Thelocactus lausseri Riha Busek 1986

Plants solitary, globose to short elongate, gray-green, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) high, 5-8.5 cm (2-3.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-10, slightly spiraling. Tubercles somewhat round, 7-9 mm (0.3-0.4 in) wide, 8-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) high. Areoles round, 5-6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter, without extrafloral nectaries. Central spines 4, sometimes as many as 6, reddish to whitish to grayish, erect, somewhat curved, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) long. Radial spines 20-25, silver-white to yellowish, not erect, slightly curved, 1.8-2.8 cm (0.7-1.1 in) long. Flowers white with dark midveins, 3.6 cm (1.4 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels scaly. Fruits scaly, dehiscing by basal pores. Seeds 2 mm long, warty. Distribution: Sierra de las Ovejas near Cuatro Cienegas, Coahuila, Mexico.

Thelocactus hexaedrophorus subsp. hexaedrophorus

Thelocactus leucacanthus (Zuccarini) Britton & Rase 1923 Echinocactus leucacanthus Zuccarini ex Pfeiffer 1837, Ferocactus leucacanthus (Zuccarini) N. P. Taylor 1979 Cereus maelenii Pfeiffer 1837

Cereus tuberosus Pfeiffer 1837, notPoselger 1853 (see Echinocereus poselgeri)

Echinocactus ehrenbergii Pfeiffer 1838, Thelocactus ehrenbergii (Pfeiffer) F. M Knuth 1935 Echinocactus porrectus Lemaire 1838, Thelocactus porrectus (Lemaire) F. M. Knuth 1935, T. leucacanthus var. porrectus (Lemaire) Backeberg 1961 Thelocactus leucacanthus var. schmollii Werdermann 1939, T. leucacanthus subsp. schmollii (Werdermann) Mosco & Zanovello 1999 Thelocactus sanchezmejoradai J. Meyran 1958, T. leucacanthus var. sanchezmejoradai(). Meyran) Backeberg 1961

Plants commonly forming clumps to 80 cm (31 in) wide. Stems globose to short cylindrical, yellowish green, 4.5-15 cm (1.8-5.9 in) high, 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 714, vertical to spiraling. Tubercles conical but rounded at the tip, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long, 10-14 mm (0.4-0.6 in) wide, 8-11 mm (0.3-0.4 in) high. Areoles 6 mm (0.2 in) long, 3 mm wide, 4-6 mm (0.2 in) apart, with extrafloral nectaries. Central spine 0-1, yellowish white to nearly black, straight, erect, 9-50 mm (0.4-2 in) long. Radial spines 6-20, yellowish white, radiating, straight to somewhat curved, 5-7 mm (0.2—0.3 in) long. Flowers yellow to violet to carmine red, 2.5-5.2 cm (1-2.1 in) long, 2-4.5 cm (0.8-1.8 in) in diameter; pericarpels scaly. Fruits green to yellowish green, dry at maturity, 6-9 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long, 6-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) in diameter, dehiscing by basal pores. Seeds 1.4-2 mm long, 1-1.8 mm in diameter, with testa divided into polygonal or square areas. Distribution: the southernmost species of the genus, occurring in succulent shrub forests in Hidalgo and Quere-taro, Mexico, at elevations of 1200-1900 m (3900-6200 ft).

Thelocactus leucacanthus subsp. schmollii

Two subspecies of Thelocactus leucacanthus are recognized. Subspecies leucacanthus typically has yellow flowers and occurs mostly in Hidalgo. Subspecies schmollii has violet to carmine red flowers and occurs primarily in Querétaro.

Thelocactus macdowellii (Rebut ex Quehl) Glass 1969 Echinocactus macdowellii Rebut ex Quehl 1894, Echinomastus macdowellii (Rebut ex Quehl) Britton & Rose 1922, Neolloydla macdowellii (Rebut ex Quehl) H. E. Moore 1975, Thelocactus conothelos var. macdowellii (Rebut ex Quehl) Glass & Foster 1977

Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to elongate, green to pale green, 4-9.5 cm (1.6-3.7 in) high, 4.5-12 cm (1.8-4.7 in) in diameter, densely covered by spines. Ribs indistinct. Tubercles more or less conical, 4-5 mm long, 5-6 mm (0.2 in) wide, 3-4 mm high. Areoles 5-6 mm (0.2 in) long, 2-3 mm wide, 5 mm apart, without extrafloral nectaries. Central spines 2-4, white to grayish white, radiating, straight, 11-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long. Radial spines 15-25, white, becoming gray, radiating, straight, 8-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) long. Flowers magenta, 4-4.5 cm (1.6-1.8 in) long, 3.5-5 cm (1.4— 2 in) in diameter; pericarpels with only a few scales. Fruits brown, dry at maturity, 10-13 mm (0.4-0.5 in) long, 7-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) in diameter, dehiscing by basal pores. Seeds 2 mm long, 1 mm in diameter, with testa divided into polygonal or square areas. Distribution: Chihuahuan Desert of Coahuila and Nuevo León, Mexico, at an elevation of about 1500 m (4900 ft).

Thelocactus rinconensis (Poselger) Britton & Rose 1923 bird's-nest cactus Echinocactus rinconensis Poselger 1855 Echinocactus lophothele Salm-Dyck 1850, a name of uncertain application discussed by Anderson (1987), thus Thelocactus lophothele (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1922, though many have said close to the T. rinconensis complex, probably should not be considered here Echinocactus phymatothelos PoselgerexR0mplerl885, Thelocactus phymatothelos (Poselger ex Rümpler) Britton & Rose 1923, T. rinconensis var. phymatothelos (Poselger ex Rümpler) Glass & Foster 1977, T. rinconensis subsp. phymatothelos (Poselger ex Rümpler) Glass 1998

Echinocactus nidulans Quehl 1911, Thelocactus nidulans (Quehl) Britton & Rose 1923, T. lophothele var. nidulans (Quehl) Kladiwa & Fit-tkau 1975, T. rinconensis var. nidulans (Quehl) Glass & R. Foster 1977, T. rinconensis subsp. nidulans (Quehl) Glass 1998 Thelocactus rinconensis var. freudenbergeri Haas 1992, T. rinconensis subsp. freudenbergeri (Haas) Mosco &Zanovello 1999 Thelocactus rinconensis subsp.hintonii). M. Lüthy 1997 ITheiocactus multicephalus Halda & Panarotto 1998

Plants solitary, globose to flattened globose to depressed globose, blue-green, often tinged with purple, 4-15 cm (1.6-5.9

in) high, 8-20 cm (3.1-7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs usually indistinct but sometimes as many as 31. Tubercles conical, angled, elongate toward the tip but flattened on top, 12-27 mm (0.5-1.1 in) long, 7-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) wide, 8-15 mm (0.30.6 in) high. Areoles round to elongate, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) apart, without extrafloral nectaries. Spines sometimes absent, when present extremely variable throughout the range of the species. Central spines 0-4, reddish purple, becoming grayish white, sometimes scaly with age, erect, straight, 4060 mm (1.6-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 0-5, reddish or reddish yellow, becoming grayish with age, erect to radiating, straight, 3-35 mm (to 1.4 in) long, sometimes as long as 50 mm (2 in). Flowers white to light pink, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long, 2.7-3 cm (1.1-1.2 in) in diameter; pericarpels covered with scales. Fruits greenish yellow, slightly fleshy at maturity, 7-13 mm (0.3-0.5 in) long, 7-9 mm (0.3-0.4 in) in diameter, dehiscing by basal pores, with scales. Seeds 1.7-2 mm

Thelocactus rinconensis subsp. rinconensis

662 Thelocactus rinconensis long, 0.5-1 mm in diameter, with testa divided into polygonal or square areas. Distribution: Chihuahuan Desert of northern Mexico in Coahuila and Nuevo León at elevations of 1200-1900 m (3900-6200 ft).

The variable Thelocactus rinconensis has received many infraspecific epithets, but the only acceptable distinction is subspecies hintonii, which occurs in Nuevo León at some distance from the main population, subspecies rinconensis.

Thelocactussetispinus (Engelmann) E. F.Anderson 1987 HEDGEHOG

Echinocactus setispinus Engelmann 1845, Hamatocactus setispinus (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1922, Ferocactus setispinus (Engel-mann)L. D.Benson 1969 Echinocactushamatus Muehlenpfordt 1848, E. setispinus [var.) hama-tus (Muehlenpfordt) Engelmann 1850, Thelocactus setispinusvai. hamatus (Muehlenpfordt) Pilbeam 1996 Echinocactus setispinus [var.] setaceus Engelmann 1850, Hamatocactus setispinus var. setaceus (Engelmann) W. T. Marshall 1940, Thelocactus setispinus var. setaceus (Engelmann) Pilbeam 1996 Echinocactus setispinus var. cachetianus Labouret 1853, Hamatocactus setispinus var. cachetianus (Labouret) F. M. Knuth 1935, Thelocactus setispinus var. cachetianus (Labouret) Pilbeam 1996 Echinocactus setispinus [var.] muehlenpfordtii J. M. Coulter 1896, Thelocactus setispinus var. muehlenpfordtii (J. M. Coulter) Pilbeam 1996

Echinocactus setispinus var. mierensis K. Schumann 1898, Thelocactus setispinus var. mierensis (K. Schumann) Pilbeam 1996 Echinocactus setispinus var. orcuttii K. Schumann 1898, Thelocactus setispinus var. orcuttii (K. Schumann) Pilbeam 1996

Plants solitary, rarely clustering, globose to elongate globose, yellow-green to blue-green, 7-12 cm (2.8-4.7 in) high, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-15, very evident, sinuous and narrow, 1-2 mm wide, 14-18 mm (0.6-0.7 in) high. Tubercles absent. Areoles 5-9 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long, 2-3 mm wide, 20 mm (0.8 in) apart, with extrafloral nectaries. Cen tral spine one, yellowish white to red, erect, hooked, 16-27 mm (0.6-1.1 in) long. Radial spines 9-17, whitish to reddish white, radiating, straight, 9-24 mm (0.4-0.9 in) long. Flowers yellow with deep red throats, 3.8-5.2 cm (1.5-2.1 in) long, 3-4.2 cm (1.2-1.7 in) in diameter; pericarpels scaly. Fruits round, red, fleshy at maturity, indehiscent, scaly, 11-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long, 10-14 mm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Seeds 1.3-1.7 mm long, 0.5-0.8 mm in diameter, warty. Distribution: the northernmost species of the genus, occurring in thorn shrub vegetation and coastal lowlands in south Texas and northeastern Mexico in Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas from sea level to 550 m (1800 ft). Several varieties have been proposed for Thelocactus setispinus, none recognized here. See Pilbeam (1996) for details.

Thelocactus tulensis (Poselger) Britton &Rose 1923 Echinocactus tulensis Poselger 1853

Echinocactus buekii Klein 1859, Thelocactus buekii(Klein) Britton & Rose 1923, T. tulensis var. buekii (Klein) E. F. Anderson 1987,7". tulensis subsp. ¿«efcii (Klein) N. P.Taylor 1998 Thelocactus krainzianus Oehme 1940

Thelocactus matudae Sánchez-Mejorada & A. B. Lau 1978, T. tulensis var. matudae (Sánchez-Mejorada & A. B. Lau) E. F. Anderson 1987, T. tulensis subsp. matudae (Sánchez-Mejorada & A. B. Lau) N. P. Taylor 1998 Thelocactus flavus Mosco &Za novel lo 1999

Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to elongate, 2.525 cm (1-9.8 in) high, 6-18 cm (2.4-7.1 in) in diameter. Ribs present or absent. Tubercles variable in shape and size, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long, 12-24 mm (0.5-0.9 in) high. Areoles 2-9 mm (to 0.4 in) long, 2-6 mm (to 0.2 in) wide, 12-35 mm (0.5—1.4 in) apart, with partially developed grooves, without extrafloral nectaries. Spines evenly distributed on the stem. Central spines 1-7,15-80 mm (0.6-3.1 in) long. Radial spines 4-12, brownish red, becoming gray with age,

Thelocactus setispinus

Thelocactus tulensis subsp. buekii radiating to somewhat ascending, straight, 7-15 mm (0.30.6 in) long. Flowers white to purplish pink to magenta, 2.55 cm (1-2 in) long, 3.5-8 cm (1.4-3.1 in) in diameter; peri-carpels scaly. Fruits green to greenish magenta to whitish brown, 11-18 mm (0.4-0.7 in) long, 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) in diameter, dehiscing by basal pores, scaly. Seeds 1.6-2.7 mm long, 0.6-1.7 mm in diameter, with testa divided into polygonal or square areas. Distribution: eastern Chihuahuan Desert of Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico, at elevations of 800-1400 m (2600-4600 ft).

Three subspecies of Thelocactus tulensis are recognized. Subspecies tulensis is frequently clustering and has distinct and vertical ribs, round or somewhat pyramidal tubercles, 1-4 straight to twisted and flattened central spines, 5-12 radiating and straight radials, and white flowers; it is the most southern and widespread, occurring in Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosí at elevations of 1100-1400 m (3600-4600 ft). Subspecies buekii is solitary and has poorly developed or no ribs, more or less pointed, angled tubercles, 1-4 straight to slightly curved and erect central spines, 4-5 short and spreading radials, and magenta flowers; it is centrally located, occurring in Nuevo León at 1200-1800 m (3900-5900 ft). Subspecies matudae is solitary and has indistinct ribs, variable tubercles that are usually conical but somewhat angular in cross section, 3-7 erect and straight central spines, 7-12 radiating radials, and purplish pink flowers; it is the most northern, apparently restricted to gypsum soils in Nuevo León at 800-1000 m (2600-3300 ft).

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