Parodia

Parodia comprises cacti that are small, mostly globose, freely producing colorful flowers. Parodia is popular among hobbyists and consequently has been subdivided into hundreds of species, many of which clearly are not justified. Anatomical and morphological studies by Reto Nyffeler and other European botanists have helped in our understanding of Parodia and related genera. Nigel Taylor (1989b) and Urs Eggli and Nyffeler (1998) have concluded that Parodia has been badly oversplit into numerous genera that cannot be sustained. Eggli and Nyffeler believe that the segregates represent different lineages derived from the core of Parodia in the strict sense. Thus the cacti are closely related with the different seed types that characterize the segregates simply representing adaptations to dispersal by different means. They suggest that Parodia should be broadly interpreted to include Brasilicactus, Brasiliparodia, Eriocactus, Notocactus, and Wig-ginsia. Unfortunately, these scientific conclusions have upset many hobbyists, who have argued passionately for continued recognition of related groups, particularly Notocactus, as distinct genera. On the other hand, they also believe that Parodia should perhaps include Blossfeldia and Frailea. There is a nomenclatural problem regarding Frailea, however. If Parodia were to include Frailea, then Parodia would have to be conserved over the older name Frailea, as proposed by Eggli and Nyffeler.

For the time being, the International Cactaceae Systemat-ics Group has elected to recognize the broadly defined Parodia with 66 species but maintain Blossfeldia and Frailea as separate. Specialists believe that several of the species should be subdivided into subspecies, but since few such nomen clatural combinations have been made, only a few are included in the treatment here. Publications by Tony Mace (1980) and Walter Weskamp (1992) have summarized the hobbyists' approach to Notocactus and Parodia, respectively. Additional valuable contributions have also been made by Roberto Kiesling and Omar Ferrari (1990), Kiesling (1995), John Brickwood (1997a,b), Nyffeler (1997a), Andreas Hofacker (1998), and Hofacker and Pierre Braun (1998). Nonetheless, the huge number of names has created a taxonomic nightmare that will be difficult to straighten out.

Parodia (type, Echinocactus microspermus - P. microsperma) was described in 1923 by Carlos Spegazzini to replace the illegitimate name Hickenia, used by Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose in 1922. The name Parodia honors Domingo Parodi, an early student of the flora of Paraguay. Parodia is low growing, either solitary or clustering, globose to cylindrical, with ribs or tubercles. Flowers are borne subapi-cally and are open during the day; they tend to be funnel-form or bell shaped, brightly colored, and bristles and hairs are often present on the floral tubes and pericarpels. The seeds are diverse, a feature that has led many to argue for the recognition of several genera. Some possess a strophiole or caruncle, terms often used synonymously though their development is different (Buxbaum 1950,202). The latter term probably is most appropriate for Parodia.

Parodia Spegazzini 1923

Malacocarpus Saim-Dyck 1850, illegitimate name, not F. E. L. Fischer

& C. A. Meyer 1843 (Rutaceae) Echinocactus subg. Notocactus K. Schumann 1898, Notocactus

(K. Schumann) Fric 1928 Brasilicactus Backeberg 1942 Eriocactus Backeberg 1942 Wigginsia D. M. Porter 1964 Brasiliparodia F. Ritter 1979

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Notocacteae. Plants solitary or clustering, low growing. Stems fairly small, globose to short cylindrical. Ribs present, somewhattuberculateorcompletelyformingtubercles. Areoles usuallydensely woolly when young. Spines few to many, variable. Flowers borne subapically, open during the day, funnelform to bell shaped, brightly colored; floral tubes and pericarpels often with hairs and bristles, the latter sometimes restricted to the upper parts of the tubes. Fruits globose to clubshaped to cylindrical, dry or nearly so, wool ly or bristly; thin walled and disi ntegrating basally or nearly so, or thick walled and dehiscing laterally, orfleshy and pink. Seeds diverse in shape, reddish brown to black, small, with large hilum, some with caruncles, some with spiny or hairlike projections. Distribution: occurring widely throughout eastern South America, mostly east of the Andes in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina.

Parodia alacriportana Backeberg & Voll 1949 Notocactus alacriportanus (Backeberg & Voll) Buxbaum 1967, Brasili-

parodia alacriportana (Backeberg & Voll) F. Ritter 1979 Parodia brevihamata Haage ex Backeberg 1957, Notocactus brevi-hamatus (Haage ex Backeberg) Buxbaum 1967, Brasiliparodia brevihamata (Haage ex Backeberg) F. Ritter 1979, P. alacriportana subsp. brevihamata (Haage ex Backeberg) Hofacker & P. J. Braun 1998

Parodia buenekeri Buining 1962, Notocactus buenekeri (Buining) Krainz 1966, Brasiliparodia buenekeri (Buining) F. Ritter 1979, P. alacriportana subsp. buenekeri (Buining) Hofacker & P. J. Braun 1998

Brasiliparodia catarinensis F. Ritter 1979, Parodia catarinensis (F. Ritter) F. H. Brandt 1982, Notocactus catarinensis (F. Ritter) Scheinvar 1985, P. alacriportana subsp. catarinensis (F. Ritter) Hofacker & P.J. Braun 1998

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dark green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 23. Central spines 4-10, brown to yellow to white, sometimes one golden, sometimes hooked, 7-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Radial spines as many as 22, bristle-like, spreading, yellow to creamy white to yellowish white, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers of medium size, yellow. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Four subspecies of Parodia alacriportana are recognized. Subspecies alacriportana has 4-7 yellow central spines and about 20 thin radials; it occurs near Porto Alegre. Subspecies brevihamata has 4-6 yellow central spines with reddish tips and about 16 yellowish white radials; it occurs near Jaqui-rana. Subspecies buenekeri has 4-6 brownish central spines that are sometimes hooked and about 13 whitish radials; it occurs near Cambara. Subspecies catarinensis has 4-10 brownish central spines and 16-22 bright yellow radials; it occurs in Santa Catarina.

Parodia allosiphon (Marchesi) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus allosiphon Marchesi 1972

Plants usually solitary, globose, dull green, 8-12 cm (3.1-4.7 in) high, 11-13 cm (4.3-5.1 in) in diameter, with the stem tips depressed and nearly spineless. Ribs 15-16 with round humps. Areoles between the humps, woolly at first. Central spines 4, upper one erect, others diverging, thin, dark red, becoming gray with age, 9-19 mm (0.4-0.7 in) long. Radial spines several, shorter and thinner than the centrals, otherwise similar. Flowers white with pale yellow tint, to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes covered with dense grayish brown wool and scales. Fruits dry at maturity, indehiscent, greenish yellow, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Seeds flattened, globose, dull black, tuberculate. Distribution: Rivera, Uruguay.

Parodia arnostiana (Lisal&Kolarik) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus arnostianus Lisal & Kolarik 1986

Plants solitary, rarely branching, flattened to flattened globose with sunken but spineless stem tips, green to dark green, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) high, 4-8 cm (1.6-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 21-30, spiraling. Areoles round, with white wool. Central spines 1-3, often difficult to distinguish from radials, yellowish brown to brownish red, 5-20 mm (0.2-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 12-16, dull, curved, straw yellow to brownish red, to 7 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers sulfur yellow, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long, 7-7.5 cm (2.8-3 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with white wool and brown hairs. Fruits globose, green, 1.6-1.8 cm (0.6-0.7 in) long, 1.2-1.4 cm (0.5-0.6 in) in diameter. Seeds cap shaped, black, tuberculate. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia aureicentra Backeberg 1934 Parodia rauschii Backeberg ex D. R. Hunt 1963 Parodia varicolor F. Ritter 1964 Parodia muhril F. H. Brandt 1978

Plants solitary, globose, dark green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter, densely covered with spines. Ribs 13-15. Areoles with white wool. Spines dark yellowish brown. Central spines 610, 15-20 mm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines about 40, bristly, to 12 mm (0.5 in) long. Flowers deep bright red, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Seeds small, brown. Distribution: Salta, Argentina.

Parodia ayopayana Cárdenas 1951 Parodia buxbaumiana F. H. Brandt 1951 Parodia migulllensis Cárdenas 1961 Parodia comosa F. Ritter 1962 Parodia borealis F. Ritter 1964 Parodia echinus F. Ritter 1964 Parodia pseudoayopayana Cárdenas 1970 Parodia elata F. H. Brandt 1976

Parodia ayopayana, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

Parodia macednosa F. H. Brandt 1977 Parodia cotajacensis F. H. Brandt 1981

Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to short cylindrical, fresh green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) high, 6-12 cm (2.44.7 in) in diameter. Ribs about 11, well defined, weakly tu-berculate, to 2 cm (0.8 in) high. Areoles large, very woolly. Central spines usually 4, awl shaped, spreading, straight, light brown to whitish, 30-35 mm (1.2-1.4 in) long. Radial spines 6-11, needle-like, whitish, 12-20 mm (0.5-0.8 in) long. Flowers orange yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long; pericarpels and floral tubes with dense white to orange wool; floral tubes stout, with inconspicuous bristles apically. Fruits long, red. Seeds spherical, with caruncle, small, tuberculate, dull black. Distribution: Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Parodia buiningii (Buxbaum) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus buiningii Buxbaum 1968

Plants solitary, depressed globose, grass green, not woolly apically, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs about 16, thin, to 2 cm (0.8 in) high, forming small tubercles. Areoles sunken under the tubercles, oblong, woolly at first, later naked. Spines 4, yellow with dark bases, forming a cross, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter; pericarpels with brown wool and needle-like bristles. Fruits to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, hairy. Seeds tuberculate, matte black. Distribution: vicinity of San-tana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and neighboring Rivera, Uruguay. Parodia buiningii is reported to be rare.

Parodia carambeiensis (Burning & Brederoo) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus carambeiensis Burning & Brederoo 1973 Notocactus ottonis var. villa-veihensis Backeberg & Voll 1950, N. villa-velhensis (Backeberg & Voll) Slaba 1984

Plants solitary at first, later branching basally. Stems globose to short cylindrical, woolly apically, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high and 8

cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-14, narrow, acute, to 1 cm (0.4 in) high, tubercled above the areoles. Areoles oval, with dense white wool. Spines black to grayish brown, with dark tips. Central spines usually4, forming a cross, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 6-8, flattened against the stem surface, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers somewhat bell shaped, pale yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels with small scales, white wool, and a few bristles. Fruits reddish, dry at maturity, dehiscent, to 1.2 cm (0.5 in) long, with some wool and a few bristles. Seeds hatchet shaped, dull black. Distribution: northern Punta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.

Parodia chrysacanthion (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1935 Echinocactus chrysacanthion K. Schumann 1898

Plants solitary, depressed globose at first, later short cylindrical, light green, very woolly and surrounded by rings of erect spines apically, to 12 cm (4.7 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs divided into tubercles, often spiraling. Spines 30-40, golden yellow to whitish, straight, needle-like to bristly, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long. Flowers golden yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter; pericarpels mostly naked; floral tubes with bristles and wool. Fruits small, ovoid, fleshy. Seeds with large caruncles, tuberculate, dark brown to black, small. Distribution: Jujuy, Argentina.

Parodia columnaris Cárdenas 1951 Parodia legitima F. H. Brandt 1975

Plants commonly forming clumps to 30 cm (12 in) high and 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter. Stems club shaped to cylindrical, leaf green, 7-30 cm (2.8-12 in) high, 3-7 cm (1.2-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-13, low, more or less straight, not tuberculate. Areoles white, becoming gray with age. Spines stiff and bristle-like. Central spine one, curved slightly downward, gray, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 7-8, flattened against the stem surface, gray, 10-18 mm (0.4-0.7 in) long. Flowers usually bell shaped, light yellow, to 22 mm (0.9 in) long, 3-10 mm (to 0.4 in) in diameter; floral tubes constricted above pericarpels, both with brown bristles and hairs. Fruits nearly dry at maturity, with white hairs, to 4 mm in diameter. Seeds shiny black, very small. Distribution: Campero province, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Parodia comarapana Cárdenas 1951 Parodia mairanana Cárdenas 1957 Parodia neglecta F. H. Brandt 1973 Parodia neglectoides F. H. Brandt 1973

Plants usually solitary, growing deeply in the soil, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 18-20, forming

Parodia buiningii

tubercles. Areoles white. Spines thin, yellow with brownish tips, 3-20 mm (to 0.8 in) long. Central spines 3-4, barely distinguishable from radials. Radial spines 18-23. Flowers orange-yellow, to 25 mm (1 in) long and 5 mm in diameter. Fruits globose, greenish white, pink basally, dry, to 8 mm (0.3 in) in diameter. Seeds blackish brown. Distribution: Coma-rapa, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Parodia commutans f. Ritter 1964 Parodia maxima F. Ritter 1964 Parodia obtusa F. Ritter 1964

Plants usually solitary, globose, becoming short cylindrical with age, to 30 cm (12 in) high and 16 cm (6.3 in) in diameter, with white wool apically. Ribs 13-14, straight, barely notched. Areoles white. Central spines 2-4, later 4-6, hooked above, lower ones strongly curving, awl shaped, flexible, yellowish brown, 20-60 mm (0.8-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 12 at first, later 14-16, thin, flattened, white, becoming brown or yellow, straight, 5-30 mm (0.2-1.2 in) long. Flowers yellow to coppery yellow, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long; pericarpels with white wool and small yellowish or reddish scales. Fruits cylindrical, pale green to yellow to red, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Seeds small, black. Distribution: near Impora, Potosí, Bolivia.

Parodia concinna (Monville) N. P. Taylor 1987

sun cup

Echinocactus concinnus Monville 1839, Malacocarpus concinnus (Monville) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus concinnus (Monville) A. Berger 1929

Echinocactus joadii J. D. Hooker 1886, Notocactusjoadii (J. D. Hooker) Herter 1943

Echinocactus apricusArechavaleta 1905, Notocactus apricus (Arecha-

valeta)A. Berger 1929 Echinocactus caespitosus Spegazzini 1905, Frailea caespitosa (Spe-gazzini) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus caespitosus (Spegazzini) Backeberg 1935, Parodia caespitosa (Spegazzini) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus multicostatus Buining & Brederoo 1973 Notocactus agnetae Vliet 1975, Parodia concinna subsp. agnetae

(Vliet) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus blaauwianus Vliet 1976, Parodia concinna subsp. blaau-

wiana (Vliet) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus blaauwianus var. enormis Vliet 1976 Notocactus eremiticus F. Ritter 1979 Notocactus olimarensis Prestlé 1985, not validly published Notocactus gibberulus Prestlé 1986 Notocactus rubrigemmatusW. R.Abraham 1988 Notocactus concinnioidesW. Prauser 1993, not validly published

Plants solitary, depressed globose at first, later more elongate, light green, 3-13 cm (1.2-5.1 in) high, 3-10 cm (1.2-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 15-32, low, with conspicuous chinlike tubercles. Areoles between the tubercles, with white wool.

Spines often not strongly differentiated, hairlike to bristly, curved or twisted, brown to reddish to yellowish to whitish. Central spines 1-4, sometimes more, spreading, 10-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long, one much longer. Radial spines 9-30, 5-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, rather large, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes elongated, slender. Fruits ovoid, thin walled, dehiscing or disintegrating at maturity, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long, producing numerous seeds. Seeds bell shaped, tuberculate, shiny black. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and neighboring Uruguay.

Three subspecies of Parodia concinna are recognized. Subspecies concinna has stems to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, about 18 ribs, and 14-18 spines; it occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Subspecies agnetae also has stems to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, 23-30 ribs, and 25-30 spines; it occurs in Lavalleja and Maldonado, Uruguay. Subspecies blaauwiana has stems to 13 cm (5.1 in) high, about 24 ribs, and 17 spines; it occurs near Cangucu, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia crassigibba (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus crassigibbus F. Ritter 1970

Plants solitary, depressed globose, shiny dark green, spineless apically, 4-17 cm (1.6-6.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-15, low, rounded, with broad chinlike tubercles. Areoles between the tubercles, white. Spines mostly flattened against the stem surface, somewhat curved, white to gray to pale brown, 5-30 mm (0.2-1.2 in) long. Central spine 0-1. Radial spines 6-14. Flowers variable, white to yellow to reddish purple, 4.5-6 cm (1.8-2.4 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels very woolly and with a few bristles. Fruits barrel shaped, plump, green, covered with white wool and yellow bristles, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Seeds hemispheric, with a prominent corky hilum, dull black. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia concinna subsp. agnetae

Parodia erinacea

Parodia frühestens

Parodia crassigibba

Parodia curvispina (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997 Notocactus curvispinus F. Ritter 1979 Notocactus rubropedatus F. Ritter 1979

Plants solitary, depressed globose, green, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Ribs about 24, straight, forming small tubercles. Areoles white. Central spine one, curved downward, yellowish, 5-20 mm (0.2-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 10-13, curved inward, yellow, 4-10 mm (to 0.4 in) long. Flowers sulfur yellow, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long. Fruits green, hollow, with loose seeds. Seeds purse shaped, black, finely tuberculate. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Parodia curvispina is very similar to P. concinna but with the flowers of P. mam-mulosa.

Parodia erinacea (Haworth) N. P. Taylor 1987 Cactus erinaceus Haworth 1819, Malacocarpus erinaceus (Haworth) Lemaire ex Förster 1885, Wigginsia erinacea (Haworth) D. M. Porter 1964, Notocactus erinaceus (Haworth) Krainz 1966 Echinocactus acuatus Link & Otto 1827, Malacocarpus acuatus (Link & Otto) Salm-Dyck 1850, Wigginsia acuata (Link & Otto) F. Ritter 1979, Notocactus acuatus (Link & Otto) S. Theunissen 1981 Echinocactus tetracanthus Lemaire 1838, Notocactus tetracanthus (Lemaire) N. Gerloff et. al. 1995

Plants solitary, depressed globose, globose, or short cylindrical, light to dark green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high, 6-30 cm (2.4-12 in) in diameter, with very woolly stem tips in older plants. Ribs 12-30, sharply acute, distinct. Areoles in notches. Spines awl shaped, straight to strongly curved, whitish to gray or brown, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Central spine 0-1. Radial spines 2-12, mostly flattened against the stem surface. Flowers glossy yellow, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) long, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes short, covered by dense brownish wool. Fruits elongate to club shaped, pink or reddish, partly naked, dry and hollow when mature, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Seeds bell shaped, finely roughened. Distribution: southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and Uruguay.

Parodia erubescens (Osten) D. R. Hunt 1997 Echinocactus erubescens Osten 1941, Notocactus erubescens (Osten)

Marchesi 1972 Notocactus sc/ifosseri Vliet 1974

Plants solitary, club shaped to short cylindrical, to 18 cm (7.1 in) high and 11 cm (4.3 in) in diameter, with red spines and scanty white wool apically. Ribs 22 with chinlike protrusions between areoles. Areoles white, later gray. Central spines 4, forming a cross, straight, stiff, sharp, reddish with darker bases, 17-24 mm (0.7-0.9 in) long. Radial spines about 34, straight, needle-like, whitish with yellow bases, to 11 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers shiny lemon yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter; pericarpels with green and red scales, brown wool, and dark bristles. Fruits with thick walls, drying and dehiscing at maturity, with many seeds. Seeds shiny black, tuberculate. Distribution: Uruguay.

Parodiaformosa f. Ritter 1964 Parodia cardenasii F. Ritter 1964 Parodia chaetocarpa F. Ritter 1964 Parodia purpureo-aurea F. Ritter 1964 Parodia setispina F. Ritter 1964 Parodiaparvula F. H. Brandt 1975 Parodia carapariana F. H. Brandt 1977 Parodia pusilla F. H. Brandt 1977 Parodia chirimoyarana F. H. Brandt 1978 Parodia pachysa F. H. Brandt 1978 Parodia bellavistana F. H. Brandt 1982

Parodia hausteiniana 543

Parodia tillii Weskamp 1988 Parodia winbergii Weskamp 1996

Plants usually solitary, globose, light green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter, with scanty wool apically. Ribs 13-26, forming low tubercles to 6 mm (0.2 in) high. Areoles white. Central spines 6-12, needle-like, straight, reddish brown, 3-12 mm (to 0.5 in) long. Radial spines 20-30, lighter colored, 3-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers sulfur yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long; peri-carpels and floral tubes with white wool and often several bristles. Fruits globose. Seeds brownish. Distribution: Bolivia.

Parodia fusca (F. Ritter) Hofacker & P. J. Braun 1998 Notocactus fuscus F. Ritter 1979

Plants solitary, globose, green, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter with depressed stem tips. Ribs 19-26, wavy. Areoles with dense white wool. Spines needle-like, more or less erect. Central spines 2, sometimes 4, forming a cross, violet-red with reddish bases, 10-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long. Radial spines 1216, yellowish brown, 5-12 mm (0.2-0.5 in) long. Flowers sulfur yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long; pericarpels and floral tubes with dense white wool, small scales, and hairs. Fruits olive green at first, later reddish, 1.8-2.5 cm (0.7-1 in) long. Seeds dull black, finely tuberculate. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia haselbergii (F. Haage ex Riimpler) F. H. Brandt 1982

scarlet ball cactus, white-web ball cactus

Echinocactus haselbergii F. Haage ex Riimpler 1885, Malacocarpus haselbergii (F. Haage ex Riimpler) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus haselbergii (F. Haage ex Riimpler) A. Berger 1929, Brasilicactus haselbergii (F. Haage ex Riimpler) BackebergexSchoff 1942 Echinocactus graessneri K. Schumann 1903, Malacocarpus graess-neri(K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus graessneri (K. Schumann) A. Berger 1929, Brasilicactus graessneri (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1942, Parodia graessneri {K. Schumann) F. H. Brandt 1982, P. haselbergiisubsp. graessneri (K. Schumann) Hofacker & P. J. Braun 1998 Echinocactus elachisanthus F. A. C. Weber 1904, Notocactus elachi-santhus (F. A. C. Weber) Herter 1942, Brasilicactus elaschlsanthus (F. A. C. Weber) Backeberg 1959, Parodia elaschisantha (F. A. C. Weber) F.H.Brandt 1982

Plants solitary, globose, bright to gray-green, somewhat depressed apically, 7-8 cm (2.8-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 30 or more, somewhat tuberculate, spirally arranged. Areoles white. Central spines 3-5, yellowish, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 20-60 or more, needle-like, almost bristly, yellowish white, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers yellowish red to orange-red to yellowish green, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) in di ameter; floral tubes short or absent; pericarpels and floral tubes with small scales, wool, and bristles. Fruits not known. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Two subspecies of Parodia haselbergii are recognized. Subspecies haselbergii has about 20 radial spines and yellowish red to orange-red flowers. Subspecies graessneri has as many as 60 radial spines and small yellowish green flowers.

Parodia hausteiniana Rausch 1970 Parodia laui F. H. Brandt 1973

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, slightly contorted. Areoles with white wool. Central spines 4, forming a cross, stout, yellow, hooked, to 13 mm (0.5 in) long. Radial spines 26-30, thin, radiating, flattened against the stem surface, yellow, becoming whitish with age, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with scales and bristles. Fruits ovate, olive green, 3-4 mm long. Seeds dark brown, finely tuberculate. Distribution: near Mizque, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

544 Parodia Herten

Parodia herteri (Werdermann) N. P. Taylor 1987 Echinocactus herteri Werdermann 1936, Notocactus herteri (Werdermann) Burning & Kreuzinger 1950 Notocactus rubriflorus Backeberg & F. M. Knuth 1935, not validly published

Notocactus pseudoherteri Buining 1971

Plants usually solitary, globose to elongated globose, pale green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 22, distinctly tuberculate and notched. Areoles brown. Central spines 4-6, reddish brown, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 8-11, white with brownish tips, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers purplish red with pale yellow throats, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Fruits not known. Distribution: Uruguay.

Parodia horstii (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus horstii F. Ritter 1966 Notocactus purpureus F. Ritter 1970

Plants solitary, occasionally forming clumps. Stems globose to cylindrical, green, to 30 cm (12 in) high and 14 cm (5.5 in) in diameter, with spiny and white woolly tips. Ribs 12-19, well defined, with small blunt tubercles separated by narrow notches. Areoles round, white, in the notches. Central spines 1-6, needle-like, straight to curved to twisted, yellow to brown, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 10-15, fairly fine, needle-like, straight or curved, white to pale brown, 6-30 mm (0.2-1.2 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, yellowish orange to reddish to purplish, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) long, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter; pericarpels with scales, dense white wool, and bristles. Fruits globose to barrel shaped, woolly, dry and dehiscing at maturity, to 1 cm

(0.4 in) long. Seeds dull black, tuberculate. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia langsdorfii (Lehmann) D. R. Hunt 1997 Cactus langsdorfii Lehmann 1826, Malacocarpus langsdorfii (Lehmann) Britton & Rose 1922, Wigginsia langsdorfii (Lehmann) D. M. Porter 1964, Notocactus langsdorfii (Lehmann) Krainz 1966 Echinocactus polyacanthus Link & Otto 1827, Malacocarpus polyacan-thus (Link & Otto) Britton & Rose 1922, Wigginsia polyacantha (Link & Otto) F. Ritter 1979, Notocactus polyacanthus (Link & Otto) S. The-unissen 1981 Notocactus pulvinatus Vliet 1970

Wigginsia leprosorum F. Ritter 1979, Notocactus leprosorum (F. Ritter) Havlicek 1981

Wigginsia longispina F. Ritter 1979, Notocactus longispinus (F. Ritter) Havlicek 1981

Wigginsia prolifera F. Ritter 1979, Notocactus prolifera (F. Ritter) S. The-unissen 1981

Plants solitary or forming clumps. Stems globose to cylindrical, gray-green, densely woolly apically, to 10cm (3.9in) or more high, 4-9 cm (1.6-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-17, obtuse, distinctly tuberculate. Central spines 1-4, brownish, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Radial spines 6-9, brown, unequal, somewhat spreading, 12-20 mm (0.5-0.8 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits not known. Distribution: southern Brazil.

Parodia leninghausii (K. Schumann) F. H. Brandt 1982 Pilocereus leninghausii K. Schumann 1895, Malacocarpus leninghausii (K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus leninghausii (K. Schumann) A. Berger 1929, Eriocactus leninghausii (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1942

Parodia horstii
Cactus Expert

Parodia herteri

Parodia leninghausii

Parodia magnifica 545

Plants sometimes solitary, usually forming clumps. Stems cylindrical, green, slanted apically, to 60 cm (24 in) or more high, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 30-35, straight, low, obtuse. Areoles closely set. Spines pale to deep yellow to brown, straight to slightly curved, hairlike. Central spines 3— 4,20-50 mm (0.8-2 in) long. Radial spines 15-20 or more, 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, to 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with dense brown wool and bristles. Fruits globose. Seeds bell shaped, brownish red. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia linkii (Lehmann) R. Kiesling 1995

Cactus linkii lebmam 1827, Malacocarpus linkii (Lehmann) Britton &

Rose 1922, Notocactus//nW/(Lehmann) Herter 1954 Notocactus megapotamicus Osten ex Herter 1942

Plants usually solitary. Stems oval to short cylindrical, green, 7-15 cm (2.9-5.9 in) high. Ribs usually 13, obtuse. Areoles more or less sunken into the ribs. Central spines 3-4, brownish. Radial spines 10-12, white with brownish tips. Flowers yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits not known. Distribution: Santa Catarina and Paraná, Brazil.

Parodia maassii (Heese) A. Berger 1929 Echinocactus maassii Heese 1909, Malacocarpus maassii (Heese)

Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus escayachensis Vaupel 1916, Malacocarpus escayachen-sis (Vaupel) Britton & Rose 1922, Parodia escayachensis (Vaupel) Backeberg 1959 Parodia suprema F. Ritter 1962 Parodia otaviana Cardenas 1963 Parodia koehresiana F. H. Brandt 1972 Parodia mendeziana F. H. Brandt 1976 Parodia thieleana F. H. Brandt 1976 Parodia haageana F. H. Brandt 1977

Parodia lamprospina F. H. Brandt 1977 Parodia obtusa subsp. atochana F. H. Brandt 1977, not validly published

Parodia bermejoensis F. H. Brandt 1979 ? Parodia knizei F. H. Brandt 1984

Plants usually solitary, occasionally forming clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, yellowish green, tufted with brown spines apically, 10-50 cm (3.9-20 in) high, 7-25 cm (2.8-9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-21, spirally arranged or straight, tuberculate. Areoles with white wool. Central spines 1-6, strongly curved to hooked, rarely almost straight, usually brown, 2-7 cm (0.8-2.8 in) long, lowermost one longest and stoutest. Radial spines 6-18, sometimes as many as 28, yellowish, then whitish, straight to slightly curved, needle-like, 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 in) long. Flowers yellow to orange to red, 3-4.5 cm (1.2-1.8 in) long, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter; floral tubes woolly, with bristles on upper part. Fruits depressed globose, 2-6 cm (0.8-2.4 in) long. Seeds black, tuberculate. Distribution: southern Bolivia and northern Argentina. Parodia maassii is variable and has received numerous names.

Parodia magnifica (F. Ritter) F. H. Brandt 1982 Eriocactus magnificus F. Ritter 1966, Notocactus magnificus (F. Ritter) Krainz ex N.P.Taylor 1980

Plants solitary to occasionally clustering. Stems globose, becoming short cylindrical with age, glaucous, oblique apically, 7-15 cm (2.9-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-15, straight, acute. Areoles white at first, later yellowish. Spines 12-15 or more, bristle-like, yellow, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers borne apically, sulfur yellow, 4.5-5.5 cm (1.8-2.2 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels with dense white wool and brownish bristles. Fruits globose, pink, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Seeds obovoid to club shaped, reddish brown, spiny tuberculate. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia Magnifica
Parodia maassii Parodia magnifica

546 Parodia mammulosa

Parodia mammulosa (Lemaire) N. P. Taylor 1987

tomthumb

Echinocactus mammuiosus Lemaire 1838, Malacocarpus mammulo-sus (Lemaire) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus mammuiosus (Lemaire) A. Berger 1929 ?Echinocactus orthacanthus Link & Otto 1827, ?Malacocarpus ortha-canthus (Link & Otto) Herter 1954, ?Notocactus orthacanthus (Link & Otto) Vliet 1970 Echinocactus hypocrateriformis Otto & A. Dietrich 1838, Notocactus hypocrateriformls (Otto & A. Dietrich) Herter 1943 Echinocactus submammulosus Lemaire 1839, Notocactus submam-mulosus (Lemaire) Backeberg 1935, Parodia submammulosa (Lemaire) R. Kiesling 1995, P. mammulosa subsp.submammulosa (Lemaire) Hofacker 1998 Echinocactus pampeanus Spegazzini 1896, Notocactus pampeanus

(Spegazzini) A. Bergerex Backeberg & F. M. Knuth 1935 Echinocactus floricomus Arechavaleta 1905, Notocactus fioricomus

(Arechavaleta) A. Berger 1929 Notocactus roseoluteus Vliet 1973

Notocactus eugeniae Vliet 1976, Parodia mammulosa subsp. euge-

niae (Vliet) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus mueller-moelleri Fric ex Fleischer & Schütz 1976 Notocactus cristatoides F. Ritter 1979 Notocactus mammuiosus var. brasiliensis Havlicek 1980, Parodia mammulosa subsp. brasiliensis (Havlicek) Hofacker 1998 Notocactuspaulus H. Schlosser & Brederoo 1980 ?Notocactus megalanthus H. Schlosser & Brederoo 1981 Notocactus erythracanthus H. Schlosser & Brederoo 1985, Parodia mammulosa subsp. erythracantha (H. Schlosser & Brederoo) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus macambarensis Prestle 1986 Notocactus ritterianus Lisal & Kolarik 1986 Parodia submammulosa subsp, minor R. Kiesling 1995

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, shiny light green to dark green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high, 5-13 cm (2-5.1 in) in diameter, nearly covered by numerous interlacing spines. Ribs 13-25, vertical, well defined, forming large, distinct, pointed tubercles with chinlike protrusions. Areoles between the tubercles. Central spines 1-4 or more, not easily distinguishable from the radials, straight, stout, one sometimes flattened, white to gray to brown, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 6-30, usually needle-like, whitish to brownish, 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers pale pink to golden yellow, 3.5-5.5 cm (1.4-2.2 in) long; pericarpels and floral tubes short and broad, with dense wool and a few dark bristles. Fruits globose, elongating at maturity, thin walled. Seeds bell to helmet shaped, with obvious corky hilum, matte brown, finely tuberculate. Distribution: southern Brazil, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina.

Five subspecies of Parodia mammulosa are recognized. Subspecies mammulosa has 18-25 ribs, 2-4 central spines, and 20-30 radials; it occurs widely in Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. Subspecies brasiliensis has about 15 ribs, 1 central spine, and 8-10 radials; it occurs near Santos, Brazil. Subspecies erythracantha has 16 ribs, 2 central spines, and 10-14 radials; it occurs in Tacuarembó, Uruguay. Subspecies eugeniae has 21 ribs, 1 central spine, and as many as 20 radials; it occurs in Tacuarembó, Uruguay. Subspecies submammulosa has about 13 ribs, 2 central spines, and about 6 radials; it occurs in Uruguay and Argentina.

Parodia meonacantha (Prestlé) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus meonacanthus Prestlé 1986

Plants solitary, flattened globose, green to violet-green, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) high, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-14, vertical, forming rounded tubercles. Areoles oval, yellowish white. Spines flattened, angular, not straight, amber to brownish black. Central spine one, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 10,6-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers funnel-form, whitish yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Fruits elongated, greenish violet. Seeds hat shaped, black, midsized. Distribution: vicinity of Camaqua, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia microsperma (F. A. C. Weber) Spegazzini 1923 golden tom thumb, tom thumb Echinocactus microspermus F. A. C. Weber 1896 Echinocactus microspermus var. macrancistrus K. Schumann 1902,

Parodia macrancistra (K. Schumann) Y. Ito 1957 Echinocactus microspermus var. erythranthus Spegazzini 1905, Parodia erythrantha (Spegazzini) Backeberg & F. M. Knuth 1935 Parodia aureispina Backeberg 1934 Parodia mutabilis Backeberg 1934 Parodia sanguiniflora Backeberg 1934 Parodia setífera Backeberg 1934 Parodia catamarcensis Backeberg 1935 Parodia microthele Backeberg 1935

Parodia Tafiensis
Parodia mammulosa subsp. brasiliensis

Parodia scopaoides Backeberg 1935

Parodia rigidispina Krainz 1946

Parodia atroviridis Backeberg 1963

Parodia dextrohamata Backeberg 1963

Parodia fechseri Backeberg 1963

Parodia fuscato-viridis Backeberg 1963

Parodia kiiianana Backeberg 1963

Parodia rigida Backeberg 1963

Parodia rubellihamata F. Ritter ex Backeberg 1963

Parodia rubrifiora Backeberg 1963, not validly published

Parodia tafiensis Backeberg 1963

Parodia tubercuiosi-costata Backeberg 1966

Parodia dichroacantha F. H. Brandt & Weskamp 1967

Parodia matthesiana Heinrich 1968, not validly published

Parodia weskampiana Krasucka & Spanowsky 1968

Parodia malyana Rausch 1969

Parodia thionantha F. H. Brandt 1969

Parodia weberiana F. H. Brandt 1969

Parodia superba F. H. Brandt 1970

Parodia pluricentralis Backeberg ex F. H. Brandt 1971

Parodia spegazziniana F. H. Brandt 1971

Parodia campestris F. H. Brandt 1975

Parodia papagayana F. H. Brandt 1976

Parodia taiaensis F. H. Brandt 1976

Parodia albofuscata F. H. Brandt 1977

Parodia capillataensis F. H. Brandt 1977

Parodia mesembrina F. H. Brandt 1977

Parodia spanisa F. H. Brandt 1977

Parodia hummeliana A. B. Lau & Weskamp 1978

Parodia horrida F. H. Brandt 1979, P. microsperma subsp.horrida

(F. H. Brandt) R. Klesllng & 0. Ferrari 1990 Parodia iohaniana A. B. Lau & Weskamp 1979 Parodia betaniana F. Ritter 1980 Parodia chiorocarpa F. Ritter 1980 Parodia glischrocarpa F. Ritter 1980 Parodia piitziorum Weskamp 1980 Parodia rubristaminea F. Ritter 1980 Parodia uebeimanniana F. Ritter 1980 Parodia amblayensis F. H. Brandt 1993, not validly published Parodia herzogii Rausch 1981 Parodia mercedesiana Weskamp 1984 ? Parodia weberioides F. H. Brandt 1984 Parodia argerichiana Weskamp 1985 Parodia minuscuia Rausch 1985 Parodia heteracantha F. Ritter ex Weskamp 1986 ?Parodia riojensis F. Ritter & Weskamp 1987 Parodia malyana subsp. igneiflora F, H. Brandt 1988, not validly published

Parodia wagneriana Weskamp 1989 Parodia nana Weskamp 1990 Parodia tucumanensls Weskamp 1990 Parodia aconquijaensis Weskamp 1991 Parodia belenensis Weskamp 1992 Parodia cachiana Weskamp 1992

Parodia cebilarensis Weskamp 1992

Parodia grandiflora M. Veverka 1992, not validly published

Parodia guachipasana Weskamp 1992

Parodia heyeriana Weskamp 1992

Parodia lembckei Weskamp 1992

Parodia tolombona Weskamp 1992

Parodia cabracorralensis Piens 1994

Parodia elegans Fechser ex Backeberg 1966

Plants usually solitary, occasionally forming small clumps. Stems depressed globose to globose, sometimes cylindrical, reddish gray to green, 5-20 cm (2-7.9 in) high, 5-10 cm (23.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 15-21, usually spiraling, tuberculate. Central spines 3-4, sometimes hooked, reddish to brownish to blackish, 5-50 mm (0.2-2 in) long. Radial spines 7-30, bristle-like or rigid, white, 4-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers yellow to orange to red, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) long, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes covered with wool and bristles. Fruits nearly globose, 4-5 mm in diameter. Seeds with large white caruncle, smooth, glossy brown, to 0.5 mm long. Distribution: southern Bolivia and northern Argentina.

Parodia microsperma is variable and has received a large number of names. Two subspecies are recognized. Subspecies microsperma has green globose stems with long, hooked central spines, the radials are thin and flexible, and the flowers yellow to orange to red; it occurs throughout the range of the species. Subspecies horrida has reddish gray cylindrical stems with either hooked or straight central spines, the radials are rigid, and the flowers yellow; it occurs near Salta, Argentina.

Parodia mueller-melchersii (Fric ex Backeberg) n. p. Taylor 1987

Notocactus mueller-melchersii Fric ex Backeberg 1935 Notocactus winkleri Vliet 1975, Parodia mueller-melchersii subsp.

winkleri (Vliet) Hofacker 1998 Notocactus gutierreziiW. R. Abraham 1988, Parodia mueller-melchersii subsp. gutierrezii (\N. R. Abraham) Hofacker 1998

Parodia microsperma subsp. microsperma

Plants usually solitary, elongate globose, matte green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 20-24, spiraling, not distinctly tuberculate. Areoles white. Central spines 1-3, straight, light brown or yellowish, with darker tips, pointing to side or downward, 15-20 mm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 12-18, diverging, golden white, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers pale golden yellow to citron yellow to reddish, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with white wool and dark bristles. Fruits not known. Distribution: Uruguay and Brazil.

Three subspecies of Parodia mueller-melchersii are recognized. Subspecies mueller-melchersii has about 22 ribs, 1-3 central spines, 15-18 radials, and golden yellow flowers; it occurs in the Sierra de los Animos, Uruguay. Subspecies gutierrezii has 22-24 ribs, one central spine, 12-16 radials, and reddish flowers; it occurs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Subspecies winkleri has 20 ribs, one central spine, as many as 12 radials, and citron yellow flowers; it occurs in Tacuarembó, Uruguay.

Parodia muricata (Otto ex Pfeiffer) Hofacker 1998 Echinocactus muricatus Otto ex Pfeiffer 1837, Malacocarpus murica-tus (Otto ex Pfeiffer) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus muricatus (Otto ex Pfeiffer) A. Berger 1929 Notocactus laetivirens F. Ritter 1979

Plants solitary or freely clustering. Stems globose to cylindrical, glaucous bright green, often depressed apically, to 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 16-20, obtuse, with wavy margins. Central spines 3-4, brownish, to 13 mm (0.5 in) long. Radial spines 15-20, white, hairlike, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long; pericarpels and floral tubes with wool and bristles. Fruits not known. Distribution: southern Brazil.

Parodia neoarechavaletae (Eisner ex Havlicek) D. R. Hunt 1997

Notocactus neoarechavaletae Eisner ex Havlicek 1989 Echinocactus acuatus var. arechavaletae K. Schumann ex Spegazzini 1905, not E. arechavaletae Spegazzini 1905 (see Parodia ottonis); Wigginsia arechavaletae (K. Schumann ex Spegazzini) D. M. Porter 1964

Echinocactus maldonadensis Herter 1940, Notocactus maldonaden-sis (Herter) Herter 1943

Plants solitary, globose, dark green, with woolly and spiny stem tips. Ribs 13-21, rounded and forming low tubercles. Central spines 1-4, stout, pointing downward, gray with brownish tips, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 5-9, diverging, whitish, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers golden yellow, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long. Fruits white, to 2 cm (0.8 in)

long. Distribution: Uruguay, possibly also neighboring Argentina. There is considerable uncertainty about the characteristics and taxonomic status of Parodia neoarechavaletae.

Parodia neohorstii (S. Theunissen) N. P. Taylor 1987 Notocactus neohorstii S. Theunissen 1981 Wigginsia horstii F. Ritter 1979, not Notocactus horstii F. Ritter 1966 (see Parodia horstii)

Plants solitary, globose, becoming elongated with age, green, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 18-26, obtuse, with wavy margins, tuberculate apically. Areoles white. Central spine usually one, sometimes 2-3, awl shaped, erect, black or dark brown, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 14-24, whitish with dark tips, diverging, 3-7 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers golden yellow, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long, 2.5-3.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with white wool and bristles. Fruits reddish or greenish. Seeds black, almost smooth. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Parodia nigrispina (K. Schumann) F. H. Brandt 1982 Echinocactus nigrispinus K. Schumann 1899, Malacocarpus nigrispi-nus (K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, Notocactus nigrispinus (K. Schumann) Buiningex G. D. Rowley 1972, Eriocactus nigrispinus (K. Schumann) F. Rittter 1979; N. schumannianus subsp. nigrispinus (K. Schumann) Engel 1990, not validly published

Plants often forming clumps by basal branching. Stems short cylindrical, to 40 cm (16 in) high and 16 cm (6.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 24,2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) apart. Areoles at tips of stems with much white wool. Spines 3-4, not differentiated as centrals and radials, grayish white to yellow, with dark tips, 25-60 mm (1-2.4 in) long. Flowers funnelform, yellow, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter; pericarpel scales with hairs and bristies. Fruits globose, shiny brown, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Paraguay.

Parodia nivosa Backeberg 1934 Parodia faustiana Backeberg 1935 Parodia uhligiana Backeberg 1963

Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dull green, with dense white wool apically, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs several, spiraling, forming distinct conical tubercles. Areoles white. Central spines 4, white, straight, bristle-like, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines about 18, white, finely bristle-like, 15-18 mm (0.6-0.7 in) long. Flowers bright red, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, 2.5-3 cm (11.2 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes covered with wool and bristles. Fruits small. Seeds small, glossy brown, smooth. Distribution: northern Argentina.

Parodia ottonis 549

Parodia nothominuscula Hofacker 1998 Notocactus minusculus Hofacker & Herm 1996

Plants usually solitary, occasionally forming clusters. Stems flattened globose to globose, dark green to olive green, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high and 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-10, vertical, rounded. Areoles round to oval, dirty white to gray. Spines dark red to blackish brown, flexible. Central spine one, to 18 mm (0.7 in) long. Radial spines 8-12, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers bright yellow with greenish yellow midveins, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, greenish, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long and in diameter. Distribution: west of Santana da Boa Vista, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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