BRISTLY PLAINS CACTUS, HOUSEROCK VALLEY CACTUS, KAIBAB PINCUSHION CACTUS, PARADINE CACTUS, PARK PINCUSHION CACTUS Pilocanthusparadinei(B. W. Benson) B. W. Benson & Backeberg 1957, Pediocactus simpsonii var. paradinei (B. W. Benson) Halda 1998
Plants solitary, subglobose to globose, 3-7.5 cm (1.2-3 in) high, 2.5-3.8 cm (1-1.5 in) in diameter. Central spines 3-6, not readily distinguishable from radials, white to pale gray, hairlike, 8-28 mm (0.3-1.1 in) long. Radial spines 13-22, white, straight or curved, 2-5 mm long. Flowers light yellow to pink, to 22 mm (0.9 in) long, 19-25 mm (0.7-1 in) in diameter. Fruits 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Distribution: pinyon-juniper woodland in northern Arizona. Pediocactus paradinei is listed in Appendix I of cites.
Pediocactuspeeblesianus (Croizat) L. D. Benson 1962 FICKEISEN CACTUS, FICKEISEN HEDGEHOG CACTUS, NAVAJO CACTUS, PEEBLE'S CACTUS, PEEBLE'S HEDGEHOG CACTUS, PEEBLE'S NAVAJO CACTUS
Navajoa peeblesiana Croizat 1943, Toumeya peeblesiana (Croizat) W. T. Marshall 1947, Echinocactus peeblesianus (Croizat) L. D. Benson 1950, Utahia peeblesiana (Croizat) Kladiwa 1969 Navajoa fickeisenii Backeberg 1960, not validly published; Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeisenii (Backeberg) L. D. Benson 1962, not validly published; Toumeya fickeisenii (Backeberg) H. W. Earle 1963, not validly published; Navajoa peeblesianus subsp. fickeisenii (Backeberg) Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus peeblesianus var. maianus L. D. Benson 1969
Plants solitary or clustered. Stems depressed globose to ovoid, usually even with or to 3 cm (1.2 in) above the ground, 2.2-6 cm (0.9-2.4 in) high, 2-5.5 cm (0.8-2.2 in) in diameter. Central spine 0-1, white to pale gray, ascending, 5-18 mm (0.2-0.7 in) long. Radial spines 3-7, similar to but smaller than the central, whitish, 3-6 mm (to 0.2 in) long. Flow-
ers cream, yellow, or yellowish green, 12 mm (0.5 in) long, 15-25 mm (0.6-1 in) in diameter. Fruits 6-11 mm (0.2-0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: northern Arizona. Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus is listed as endangered in the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and P. peeblesianus is included in Appendix I of cites.
Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1913 MOUNTAIN CACTUS, PLAINS CACTUS
Echinocactus simpsonii Engelmann 1863, Mammillaria simpsonii
(Engelmann) M. E. Jones 1893 Echinocactus simpsonii [var.] minor Engelmann 1863, Pediocactus simpsonii var. minor (Engelmann) L. D. Benson 1961 Echinocactus simpsonii [var.] robustiori. M. Coulter 1896, Pediocac-tussimpsoniivar.robustior(J. M. Coulter) L. D. Benson 1962, P. ro-bustior(J. M. Coulter) Arp 1972, P. simpsonii subsp. robustior Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus simpsonii var. indranus Hochstatter 1990, P. simpsonii subsp. indranus Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus simpsonii var. nigrispinus Hochstatter 1990, P. nigrispinus
(Hochstatter) Hochstatter 1992 Pediocactus nigrispinus var. beastonii Hochstatter 1992, P. nigrispinus subsp. beastonii Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus nigrispinus subsp. puebloensis Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus simpsonii subsp. bensonii Hochstatter 1995 Pediocactus simpsonii subsp. idahoensis Hochstatter 1997
Plants solitary or clustering, sometimes forming clumps of 50 or more stems. Stems depressed ovoid to depressed globose to elongate, 2.5-15 cm (1-5.9 in) high, 3-15 cm (1.2-5.9 in) in diameter. Spines dense and obscuring the stems. Central spines 4-10, reddish brown to blackish, straight, spreading, 5-28 mm (0.2-1.1 in) long. Radial spines 15-35, white, spreading, nearly straight, 3-19 mm (to 0.7 in) long. Flowers white, pink, magenta, or yellow, 12-30 mm (0.5-1.2 in) long, 15-25 mm (0.6-1 in) in diameter. Fruits 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: throughout much of the western United States in Washington, Oregon, Utah, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.
Several varieties and subspecies have been described for the widely ranging and variable Pediocactus simpsonii. Hunt (1999a) provisionally accepted several of Hochstatter's subspecies (1989,1995) but I believe his treatment of the genus is too liberal in the formal recognition of populations as distinct taxa. Therefore, I have adopted the treatment of Heil et al. (1981) as representing a more moderate approach to the taxonomy of this species, in which there are three varieties. Variety simpsonii usually has solitary stems and widely spreading, slender spines; it occurs in southern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, northern
New Mexico, and northern Arizona. Variety minor also usually has solitary stems and slender radial spines, but its stems tend to be much shorter and smaller in diameter than those of variety simpsonii; it is found at higher elevations mostly east of the Continental Divide in central Colorado, northern New Mexico, and southeastern Wyoming. Variety robustior tends to have clusters of somewhat elongate stems and stout radial spines; it is found in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and northeastern Nevada.
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