Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus Boedeker Buxbaum

Backeberg 1937 Echinocactus schmiedickeanus Boedeker 1928, Strombocactus schmiedickeanus (Boedeker) A. Berger 1929, Toumeya schmiedickeana (Boedeker) Bravo & W. T. Marshall 1956, Neolloydia schmiedickeana (Boedeker) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus (Boedeker) Halda 1998 Echinocactus macrochele Werdermann 1931, Strombocactus macro-chele (Werdermann) Backeberg 1936, Turbinicarpus macrochele (Werdermann) Buxbaum & Backeberg 1937, Toumeya macrochele (Werdermann) Bravo &W.T. Marshall 1956, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. macrochele (Werdermann) Glass & R. Foster 1977, Neolloydia schmiedickeana var. macrochele (Werdermann) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus var. macrochele (Werdermann) Halda 1998, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. macrochele (Werdermann) N. P. Taylor 1998 Strombocactus schwarzii Shurly 1948, Turbinicarpus schwarzii (Shurly) Backeberg 1951, Toumeya macrochele var. schwarzii (Shurly) Kladiwa 1975, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. schwarzii (Shurly) Glass & R. Foster 1977, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus subsp. schwarzii (Shurly) Halda 1998, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. schwarzii (Shurly) N.P.Taylor 1998 Turbinicarpus klinkerianus Backeberg & H. Jacobsen 1948, Strombocactus klinkerianus (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) Burning 1951, Toumeya klinkeriana (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) Bravo & W. T. Marshall 1956, T. schmiedickeana var. klinkeriana (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) Krainz 1959, Strombocactus schmiedickeanus var. klinkerianus (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) G. D. Rowley 1972, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. klinkerianus (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) Glass & R. Foster 1977, Neolloydia schmiedickeana var. klinkeriana (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus subsp. klinkerianus (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) Halda 1998, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. klinkerianus (Backeberg & H. Jacobsen) N. P. Taylor 1998 Turbinicarpus polaskii Backeberg 1961, not validly published; Strombocactus polaskii (Backeberg) Hewitt 1975, not validly published Turbinicarpus gracilis Glass & R. Foster 1976, T. schmiedickeanus var. gracilis (Glass & R. Foster) Glass & R. Foster 1977, T. schmiedickeanus subsp.gracilis (Glass & R. Foster) Glass 1997, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus var. gracilis (Glass & R. Foster) Halda 1998 Turbinicarpus flavifiorus G. Frank & A. B. Lau 1979, T. schmiedickeanus var. flaviflorus (G. Frank & A. B. Lau) Glass & R. Foster 1979, T. schmiedickeanus subsp.flaviflorus (G. Frank & A. B. Lau) Glass 1997, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus var. flaviflorus (G. Frank & A. B. Lau) Halda 1998 Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. dickisoniae Glass & R. Foster 1982, Neolloydia schmiedickeana var. dickisoniae (Glass & R. Foster) E. F. Anderson 1986, T. dickisoniae (Glass & R. Foster) Glass & A. Hofer 1997, Pediocactus schmiedickeana var. dickisoniae (Glass & R. Foster) Halda 1998, T. schmiedickeanus subsp. dickisoniae (Glass & R. Foster) N. P. Taylor 1998, T. gracilis subsp. dickisoniae (Glass & R. Foster) Panarotto 1998 Turbinicarpus schwarziiv ar. rubriflorus G. Frank 1993, Pediocactus schmiedickeanus var. rubriflorus (G. Frank) Halda 1998, T. schmiedickeanus subsp. rubriflorus (G. Frank) Panarotto 1998 Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. andersonii Mosco &Zanov-ello 1999

Plants solitary, globose to flattened globose, dull green to blue-green to gray-green, 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) high, 1.5-5 cm (0.6-2 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, elongate conical, or broad and rounded. Spines variable, 1-10 or more, sometimes absent, thickened and spongy, flattened and paperlike, or flexible and slightly curved or twisted. Flowers white, cream, greenish yellow, or magenta, 1.5-2.6 cm (0.6-1 in) long, 1-3.2 cm (0.4-1.3 in) in diameter. Fruits rounded, somewhat fleshy at maturity. Distribution: Nuevo León, Tamauli-pas, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites. Eight subspecies of T. schmiedickeanus are recognized. Subspecies schmiedickeanus has dull green stems, twisted spines, and white to magenta flowers; it occurs in the area of Miquihuana, Tamaulipas. Subspecies andersonii has only 1-2 spines, and magenta and white flowers produced in winter; it occurs east of El Huizache, San Luis Potosí. Subspecies dickisoniae has gray-green stems, 1-3 central spines that are flexible and curve slightly inward, and white flowers; it oc curs near Aramberri, Nuevo León. Subspecies flaviflorus has conical tubercles, 4-6 spines and greenish yellow flowers; it occurs near Santa Rita, San Luis Potosí. Subspecies gracilis has nearly round tubercles, one thin, papery central spine, and white flowers; it is restricted to an area near Aramberri, Nuevo León. Subspecies klinkerianus has rapidly tapering tubercles, a total of 3 spines with only one persisting, and white flowers with magenta midribs; it occurs near El Huizache, San Luis Potosí. Subspecies macrochele has poorly developed tubercles, 0-4 spines, sometimes as many as 6, and white flowers; it occurs in the vicinity of Matehuala, San Luis Potosí. Subspecies schwarzii has low, rounded, poorly developed tubercles, 1-3 spines with one much longer than the others, and white flowers; it is restricted to an area near La Bonita, San Luis Potosí.

Turbinicarpus subterraneus (Backeberg) A. D. Zimmerman 1991

Echinocactus subterraneus Backeberg 1932, Thelocactus subterraneus ( Backeberg) Backeberg & F. M. Knuth 1935, Rapicactus subterraneus (Backeberg) Buxbaum & Oehme 1942, Gymnocactus subterraneus (Backeberg) Backeberg 1951, Neolloydia subterránea (Backeberg) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus subterraneus (Backeberg) Halda 1998

Plants usually solitary, globose to globose cylindrical and with elongate and slender necks, green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) or more high and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Root systems tuberous. Tubercles four-angled, 3-5 mm high. Central spines 2, blackish gray, straight, erect, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 16-19, glassy white, radiating, straight, 2-6 mm (to 0.2 in) long. Flowers funnelform, rose violet to magenta, 22.5 cm (0.8-1 in) long, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits

Turbinicarpus subterraneus

Turbinicarpus subterraneus

Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. andersonii

Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus subsp. andersonii small, poorly known. Distribution: very restricted localities in the vicinity of Dr. Arroyo, Nuevo León, Mexico. All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites.

Turbinicarpus swobodae Diers & Esteves 1987 Pediocactus swobodae (Diers & Esteves) Halda 1998

Plants solitary, depressed globose to short cylindrical, dark gray-green, about 3 cm (1.2 in) high, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Tubercles irregularly pyramidal, 3-5 mm high. Spines 4-6, one longer than the others, whitish below, dark gray or black toward the tip, not corky, 4-13 mm (to 0.5 in) long. Flowers white to cream to bright yellowish, 1-1.6 cm (0.40.6 in) long, 1.3-2.2 cm (0.5-0.9 in) in diameter. Fruits greenish, becoming brownish, 5-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long, 3.5-4 mm in diameter. Distribution: near Rayones, Nuevo León, Mexico. All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites. Turbinicarpus swobodae seems to be most closely related to T. schmiedickeanus.

Turbinicarpus valdezianus (H. Moeller) Glass & R. Foster 1977

Pelecyphora valdeziana H. Moeller 1930, Echinocactus valdezianus (H. Moeller) Boedeker 1930, Thelocactus valdezianus (H. Moeller) Bravo 1937, Mammillaria valdeziana (H. Moeller) Kelsey & Dayton 1942, Gymnocactus valdezianus (H. Moeller) Backeberg 1966, Nor-manbokea valdeziana (H. Moeller) Kladiwa & Buxbaum 1969, Neo-lloydia valdeziana (H. Moeller) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus valdezianus (H. Moeller) Halda 1998 Pelecyphora plumosa Boedeker & F. Ritter 1930

Plants solitary, depressed globose to slightly globose cylindrical, 1-2.5 cm (0.4-1 in) high, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) in diameter, green but appearing white because of the dense spines. Tubercles flattened, 2-3 mm high. Spines all radial, more than

25, plumose, pectinate, white, 1-1.5 mm long. Flowers white with magenta midveins, 2.2-2.5 cm (0.9-1 in) long, 2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) in diameter. Fruits dark greenish brown, round, 6-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: Saltillo, Coa-huila, south nearly to Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites.

Turbinicarpus viereckii (Werdermann) V. John & Riha 1983 Echinocactus viereckii Werdermann 1931, Thelocactus viereckii (Werdermann) Bravo 1937, Gymnocactus viereckii (Werdermann) Backeberg 1951, Neolloydia viereckii (Werdermann) E. F. Anderson 1986, Pediocactus viereckii (Werdermann) Halda 1998 Gymnocactus viereckii var. major Glass & R. Foster 1978, Turbinicarpus viereckii var. major (Glass & R. Foster) V. John & Riha 1983, Neolloydia viereckii var. major (Glass & R. Foster) E. F. Anderson 1986, T. viereckii subsp. major (Glass & R. Foster) Glass 1997, Pediocactus viereckiivar. major (Glass & R. Foster) Halda 1998

Plants solitary to commonly clustered. Stems globose to globose cylindrical, blue-green with extensive white woolly tips, 2-7 cm (0.8-2.8 in) high, 3-6.5 cm (1.2-2.6 in) in diameter. Tubercles more or less conical, 5-6 mm (0.2 in) high. Central spines 3-5, slender, white with dark tips, erect, straight, 1520 mm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 13-22, white, radiating, straight, 8-13 mm (0.3-0.5 in) long. Flowers magenta with white throats or completely white, 1.5-3 cm (0.6-1.2 in) long, 1.5-3.5 cm (0.6-1.4 in) in diameter. Fruits brownish green, slightly elongate, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Distribution: Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites. Two subspecies of T. viereckii are recognized. Subspecies viereckii is usually clustered, only 3-4.5 cm (1.2-1.8 in) in diameter, and has 17-22 radial spines and magenta flowers; it occurs in the valley of Jaumave, Tamaulipas. Subspecies major is usually solitary, 4-6.5 cm (1.6-2.6 in) in diameter, and has 13-16 radial spines and white flowers; it is found in Nuevo León and San Luis Potosí.

Turbinicarpus valdezianus

Turbinicarpus viereckii subsp. viereckii

Turbinicarpusysabelae (Schlange) V. lohn & Riha 1983 Thelocactusysabelae Schlange 1934, Gymnocactus ysabelae (Schlange) Backeberg 1961, Pediocactusysabelae (Schlange) Halda 1998

Thelocactusysabelae var. brevlspinus Schlange 1983, Gymnocactus ysabelae var. brevlspinus (Schlange) Backeberg 1961, Turbinicarpusysabelae var. brevlspinus (Schlange) V.John & Riha 1983

Plants solitary, globose to depressed globose, yellowish green, 4-16 cm (1.6-6.3 in) high, 7-20 cm (2.8-7.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles well developed, conical, 3-8 mm (to 0.3 in) high, with short areolar grooves. Areoles elongate, very evident. Central spine one, recurved upward, grayish white at the base but dark above, 7-20 mm (0.3-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 16-20, whitish, radiating, more or less straight, 2-10 mm (to 0.4 in) long. Flowers white, 1-1.8 cm (0.4-0.7 in) long, to 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits in the apical wool, globose, greenish, becoming dry. Distribution: a very restricted area near Tula, Tamaulipas, Mexico. All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites.

Turbinicarpus zaragosae 673

Turbinicarpus zaragosae (Glass 8c R. Foster) Glass 8c

A. Hofer ex Glass 1997 Gymnocactus subterraneus var. zaragosae Glass & R. Foster 1978, Neolloydia subterránea var. zaragosae (Glass & R. Foster) E. F. Anderson 1986, Turbinicarpus subterraneus var. zaragosae (Glass & R. Foster) A. D. Zimmerman 1994

Plants solitary. Stems globose to cylindrical, flush with the ground, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter, tapering gradually to the tuberous roots. Central spines 2, brownish black, becoming gray with age, 15-20 mm (0.60.8 in) long. Radial spines 21-25, bent slightly backward, glassy white with brown tips, 3-6 mm (to 0.2 in) long, a few bristles sometimes present. Flowers slender funnelform, often not opening fully, pale yellow to violet, 1.8-2 cm (0.70.8 in) long, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Fruits small. Distribution: a restricted area of gypsum soils near Zaragosa, Nuevo León, Mexico. All species of Turbinicarpus are listed in Appendix I of cites.

Turbinicarpusysabelae

Turbinicarpus zaragosae

Turbinicarpusysabelae

Turbinicarpus zaragosae

674 Uebelmannia

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