Build Your Own Greenhouse

Tiberian Growdome System

Are you tired of dealing with so-called organic foods or or vegetables that you know are covered in lethal chemicals? If you are, why not grow your own food? It is not nearly as hard as people make it out to be Growing your own food is one of the most rewarding things that you can do! You are being healthy in two ways; you're growing all-natural foods AND you're staying fit by growing food! This ebook teaches you how to make a simple device from ancient times that allows you to grow the very best food that you can at home! This device is much like a small greenhouse You will be able to control the climate inside to make sure that your plants are always in great weather. Don't go along with the rapidly expanding food prices; start growing your own, and don't play the game of people that want to hurt the food supply with chemicals and genetic engineering! More here...

Tiberian Growdome System Summary

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Author: Chris Peterson
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My Tiberian Growdome System Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Tiberian Growdome System can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The speciesSouth Africa Cape ProvinceCITES App II

The colour photographs were taken in a number of public and private collections and commercial nurseries or in the habitat. The colour and shape of individual plants depend on their geographical position and the type of greenhouse or glasshouse in which they are grown and on the attention they receive from the grower. Plants also vary according to the time of year. During resting periods they may shrink, have fewer leaves or acquire a reddish tinge. Plants grown in sunny positions and plants that receive little water may also have a reddish tinge, while those grown in shade and that receive plenty of water are greener. For these reasons the colour and form of the plants illustrated may vary slightly from the descriptions of the type species.

Optimum Cultivation Conditions

In general, the optimum cultivation conditions for Coryphantha spp. do not differ from those of other North American genera. The easiest way to cultivate Coryphantha spp. is to grow them in a greenhouse. However, some species, especially those of southern and central Mexico, can be grown on a windowsill as well as in the garden, if protected from rain and frost. They are quite undemanding as regards the climate of their surroundings. In summer, they like enough light and warmth and can be watered frequently. In winter, they need a rest for several months and should not be watered. They do not need to stand directly under glass, but in a place with a lot of light and direct sun exposure. They are very rarely burnt by the sun, on the contrary, they protect themselves with a lot of wool and longer and denser spination, which makes them more attractive to the grower. However, sufficient ventilation or circulation of air is necessary.

Rosetteforming Succulents

It is impossible to generalize about the culture of this group. They nearly all produce offsets, although Agave americana may have to be very well established before it does so. and these can be rooted easily. The most frequently seen are the rosette-forming echeverias, described at the end of the section on pages 177 to 178, which are widely offered for sale as cheap pot plants and even occasionally used for bedding out by parks departments. Some succulents, such as the sempervivums. are completely hardy in Britain and can form a useful bridge as it were between the glasshouse succulents and the garden. The closely related Orosiackys spinosus is hardy in sheltered locations only.

Richmond SurreyTW9 3AE United Kingdom

Founded in 1761 by a member of the royal family, presented to the nation in 1841, and located on the Thames River west of London, Kew is one of the most famous botanic gardens in the world. Consisting of more than 117 hectares (289 acres), it has four museums, laboratories, a large herbarium, and numerous greenhouses. Several thousand plant species from throughout the world are grown both indoors and out. The most significant structure with regard to cacti is the Princess of Wales Conservatory. Officially opened in 1987, this remarkable structure contains a wide variety of plants, from tropical ferns and carnivorous plants to those of the dry tropics and subtropics. Cacti are prominently displayed and identified in the dry portions, one part of which includes a panorama backdrop of the Sonoran Desert. Kew also has a large collection of cacti in greenhouses that are dedicated to research they maybe visited only by appointment. Collections by numerous English botanists, including D. R....

Selenicereus murrillii sp nov

Years, we have obtained but one flower. It grows vigorously, giving off many long aerial roots, soon reaching the top of the greenhouses. It has occasionally made small flower-buds, but these soon fall. Toward the last of May 1918, plants in Washington began to develop numerous flower-buds and gave every promise of an abundance of flowers, but a very hot spell occurred the first of June when the thermometer in the greenhouse rose to 114 Fahrenheit, and all the buds but one were killed. The plant, doubtless, needs half-shade conditions. Now that we have studied a mature flower we feel justified. in referring this plant to Selenicereus, although it does not belong with the typical forms. The flower-bud and flower are similar to those of S. vagans. The flower itself in its bell-shaped perianth of short white segments, in its funnel-shaped flower-tube bearing scattered areoles, and in its ovary with short stubby spines resembles very much species of Acanthocereus but in habit and other...

A cactophiles progress

Overall, the grower of succulents has fewer worries from pests than the cultivators of many other flowers and vegetables. It has been said with some truth that a cactophile spends the first half of his life trying to make his plants grow, and the second half trying to stop them. Overcrowding soon becomes a problem, no matter how large one's glasshouse, especially if seed is raised. Although one can go on adding shelves and hanging baskets, there comes a point when the plants are no longer accessible and begin

The Periwinkle Family

A predominantly tropical Family, the Apocynaceae comprise about 180 genera and 1,500 species. They are mostly twining plants with a white milky sap (latex). The flowers are often quite showy and some genera (such as Allomando) are grown as glasshouse climbers. The shrubby Plumer a is the 'Frangipani', grown throughout the tropics for its scented blooms. Some growers of succulents have stretched the limits of their collections to include it on the strength of slightly fleshy branches. Vinca, the periwinkle, is a genus of hardy creepers. The flower parts are in fives but the internal structure is quite complex, approaching that of the Asclepiadaceae (Chapter 19). by shrubs. Although showy enough when displayed in a glasshouse, many Cero-pegias in nature are inconspicuous, so that hunting them takes on the excitement of pursuing rare orchids. They tend to grow in isolation rather than as dense populations, and seek out the shade of the densest shrubs, so that even when in flower they...

Succulent Families And Genera

Between 40 and 50 species of small trees bear simple or branched stems. The leaves, which are arranged in rosettes, are flexible to rigid. The branched inflorescence bears nocturnal flowers. During the day the flowers do not close fully, giving refuge to the moths that pollinate them. The fruit is a dry or fleshy capsule with black seeds. Some species are hardy and can be cultivated outside the greenhouse if the cold season is not too long. Distribution North America and West Indies.

Air Circulation and Ventilation

Air is the source of gases that cacti and other plants use to thrive and grow. It is at night that cacti, with their crassu-lacean acid metabolism, take in carbon dioxide through the stomata in their stems, storing it for use in photosynthesis during the day. Yet it is at night that a greenhouse may be shut tight, and air circulation or ventilation may be needed. plant growing area. Any sort of fan will circulate air. Ventilation introduces new air and exhausts old air. Greenhouses also use ventilation as a method of cooling. Ventilation fans should exhaust enough air to provide one volume of air exchange per minute to a height of 8 ft (2.4 m). For example, a greenhouse 20 x 50 ft (6 x 15 m) in area would require fans with a combined rated capacity of 20 x 50 x 8 8000 cubic feet (6 x 15 x 2.4 220 cubic meters) per minute. Greenhouses benefit from horizontal airflow fans, which are designed to move large volumes of air rapidly. Horizontal airflow fans are expensive, however, and...

By Gordon Rowley American Consultant Charles Glass 0ver250 Species in Full Colour

Succulents are plants that store water in swollen leaves or stems, enabling them to survive long periods of drought They include some of the most amazing of all forms of plant life, surrealist in form and contour, often spectacular in the beauty of their flowers and bewildering in their ability to survive conditions fatal to most other plants. As house plants for a dry, sunny windowsill, or as cult objects for the connoisseur with a greenhouse or outdoor 'desert' garden, succulents find a growing band of appreciators, and their popularity has

Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck Hort Dyck 363 1834

Longleaf Cactus

Plant tall, 4 to 5 meters high or more, with a more or less definite woody trunk joints of large plants obovate to oblong, often oblique, sometimes 40 to 60 cm. long or more, but in greenhouse specimens often much smaller, pale dull green, slightly glaucous leaves minute, often only 3 mm. long, green or purplish areoles rather small, on large joints often to 5 cm. apart, when young bearing brown wool spines white, usually 1 to 5, slightly spreading, sometimes nearly porrect, usually only 2 to 3 cm. long, sometimes few and confined to the upper areoles glochids few, yellow, caducous, sometimes appearing again on old joints flowers yellow to orange, about 8 cm. broad ovary spiny or spineless, obovoid fruit 7 to 8 cm. long.

Neoporteria continued

Recent species to be brought into cultivation and was introduced into this country as a pot plant from Holland where its long flowering life, which extends late into the season, makes il an especially useful species for ihe commercial nurseryman. Il can be grown readily from seed and is particularly undemanding in its habits however. because of its generally rather late season, it may need a little more warmth later in the year lhan other cacli. Where feasible it should be brought out of the greenhouse into a warmer room in the house until ihe end of October when it may be rested until watering is restarted in mid-lo late March. N. Iiorsiii is also sometimes sold as N.Juncineus and ultimately attains a height of some 4 in (10 cm). It has a superficial resemblance to Parodia gracilis illustrated on page 144 and flowers over the same long period. The stems are pale green wilh twelve sharp, very prominent ribs on which ihe areoles are borne about a fifth of an inch (O S cm) apart. The...

Gymnocalycium continued

Flowery Cactus Illustrated

The tubercles themselves are bluish green and arc prominently three sided with thin papery spines produced at the tips. It is quite normal for the older tubercles to dry up and fall off giving the plant the appearance of having a short trunk. The flowers are very spectacular, pale yellow, produced amongst the upper spines, but only on well established specimens normally of nine years of age or more. During the summer it should be stood in the brightest position possible, on a shelf in the greenhouse if this is available, and during the winter it needs only quite normal temperatures. It seems to do well in a rather more open compost than that used for most cacti and I recommend adding more peal for this purpose.

Thrips Damage To Cactus

Thrips are about 0.1 in (2 mm) long and move rapidly for their size. To the naked eye they may look like a short worm with legs. Both larvae and adults have a similar appearance, except adults have wings. During summer thrips are found almost everywhere outdoors and they enter houses and greenhouses through doors, windows, and vents. They can crawl through normal screening, and pets, people, and fresh flowers and fruits may introduce them into the plant growing area. Thrips are prolific. Reproduction can occur with or At 70 F (21 C) a generation of spider mites is completed in about 2 weeks, and above 86 F (30 C) it just takes a week. Below 50 F (10 C) mites go dormant. Hibernation is also triggered as days become short in the fall. They crawl off to sleep through the winter in cracks and crevices. A warm, heated greenhouse will counteract this impulse in a few mites, so some damage maybe seen during winter. Two species cause the most distress, the greenhouse white-fly and the...

Cactus Selection Guide

Although the agaves are perhaps the most familiar of all succulents other than cacti, they are not nearly so popular with collectors as they deserve to be. Perhaps long familiarity with the fierce, space-grabbing Century Plant has given a bad name to the whole clan, but there are many fine slow-growing species which no collection can afford to be without. The larger kinds make striking landscape specimens where sufficient room is available, and the smaller ones excellent pot* ted plants for the patio, porch, or greenhouse. And, best of all, the agaves are rugged plants. They have no cultural problems except protection from freezing in winter, and arc easily propagated by seed, offsets from the base of some species, or bulbils formed on the flower stalks of others.

Opuntia robusta Wendland in Pfeiffer

Often erect, sometimes 5 meters high, usually much branched joints orbicular to oblong, 20 to 25 cm. long by 10 to 12.5 cm. broad, very thick, bluish green, glaucous leaves 4 mm. long, reddish, acute spines 8 to 12, stout, very diverse, brown or yellowish at base, white above, up to 5 cm. long, but often wanting on greenhouse specimens flowers 5 cm. broad, yellow stigma-lobes green fruit globular to ellipsoid, at first more or less tuberculate, deep red, 7 to 9 cm. long. Opuntia megalarthra Rose (Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50 529. 1908), in its very spiny joints, yellow spines, and small fruits, seems very different from the common cultivated O. robusta yet when grown in the greenhouse for several years it takes on much the appearance of O. robusta. If this view is correct, O. megalarthra represents the wild form of the species.

Opuntia pilifera Weber Dict Hort Bois 894 1898

No definite locality was given for this species when it was first described, and apparently no type material was preserved living specimens identified by Weber are still grown at La Mortola, Italy. The species is common about Tehuacan, Mexico, being one of the large forms occurring in that region. It is common in all large greenhouse collections.

Key to Genera

In view of these differences, Britton and Rose in 1907 established the genus Pereskiopsis and listed 11 species, 4 of which had been originally described as species of Pereskia and 5 as species of Opuntia. Since then we have grown most of these plants along with the pereskias and opuntias so as to compare them. Unfortunately we are not able to describe all the species fully, for they have never been known to flower in cultivation, although some of the species, at least, bloom freely in the wild state. The leaves on the lower parts of shoots are sometimes broader and shorter than those on the upper parts, and in greenhouse cultivation the leaves of some species are narrower than when the plants, are growing under natural conditions.

Difficult Indoor

In the pasl many of the subjects in this section would have been referred to as 'stove plants', which meant that they required very hot greenhouse conditions in order to succeed - with recommended temperatures of 30 C (85 F) often being quoted as essential if plants were to prosper. Fortunately, the need to economize with heating in recent years has proved that many of the stove subjects will tolerate temperatures that are much lower than those recommended in older books on the subject. However, it must be added that tender plants will seldom do well in temperatures of less than I6 C (60 F) - they may well survive, but one would not expect to sec much in the way of new growth. And new growth, seeing plants grow and prosper, is the principal reason lor purchasing living plants as opposed to plastic or imitation ones. This can be one of the most challenging of indoor plants for the householder who has little more than average conditions at his disposal. Oddly enough, when growing in...

B iuli ivAi lun

We have seen that one cannot imitate nature in a garden or glasshouse, even if this were desirable. The English sun is never that of the desert theseasonsareat variance and the best ventilation system never allows the constant caress of the wind in the great open spaces. Above all. succulents inhabit so wide a range of contrasted habitats that the most a grower can aspire to do is to create a general environment for the majority, and either forgo nonconformist plants or segregate them for special treatment. He is helped by the fact that, far from being uniform, the conditions within a small glasshouse vary between wide limits. Apart from such obvious differences as the amount of shading at glass and floor level, there are daily and seasonal cycles, as well as fluctuations in humidity and temperature. This is easily demonstrated by watering a batch of identical pots of soil spaced out over a level staging. You will find that they dry out at different rates those at the margins (and...

Nyctocereus

Nyctocereus serpentinus is best trained up a slick in cultivation, although in its natural slate in Mexico it sprawls everywhere over houses and walls. The upright stems of cultivated specimens are produced from a clump and can grow up to 9 ft (3 m) or more in length. They are an inch (2-5 cm) or so in diameter and light green in colour, surrounded by ten to thirteen low ribs densely covered by the areoles which bear about twelve spines, dark brown at the tips and becoming whiter towards the base. There is a certain amount of felt in the areole and also some wool. It is fairly free flowering for a cereus and blooms may be found on plants of six years of age or more. As with many of Ihe clambering plants it will benefit from being planted out, particularly if a spot can be found against a south-facing conservatory or greenhouse wall. During the summer it is tolerant of fairly intensive heat which is probably a factor in encouraging it to flower. If grown in a pol it is a good idea to...

Gesneriaceae

Streptocarpus is a glasshouse ornamental that needs no introduction to gardeners, and 5. rexii and hybrids contribute much to beautify our homes. Less known is S. saxorum from Tanzania, which has a modest claim to be succulent although it thrives in warmth and a fairly moist atmosphere. It bears long-stalked showy pale mauve flowers from compact rosettes of fleshy, somewhat crystalline leaves. The Gesneriaceae embrace about 120 genera and 2.000 species, mainly from the tropics and subtropics.

Final Thought

Although very few succulents qualify as economically useful plants, their popularity as ornamentals has never been greater. They are well suited to flourish in the typical small amateur glasshouse with its sharp temperature fluctuations and largely unobstructed light, and equally to sunny windowsills indoors where the dry air from central heating is inimical to mesophytes. In an age that seems to rejoice in reaction and the overthrow of conventions, the anarchistic look of a cactus is bound to appeal. Looking at it, one can imagine that its stark geometry, unfussy outlines and prime colour masses somehow harmonize with current fashion in decor, architecture and dare I say-music and the other arts. Just why some people are turned on by succulents and others just as emphatically turned off' is a subject for another book. But there is no doubt that there are different kinds of addiction the urge to collect, the love of flowers, the love of the unusual, the rare, the costly, the near...

Mammillaria

When grown in partial shade such as exists on a windowsill the stems will tend to become rather thinner than if grown in a greenhouse, and flower production will consequently be somewhat diminished, but the plant makes a good house plant as long as it is not allowed to become waterlogged which can cause a rapid rotting olf. It is a cactus which is generally more tolerant of commonly found in cultivation as the preceding variety as it is generally rather slower growing and consequently somewhat smaller in size. It is sometimes referred to as M. microhelia microlieliopsis and it is certainly very similar to the preceding species. Some warmth is appreciated in winter although if it is in a well drained soil and given a sunny position it will be all right with the bulk of the collection in a frost-free greenhouse overwinter. It does not generally do well indoors, tending to grow even more slowly and being an unreliable flowerer in this situation. Bolh varieties may benefit from a little...

Faucaria

Succulent With Yellow Flowers

Faucaria ligrina has been given the English name of tiger jaws in deference to its appearance. It is really a mesembryanthe-mum and the daisy-like golden-yellow flowers are produced in the late summer and autumn. Watering should continue until the end of November and the plants should then be rested in a cool greenhouse with a maximum temperature of 7 C (45 F) until they are ready to start into growth again in May. In spite of its vicious appearance the 'spines' or teeth at the edges of the leaves are not sharp at all but very weak and easily broken off. This species dislikes full sunlight which tends to make the plant bodies purplish rather than green and for this reason it does well indoors, especially where the air is very dry. However, it should be kept away from south-facing windowsills and if grown in a greenhouse it should be kept slightly dryer than most other aloes as it tends to rot off 176 fairly readily.

Cacti Succulents

In spite of this concentration of the cacti around the Equator the family is very tolerant in its requirements and representatives are found in sub-arctic regions in both north and south. Altitude too seems to make little difference and some species actually grow near the edge of the snow line. However, before pulling down your greenhouse and planting up your garden with these fascinating plants, I should point out that the air is very much less humid in these regions than in Britain and like many alpine plants cacti cannot cope with the cold damp weather that is so characteristic of a British Cacti are particularly susceptible to diseases, especially fungal attacks through lack of hygiene in the soil or the greenhouse. One of the most disappointing things is to see a prize specimen suddenly keel over and die as a result of rot spreading out from the watery tissues round the central core of the plant. Three different types are common. Pythium is generally associated with the roots,...

Notocactus continued

Recent introduction to the range of commercially available parodias in Britain. Its globular stems ultimately attain a height of about 3 in (8 cm) and are mid-green in colour with about twenty spirally arranged ribs circling the sides. The radials number about twenty on most plants and can be up to half an inch (I cm) in length. They are borne on fairly close areoles which are at first packed with wool but later lose this. The centrals are a prominent feature of the plant as its name (which means red spined in Greek) suggests. They are normally three in number and when young are tipped with black which gives them an even more dangerous appearance. The longest spine in each cluster is hooked sharply and can be up to an inch (2-5 cm) in length making il dangerous to put these plants on the edge of the staging if you regularly wear a pullover in the greenhouse. I have mentioned earlier the difficulty of raising parodias from seed with any great degree of success and before leaving the...

The Cactanae

They are generally rather delicate plants and tend to need rather more warmth in winter than other cacti in spite of their hardy appearance. If you have a greenhouse it is probably worth investing in a maintain at least a part of the greenhouse at a slightly higher temperature if you wish to tackle some of the rarer species of which this group is typical. They can be grown as grafted plants with some benefit as this tends to make them grow faster than they otherwise would and enables them to Melocacti arc uncommon plants and can be recommended as something to strive for however, they have little attraction when young apart from their rarity. Imported specimens which have already developed sufficiently in size to form the red woolly top arc difficult to re-establish in Britain in a greenhouse except under the most favourable conditions and they are for this reason a plant for the connoisseur rather than the

Gardenia

The majority of these are only suitable for growing in the greenhouse or garden room where the temperature can be maintained at a minimum level of around 18 C (6S F). Allied to high temperature it is necessary to dampen regularly the interior area of the greenhouse in order to provide the maximum amount of humidity. High temperature on its own will only create a very dry atmosphere and one of the great secrets of success with plants in the greenhouse or garden room is to create the proper 'feeling'. This is done by keeping the atmosphere moist while at the same time avoiding dank, airless conditions.

Dizygotheca

Grown for ils attractive foliage Dioscorea discolor, variegated yam. is a quick growing deciduous climber that requires moist, shaded and warm conditions in order to succeed. It is best suited to the greenhouse or garden room, but will give much pleasure to the keen indoor plantsman who is seeking something a little more challenging on which to test his skill. variegated in cream and sometimes flushed with pink, and beautiful upright habit of growth. Alas, as the heating of greenhouses Probably the smallest of the variegated ficus is F. radicals variegata which has attractive silver and green variegated leaves that are carried on stiff stems. By putting several cuttings direct into the growing pot rather than first into a propagating bed. this plant matures quite quickly in warm, moist and shaded greenhouse conditions, but in the dryer conditions that generally prevail in the average home F. radicans can be a very difficult plant. Indoors, terrariums and bottle gardens provide the...

Opuntia

Come excessively cold and damp during the winter and the best way to prevent it is to grow them slightly warmer, if this is at all possible. In a greenhouse with limited possibilities for temperature differentials, the best idea is to place plants which are likely to be affected in this way nearer to the sources of heal with which the greenhouse is provided. Care musl be taken, on the other hand, not to allow the plants to become desiccated or shrivelled and the first signs of this occurring should be followed by watering the following morning. cwnbens. The variety more -commonly offered as O. puberula should, in fact, be sold as O. x puberula. the cross indicating that it is not a species at all but a hybrid. The parentage of this variety is not known for certain but most authors seem agreed that it is a hybrid between the O. microdasys described earlier and O cantabrigiensis. The hybrid differs from O. microdasys in having more distantly spaced areoles, but it is much hardier and...

Echinocactinae

Lophophora Yellow

All 20 genera of this subtribe are esteemed by cactophiles, and the majority are solitary or form compact mounds of heads, and accommodate well to small . pots in a glasshouse. Taking the largest-growing first. Echinocactus (6.11) and Ferocaclus (2.1. 16.29) are the barrel cacti, conspicuous features of the drier areas of Mexico and the southwest USA. But even though potted specimens need to be large before flowering, the plants are valued for the superb spines, often hooked in Ferocaclus and marked with transverse bands the colour intensifies on wetting. F. fordii and F. viridescens will bloom in a 12cm (5in) pot. Propagation is by seed, division of clumps, or cuttings. A few species seed themselves in the glasshouse, and under favourable conditions I have had M. bocasana in flower within a year of germination. It is no accident that

Rhipsalidopsis

Rhipsalidanae Cactus

The nexi two pages illustrate a second group of epiphytic cacti called the Rhipsalidanae. The type genus is Rliipsalis and the botanical name is derived from the Greek word for wickerwork and is an allusion to the generally interlocking appearance of the branches of the plants. The group was one of the earliest ones to spread out of America and many of the species which are grown require rather warmer, more humid conditions than other cacti if they are to thrive. For this reason some of the less commonly available species are best left to those with a greenhouse where the minimum winter temperature can be maintained at 13 C (55 F) with a relatively high level of humidity. During the summer, too, they will need special treatment in the form of protection from direct sunlight, and since this conflicts with the requirements of the desert cacti it is seldom possible to grow the two families together in the same environment. The root systems are very scanty and the plants hardly need pots....

Oreocereus

The reason that cacti develop the very long white hairs that are characteristic of the last few species described is to reduce the amount of transpiration that takes place. Transpiration in plants is similar to perspiration in humans, but for a cactus it is essential that this process is reduced to the absolute minimum in order to conserve the maximum amount of water for the plant's own use. The long white hairs not only reflect the rays of the sun away from the stems of the plant and help to keep the plant cooler in this fashion, but whatever water is transpired from the plant is gathered on the hairs and runs down them to be reabsorbed by the soil below and eventually by the roots. In their native state cacti with these white hairs tend to grow on exposed hillsides where the sun falls directly on them, and their refreshing white appearance is best maintained in this country by giving them a position either in the home or the greenhouse where they can get as much sunlight as...

Pests and Diseases

Perhaps the prime cause for the growth and spread of several of these pests are ants. They actually carry aphids and mealy bugs irom one plant to another put them to graze and nurse them, and in return eat the honeydew secretion which these pests produce. Controlling ants in the garden and greenhouse can markedly reduce the numbers and spread of these sucking pests, A good ant paste or powder should be used regularly on ant trails and nests, but never applied directly to the plants themselves.

Austrocylindropuntia

Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica is a slightly branched upright plant with cylindrical stems covered in wart-like tubercles from which the areoles emerge. As the trunk of the plant becomes older so these tubercles, disappear leaving it smooth. The joints are flattened at the apex, looking somewhat as though they had been hit rather too hard with a mallet, and long leaves are produced at the tips of the young shoots which fall off naturally the following winter, if not earlier. The areoles are set down quite deeply in the tubercles and are tilled with white wool, and have some long hairs hanging down from them. Although greenhouse-grown specimens are often spineless, the wild variety has two or three spines growing out of each areole. The flowers are very 106 small and inconspicuous and arc seldom Austrocylindropuntia vestita comes from Bolivia where it grows in the hills round La Paz. The roots are very fibrous and the plant is intolerant of overwatering or poor soil hygiene. The stems...

Echeveria

Cactus Encyclopedia Pictures

Echeverias generally are extremely suitable plants for those with limited space available or for those who have no greenhouse. They are virtually indestructible and most varieties flower readily. They prefer a somewhat sandier soil than the general run of succulents and if you are using a proprietary brand of cactus compost it is as well to mix a little extra washed river sand into the soil to provide adequate drainage. They may be stood outside in the summer months to great advantage since it prevents them growing too fast and becoming too leggy and also encourages the production of harder wood and diminishes the need for staking. Propagation is elementary the leaves may be broken off and laid on or slightly inserted into a seedling compost, in which case young plantlets will form at their base, or alternatively the stems may be cut through and stuck into a pot where they will quickly root into the new compost. The best time to strike cuttings or propagate is. of course, in the...

Philodendron

Here we have a confession - this is one of the plants that seldom does well for me, in spite of the fact that I have tried it in all sorts of situations that would seem to be right for it. Yet a colleague with a minute greenhouse measuring some 6 by 4 ft (2 m by l-25m) grows it. much to my consternation. with almost nonchalant ease. Perhaps his secret is that, for reasons of economy, his plants do not enjoy minimum temperatures of more than about 7 C (45 F). Come to think of it. the finest plants of plumbago that I have ever seen were grown in the cool corridor that ran along the end of a collection of greenhouses. In this situation Plumbago capensis presented a sheet of incredible azure-blue flowers throughout the summer. Available in a wide range of colours, the sainlpaulias (also known as African violets) have attained universal popularity as indoor plants, and plants for the garden room and greenhouse. Much of their popularity is obviously due to the fact that they are...

By Roger Brown dvm

Nurturing plants involves providing the proper place and conditions for them. Cacti grow in a variety of habitats, and ideally, where they are grown should mimic the conditions of their habitat. As a practical matter, cacti are tolerant of a wide range of conditions but some cacti may require protection from extremes. For example, many cacti are tolerant of prolonged drought, and most do best if their roots are not constantly wet. Also, many cacti are adapted for absorbing water and storing it in their succulent stems, swelling as the stem accumulates water. Cacti that are swollen with water may be susceptible to bursting if they are exposed to below-freezing temperatures for a sustained period. When grown outdoors, cacti should be placed in soil with excellent drainage. Cold-hardy plants should be selected for areas that are not frostfree. Many cacti will require protection in a greenhouse, depending on the climate and weather conditions of the area in which they are cultivated.

Gymnocalycium

The Gymnocalycium group which is illustrated above and on the following two pages is one of the most rewarding genera for the amateur, as most species flower reliably and continuously over a long period. They will benefit from being placed out on the rock garden during the summer if space in the greenhouse is at a premium and. at any event, should be given an airy position on a shelf or near the door of the greenhouse as this' will help to ripen the areoles. The presence of flowers can be detected fairly early on during the growing season when small buds appear in the areoles just above the spines. These appear at first on those nearer the centre of the plant but as the season advances all the areoles down to about a third of the height of the plant will probably produce buds in many cases. The botanical name is derived from two Greek words meaning naked calyx and refers to the absence of spines on the perianth tube.

Dolichothele

In the greenhouse, also, that the part in which it stands is not overshadowed by a brick wall or anything else during this period as flower production will otherwise be inhibited. In the greenhouse in which the cacti are grown on our own nursery 1 remember a disastrous crop of this variety which was grown in the shadow of a large packing hall and which completely failed to flower the following summer. carefully. Watering during the summer can take place two or three times a week with beneficial results, especially if the compost is well drained. During the winter, however, it will benefit from a little more warmth than most cacti and if practicable it should be given a light north-facing windowsill on which to hibernate rather than being left in a cool greenhouse with other cacti.

Machaerocereus

Of warmth in the winter as Lemaireocereus. There are about eight species of which only two are frequently offered commercially. The hardiest of these is undoubtedly Monvillea liaagei (sometimes referred to as haageana). This forms an erect or climbing shrub, occasionally needing staking as it becomes older. The stems are very slender, often less than an inch (2-5 cm) thick, and tinted purple. The best idea, if space permits. is to plant it out in the greenhouse and allow it to develop into a sort of thicket on its own. The shoots are surrounded by four to six prominently notched ribs and the areoles. which support a number of grey spines, are arranged in these notches at intervals of about an inch (2 5 cm). M. cavendishii is similar but has more ribs, sometimes up to ten in number, borne on greenish stems. The stems arc less deeply notched and the areoles are not so far apart, often less than half an inch (1 cm). It is comparatively free flowering, especially if planted out in borders...

Chronology

Until 1848 all publications concerning the genus Coryphantha were published in Europe, mainly by Charles Lemaire (18011871), Michael Josef Scheidweiler (17991861), Friedrich Scheer (1793-1869), Friedr. Chr. Otto (1783-1856),Albert Dietrich (17951856), Louis Pfeiffer (1805-1878), Fr.Muhlen-pfordt, J. Gerhard Zuccharini (1797-1848), Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (17941868) and Willem Henrik De Vriese (18061862). Most of these descriptions were based on living plants in European greenhouses, often lacking any collection data. Few of these

Bougainvillea

One of the most brilliant of tropical shrubs, the paper-like bracts of bougainvillea will offer an exotic and colourful touch to any greenhouse or garden room display. Indoors. where available light is often inadequate, these can be difficult plants unless placed in the lightest window position. In ideal conditions they will grow rapidly and soon find their way into the upper reaches of the room, so some form of support will have to be provided for growth to be tied to as it develops. The flower-like bracts begin to turn colour from March onwards, magenta shades being the more usual, although there are other colours that range from deep pink to white, with a fine yellow form being a particularly worthwhile acquisition.

Aporocactus

They do best when planted out in a bed and grown up a sunny wall in the greenhouse or conservatory as this allows them to adopt the normal sprawling habit which they have in the wild. Selenicereus grandi-florus is undoubtedly the finest representative of the genus with enormous flowers reportedly up to 15 in (38 cm) in diameter which are white and heavily scented and are produced at night. Its English name, queen of the night, sums up admirably its appeal to botanists and amateurs alike.

Camellia

When reared in pots they are probably at their best when overwintered in a cold greenhouse thai gives them a little protection from the worst of the weather, and during the summer months their naturally glossy leaves will do much to enhance the appearance of the patio, or terrace.

Caladium

Many of the plants grown as 'house plants' begin their lives in very distant parts of the world, either as seed, cuttings, or as tubers in the case of the caladium. It is often belter for the tropical 'house' plants to be produced in their natural environment so that they make the maximum amount of vegetative growth, thereby providing a much greater amount of cutting material. Besides the quantity being greater, ihc quality is usually very much superior to stock that has been raised in the more unnatural environment of a greenhouse. The major difficulty lies in the cost of transporting them from iheir natural habitat and this is most often the reason for many plants appearing to be very expensive in comparison to their size.

Commelinaceae

This is a moderate-sized Family of the Monocotyledons comprising about 38 genera and 500 species. It includes Tradescantia. the spiderworts of our gardens, and a number of tender pot plants with foliage decorative for our homes, such as Rhoeo and Zebrina. Succulence is most developed in Tradescantia navicularis from northern Peru, an attractive miniature in which each keel-shaped leaf has the upper surface distended by development of a massive translucent water-storing tissue beneath the epidermis. This can best be seen by snapping a leaf in two and viewing against the light. It is an easy plant to grow on a sunny windowsill or in a frost-free glasshouse. Well fed and watered, it puts out long, zigzag, creeping stems. At the onset of drought, these die back but leave compact buds at the nodes, which root readily and can be used for propagation. Other species of Tradescantia are also sometimes included in succulent collections, as is Cyanotis somaliensis. with white furry fleshy leaves...

Cultivation

A generous sampling of the cactus Family can be happily housed in a typical amateur glasshouse provided that it has ample light and ventilation and a minimum winter temperature of around 5 C (40 F). Occasional drops to freezing point will do no harm if the plants are dry. If no heat is available, the choice is much more limited, but not beyond hope. Certain groups of cacti need extra heat. There are the moisture-loving tropical pereskias and Hylocereinae, along with their hybrids, the epicacti. Collectors attracted by these, which mostly take up a lot of space, are usually willing to give them a house to themselves, although they consort well with orchids, bromeliads and some tropical African succulents such as Kalanchoe. glasshouse, perhaps including his propagator as a heat source. Another possibility is to bring the plants into the home during the winter. A sunny windowsill in the lounge can be put to good use, if the temperature does not fall below about 10 C (50 F) overnight. If...

Carnegiea

The spectacular stands of the giant saguaro in many parts of Arizona have been the subject of countless photographs and essays. I thoroughly enjoy looking out my window at the Desert Botanical Garden and seeing several handsome sa-guaros. Indeed, Carnegiea is one of the most popular cacti, not only in greenhouse collections but also in desert landscaping and outdoor gardens. The cactus has also been extensively studied with regard to ecology, growth dynamics, and reproduction.

Opuntia Imbricata

We consider O. mamillata as synonymous with O. fulgida in herbarium and greenhouse specimens we can find no constant differences. Professor J. J. Thornber, who has long studied this group, says there is no difference between the flowers and fruits, and that there is no difference in distribution (Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67 501). In the field, however, one can see two rather distinct forms which differ in armament, the typical plant being the more spiny. According to Professor Johnson, who has studied this species several years, the seeds are not known to germinate in nature. Only by cutting away a part of the hard, bony coat could they be made to germinate in the greenhouse. The species is propagated easily by the terminal joints, which come off readily and are transported far and wide like burs, and soon strike root on reaching the soil. New plants are also started occasionally by the fruits themselves. In greenhouse specimens the joints and spines are not well developed.

House Plants

Quality plants may be a little more expensive, but they are usually the better buy in the long run. The general tidyness of the plant - clean pot, clean leaves, absence of pests and diseases, and growth that is neatly tied in position - will be an indication that the grower of that particular plant had its well-being in mind, and you can rest assured that it will give more satisfaction than the cheaper plant that has an untidy and uncared-for look. The place of purchase is also worthy of consideration, the warm shop or greenhouse that offers plants some protection from the elements will have better produce than the retailer who markets his plants from the pavement outside his shop. To grow plants in this way the procedure at the moment is to start by sowing seed or propagating cuttings in compost in the conventional manner, and then to convert the plants to hydroponic culture (hydroculture) when they are established. In time the amateur grower will be able to convert his own plants,...

Form and variety

Flowers of Crassulaceae are generally on the small side (2.19). but are usually massed in flat or domed heads which make them conspicuous to insects. Some are sweetly perfumed, others musky or foetid. Especially welcome are those African species that flower in the autumn and winter in cultivation species of Crassula. for instance, that brighten the glasshouse when much else is dormant. The colour range is from white to pink, red, orange and yellow, with one solitary species of a beautiful pale sky blue, the annual Sedum coeruleum. The fruit is a follicle that is, like a tiny pea pod, splitting along the inner margin to release quantities of fine, dust-like seed. The best way to collect the seeds of Crassulaceae is to cut off the inflorescences after flowering and invert them in a paper bag (not polythene, which holds the moisture too much), leaving this undisturbed on a dry, light top shelf until ready to packet or sow the seeds. It is a mistake to sow too thickly one way to avoid...

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