or brownish....

Peniocereus fosterianus Cutak 1946

Stems dimorphic, the young ones three- to five-angled, 2-20 cm (0.8-7.9 in) long, the adult ones round in cross section, slender, olive green or dark green, often glabrous, 10-105 cm (3.9-41 in) long, 0.8-1 cm (0.30.4 in) in diameter. Spines inconspicuous, dark brown to blackish. Central spine one, expanded at its base to conical, 1 mm long. Radial spines 4-6, conical to needle-like, 1-3 mm long. Flowers open at night, broadly funnelform, white, 8.510 cm (3.3-3.9 in) long, fragrant pericarpels tuberculate, with yellow felt and a few spines. Fruits 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long areoles dehiscent at maturity. Distribution shrubland at elevations to 900 m (2950 ft) in Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas, and possibly Colima, Mexico. Plants shrubby, erect or sprawling, occasionally branching. Roots huge tubers to 60 cm (24 in) in diameter. Stems slender, appearing like dead sticks, to 3 m (9.8 ft) long and 12 mm (0.5 in) in diameter, gray-green. Ribs 4-6. Central spine one,...

Cereus tacuaralensis Crdenas 1964

Plants treelike, tall columnar, with some branches, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, segmented, to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 4, acute, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) high. Areoles round, widely separated, gray. Spines pale brown, awl shaped. Central spines 2, directed downward, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 4,1.5-3.5 cm (0.6-1.4 in) long. Flowers white with reddish tips, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) long. Fruits ovoid, dark purple with white pulp, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Distribution Chiquitos province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Plants treelike, to 15 m (49 ft) high with a few erect branches and with trunks. Stems cylindrical. Ribs 3. Central spine one, to 6 mm (0.2 in) long. Radial spines 6. Flowers red. Distribution northeastern Peru. There is serious question about the nature of Cereus trigonodendron or whether it is, indeed, a Cereus. Further study is needed. Plants shrubby, with some branches, to 2 m (6.6 ft) or more high. Stems cylindrical, blue-green at first, later pale green,...

Harrisia taylori Britton 1908

Plants branching well above the ground with spreading to ascending branches, 1.5-2 m (4.9-6.6 ft) high. Stems light green, stout, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 9, rounded, with deep furrows between. Spines 9-12, ascending, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) long. Flowers not known. Fruits oblong to globose, yellowish. Distribution Cuba. Plants shrubby to treelike, usually branched above ground level, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high. Stems blue-green to gray-green, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 8, rounded, distinctly tuber-culate, especially on older stems. Central spine one, stout, brownish, becoming white with age. Radial spines 4-7, white with brown tips. Flowers 18-22 cm (7.1-8.7 in) long. Distribution Bolivia. Plants shrubby with erect to later arching or even prostrate stems, to 1 m (3.3 ft) long. Stems dark green, slender, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 7, low, rounded, somewhat tuberculate. Central spines 1-3, stout, red, becoming almost black with age, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long....

Mammillaria luethyi G s Hinton 1996

Plants solitary or branching into several stems, mostly beneath the ground. Roots succulent, tapering. Stems flattened globose to globose, dark green, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Tubercles dense, erect, slender, cylindrical, axils bristly. Central spines absent. Radial spines as many as 80, white, in several series, erect to radiating, forming a dense, flattened cluster to 2 mm in diameter. Flowers light magenta, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long and in diameter. Fruits sunken in the stem, globose, yellowish green to reddish green, 4-5 mm in diameter. Seeds black. Distribution northern Coahuila, Mexico. Plants usually solitary. Stems globose to club shaped, green, to 6 cm (2.4 in) high and 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, without latex, axils with scant wool. Central spine usually absent, sometimes one, straight, curved or hooked, orange-tan with brown tips, to 3 mm long. Radial spines 70-75, interlacing, chalky white with orange-tan bases, 2-5 mm long. Flowers cream...

Coryphantha ramillosa Cutak 1942

Plants usually solitary but sometimes branching to form clusters. Stems spherical to broadly obovoid, often with flattened tips, dark gray-green, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) high, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, ascending, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long, glands usually absent. Central spines 4, erect or spreading, straight to slightly curved, sometimes shaggy or twisted, whitish, 17-43 mm (0.7-1.7 in) long. Radial spines 9-20, whitish, usually straight, 12-30 mm (0.5- golden-chested beehive cactus, recurved cory-cactus recurved spine pincushion Plants commonly clustering, often forming clumps with as many as 50 stems. Stems globose to short cylindrical, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) high, 7-15 cm (2.8-5.9 in) in diameter, greenish blue, often obscured by dense spines. Tubercles cylindri cal to conical, rhomboid basally, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long, axils naked. Central spine usually one, rarely 2, curved downward, slightly flattened, yellow at first, later gray, with reddish tips, 12-20 mm...

Ferocactus cylindraceus Engelmann Orcutt 1926

BIZNAGA, CALIFORNIA BARREL CACTUS, CLIFF BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS CACTUS, DESERT BARREL CACTUS, GOLDEN-SPINED BARREL CACTUS, LE CONTE BARREL CACTUS, SPINY BARREL CACTUS Plants solitary, rarely branching. Stems globose to cylindrical, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs 20-30, usually tuberculate, sometimes undulate, with transverse creases. Spines variable, white, red, yellow, or brown, somewhat flexible. Central spines 4-7, some round in cross section but others flattened, sometimes curved or hooked, 5-15 cm (2-5.9 in) long. Radial spines 15-25, hairlike to stout, often intergrading with centrals. Flowers funnelform, yellow but sometimes tinged with red, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, fleshy, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution southern California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, and Baja California and Sonora, Mexico. Three subspecies of Ferocactus cylindraceus are...

Opuntia chihuahuensis Rose 1909

Plants shrubby, low growing, forming broad clumps. Stem segments obovate, greenish yellow, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) long. Leaves conical, to 9 mm (0.4 in) long. Areoles small, 24 cm (0.8-1.6 in) apart. Spines 1-3, dark, erect, sometimes slightly flattened, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long, sometimes accompanied by 1-2 short white spinelets. Flowers yellow with reddish bases, 6-7 cm (2.4-2.8 in) long. Fruits pear shaped, red or yellowish, 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 in) long. Distribution Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas, Mexico. Plants shrubby with many upright branches, forming clumps to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stem segments round, distinctly blue-green, 15-20 cm (5.9-7.9 in) long, with spine-bearing areoles on the upper third. Glochids yellow. Spines 1-5, spreading or bent downward, bright yellow, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long. Plants large shrubby to treelike, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high, often with distinct spiny trunks to 30 cm (12 in) long and 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Stem segments round to broadly...

Opuntia quimilo K Schumann 1898

Plants treelike, to 4 m (13 ft) high, much branched with distinct trunks. Stem segments large, elliptical to obovate, shiny gray-green, to 50 cm (20 in) long and 25 cm (9.8 in) wide, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) thick. Areoles large, prominent. Glochids not evident. Spine usually one, sometimes 2-3, stiff, spreading, white, straight or twisted, 7-15 cm (2.8-5.9 in) long. Flowers red, to 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits pear shaped to globose, greenish yellow, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long. Distribution northern Argentina and Bolivia. Plants sprawling to somewhat erect with single stems but forming large thickets 0.4-3 m (1.3-9.8 ft) high. Stem segments flattened, narrowly obovate to nearly round, glabrous, not detaching easily, 6-40 cm (2.4-16 in) long, 5-13 cm (25.1 in) wide. Glochids brown, inconspicuous, 2-4 mm long. Spines 2-7, sometimes absent, yellowish white with darker tips, needle- or awl-like, sometimes slighdy flattened, spreading, unequal, with slightly barbed tips, 0.5-8 cm (0.2-3.1 in)...

Echinopsis derenbergii Fric 1927

Ribs acute. Areoles round, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Central spine one, slightly curving, darkbrown, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines 5-20. Flowers and fruits undescribed. Distribution Paraguay. Almost nothing is known of Echinopsis derenbergii Plants shrubby, branching basally with more or less erect stems, 1-1.5 m (3.3-4.9 ft) high. Stems cylindrical. Ribs 812, deeply notched, with distinct furrows above areoles. Areoles with dark wool, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Central spines 1-3, sometimes curving, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. Radial spines 15-25, unequal, thin, awl shaped, dark, becoming gray with age, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers white, 7-8 cm (2.83.1 in) long pericarpels and floral tubes with dark wool. Fruits globose, green, aromatic. Distribution coastal hills, from Caldera, Atacama, to Tocopilla, Antofagasta, Chile. Plants treelike, branching basally, 3-4 m (9.8-13 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, more or less erect, 30-40 cm (12-16 in) in...

Mammillaria brandegeei j m Coulter k Brandegee 1897

Stems depressed globose to short cylindrical, dark green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Tubercles firm, square basally, conical above, with latex, axils woolly. Central spines 1-4, reddish brown with darker tips, straight, stout, 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) long. Radial spines 9-16, whitish to yellowish brown, with dark tips, needle-like, stiff, straight, 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Flowers greenish yellow, brownish yellow, to yellow, 15-20 mm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Fruits slow ripening, dull pink. Seeds brown. Distribution Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Four subspecies of Mammillaria brandegeei are recognized. Subspecies brandegeei has 2-4 central spines and greenish yellow or brownish yellow flowers. Subspecies gabbii has 1-2 central spines and yellowish flowers it is the most northern. Subspecies glareosa has one central spine and yellowish flowers but is much flatter and has tuberous roots it occurs near Santa Rosalillita Bay. Subspecies lewisiana has 1 3...

Coryphantha reduncispina Boedeker 1933

Plants solitary, globose to slightly elongated, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter, densely covered by spines. Tubercles conical, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long, axils somewhat woolly, without glands. Central spines 2-3, awl shaped, horny, slightly curved downward, gray to yellowish, with dark tips, 15-25 mm (0.6-1 in) long. Radial spines 15-20, needle-like, rigid, horizontal, white or yellowish, 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) long. Flowers pure yellow, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Distribution Oaxaca, Mexico. Plants solitary, flattened globose to short cylindrical with very woolly stem tips, dull green, 3-7 cm (1.2-2.8 in) high, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles unequally swollen, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long, axils and furrows woolly at first, later naked. Central spines absent. Radial spines 6-12, all but the upper ones awl shaped, flattened, pectinate, whitish yellow, becoming gray with age, 9-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, yellow, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long, 3.8-4.7 cm (1.5-1.9 in) in...

Echinopsis hammerschmidii Crdenas 1956

Stems globose to short cylindrical, dark green, slightly depressed apically, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) high, 7-9 cm (2.8-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs about 15, acute, notched, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) high. Areoles round, gray, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines needle-like, swollen basally, dark gray. Central spine one, horizontal, 1.5-2 cm (0.60.8 in) long. Radial spines 8-9, slightly unequal, 0.6-1.2 cm (0.2-0.5 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, narrow funnelform, white, to 18 cm (7.1 in) long and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to elliptical, dark green, dehiscent, dry. Distribution Velasco province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Plants solitary or forming clusters. Stems globose, glossy light green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 11, acute, deeply furrowed. Areoles round, white. Central spine one, curved upward, straw colored, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Radial spines 6-8, spreading, yellowish brown, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Flowers fairly...

Espostoa mirabilis F Ritter 1964

Stems cylindrical, densely covered with spines, with dense white wool apically, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Central spines needle-like, white with reddish tips. Radial spines usually bristly, interwoven, becoming hairlike. Lateral cephalia golden brown to reddish brown. Plants shrubby, branching basally to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, green, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 16-22, low, blunt. Areoles oval, white to yellow. Spines pale yellow. Central spine one. Radial spines about 30, needle-like,

Melocactus lanssensianus p j Braun 1986

Cactus With Curved Spines

Plants depressed globose, gray-green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 14 cm (5.5 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 12, acute. Spines pinkish gray to brownish to yellowish, stout. Central spine one, curved upward, 30-35 mm (1.2-1.4 in) long. Radial spines 7-8, curved backward, 35-40 mm (1.4-1.6 in) long. Cephalia to 2.5 cm (1 in) high and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter, with pale red to salmon bristles. Flowers reportedly cleistog-amous and never expanding. Fruits pink, to 17 mm (0.7 in) long. Distribution southeastern Pernambuco, Brazil. Plants cylindrical to somewhat pyramidal, green, 20-30 cm (7.9-12 in) high, to 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-10. Spines not readily distinguishable as centrals and radials, clustering, 8-10, stout, somewhat flattened, yellowish to brownish, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Cephalia slender, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, with brownish, spinelike bristles and white wool. Flowers exserted to 12 mm (0.5 in) above the cephalia, pink, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long and 15 mm (0.6 in)...

Pygmaeocereus bieblii Diers 1995

Pygmaeocereus Bieblii

Plants globose, solitary, barely rising above ground level, green, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-15, barely distinguishable, forming large nipple-like tubercles. Spines 3-10, pectinate, white to dark yellow, 1-15 mm (to 0.6 in) long. Single central spine sometimes present, 2-4 mm long, 1 mm Plants globose to short cylindrical, branching basally to form small clumps. Taproots fleshy. Stems dark green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long and 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-14, notched at first, then forming distinct tubercles. Spines numerous, dark, becoming gray with age, radiating, 4-5 mm long. Flowers wide funnelform, white, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long floral tubes very slender, long. Fruits not known. Distribution southern Peru.

Gymnocalycium ritterianum Rausch 1972

Plants solitary to occasionally clustering. Stems flattened globose, green with purplish tint, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) high, to 11 cm (4.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12 with transverse furrows and humped tubercles. Central spine usually absent, sometimes one, curving backward. Radial spines 7-9, pinkish brown, one directed downward, others to the sides, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers shiny white with violet-pink throats, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 7.5 cm (3 in) in diameter. Fruits pear shaped, bluish. Distribution La Rioja, Argentina.

Mammillaria elongata a p de Candolle 1828

Stems elongate cylindrical, 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) in diameter. Tubercles slender conical, axils naked or nearly so. Central spines usually absent, sometimes 2, yellow to brownish, with dark tips, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 14-25, variable in number, white to golden yellow, slender, needle-like, 4-9 mm (to 0.4 in) long. Flowers pale yellow to pinkish, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits pink, becoming red. Seeds brown. Distribution Hidalgo, Guanajuato, and Queretaro, Mexico. Subspecies echinaria is distinguished from subspecies elongata in having 2-3 dark central spines rather than none or very short ones, and its stems tend to be more robust. The two subspecies occur together, though subspecies elongata tends to grow in steep areas whereas subspecies echinaria occurs more in open ground and on slopes. Plants solitary, rarely clustering. Stems narrow cylindrical, 30-50 cm (12-20 in) high, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical,...

Mammillaria saboae Glass 1966

Roots fleshy. Stems ovoid, green, 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 in) high, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter. Tubercles small, rounded, smooth, without latex, axils naked. Central spine absent, rarely one, straight, to 2 mm long. Radial spines 17-45, slender, glassy white, yellow basally, slightly curved, to 2 mm long. Flowers funnelform, pink, to 65 mm (2.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits sunken in the stem. Seeds black. Distribution Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Three subspecies of Mammillaria saboae are recognized. Subspecies saboae readily forms small clumps, has 17-25 spines, and flowers to 40 mm (1.6 in) long and in diameter it occurs in southwestern Chihuahua. Subspecies goldii usually remains solitary and has 34-45 spines it occurs near Na-cozari, Sonora. Subspecies haudeana is somewhat larger, forming clumps and often reaching 4 cm (1.6 in) in height, has 18-27 spines, and flowers to 65 mm (2.6 in) in diameter it occurs near Yecora, Sonora.

Oreocereus hempelianus Gurke D R Hunt 1987

Oreocereus Hempelianus

Plants branching basally, densely covered by spines. Stems globose, becoming elongated with age, gray-green, 30-40 cm (12-16 in) long. Ribs 12-24, wide and flattened. Spines yellow to reddish, becoming dull gray. Central spines 1-6, flexible, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) long. Radial spines 10-15, needle Plants shrubby, branching basally, forming dense broad clumps with many stems curved upward. Stems columnar, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high, 6-12 cm (2.4-4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-15, flattened, with shallow cross-furrows. Areoles with abundant white to black hairs 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) long. Spines stout, yellowish to maroon to orange, not becoming gray. Central spines 1-4, gently curved, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) long. Radial spines 5-10, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, carmine red, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) long. Fruits globose to somewhat elongate, reddish yellow to yellowish green, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) in diameter. Distribution central Peru to northern Chile. Ribs 10-13, straight,...

Leptocereus sylvestris Britton Rose 1920

Plants treelike, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems with terminal segments to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Ribs 5-7, strongly notched. Spines several, persistent, light brown, to 9 cm (3.5 in) long. Flowers tubular, white, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long pericarpels and floral tubes distinctly tubercular, with a few areoles bearing some spines. Fruits globose, with few areoles bearing short spines. Distribution Cuba. Plants shrubby with creeping to vinelike stems 8-10 m (2633 ft) long. Roots tuberous. Stems with terminal segments 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 4-7, slender, not notched. Spines needle-like, yellow to reddish brown. Central spines as many as 6, stout, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines as many as 10-12, spreading. Flowers to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Fruits to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, with deciduous spine clusters. Distribution Hispaniola.

Mammillaria karwinskiana Martius 1832

Plants solitary, sometimes branching dichotomously or bas-ally. Stems globose to short cylindrical, blue-green to dark green, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles firm, pyramidal, with latex, axils bristly. Central spine 0-1, awl-like, white or yellowish, with dark tip, to 55 mm (2.2 in) long. Radial spines 3-8, awl-like, straight to slightly curved, reddish, becoming chalky white with age, 4-30 mm (to 1.2 in) long, upper and lower ones longest. Flowers funnelform, white with purplish midveins, to 25 mm (1 in) long and 15 mm (0.6 in) in diameter. Fruits bright red. Seeds brown. Distribution Oaxaca, Morelos, Puebla, Chiapas, Colima, and Michoacan, Mexico. Four subspecies of Mammillaria karwinskiana are recognized. Subspecies karwinskiana typically has no central spines and usually 6 radials it occurs in Oaxaca, Morelos, Michoacan, and Puebla. Subspecies beiselii has a single central spine and 5-8 radials it occurs along the Colima-Michoacan border near the coast....

Espostoa ritteri Buining 1960

Graham Charles Cactus

Plants treelike with several branches, broader than high, to 4 m (13 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, dark green, to 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 18-22 with transverse furrows. Areoles white, with many long white hairs. Central spine one, thin, reddish to black, 7-20 mm (0.3-0.8 in) long. Radial spines about 25, thin, reddish brown to yellow to white. Lateral cephalia yellowish. Flowers white, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Distribution valley of the Maran n, Peru.

Gymnocalycium paediophilum F Ritter ex Schtz 1977

Stems flattened globose to short cylindrical, green, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) high, 5-8 cm (23.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 6-10, somewhat tuberculate. Central spine one, stout, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) long, sometimes with 2 additional smaller ones. Radial spines 5-7, awl shaped, straight, brown, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Flowers pale

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