Matucana comacephala f Ritter 1958

Plants usually solitary, globose to cylindrical, green to gray-green, to 75 cm (30 in) high and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 22-30, tuberculate. Spines dense, covering the plants, white to pale yellow, bristle-like, forming erect tufts apically. Central spines 5-10, 10-40 mm (0.4-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 15-20,10-50 mm (0.4-2 in) long. Flowers somewhat oblique, pink to sometimes orange-red, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits oval, green, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and 0.5 cm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Ancash, Peru, on the eastern slope of the Cordillera Blanca.

Matucana formosa f. Ritter 1963 Submatucana formosa (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Borzicactus formo-s us (F. Ritter) Donald 1971, Loxanthocereus formosus (F. Ritter) Bux-baum 1974

Plants often branching basally. Stems globose, gray-green, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) high and in diameter. Ribs 20-30, narrow, weakly tuberculate. Spines dark brown, with black tips, becoming gray with age, straight to slightiy curved, stiff. Central spines 1-4,20-50 mm (0.8-2 in) long. Radial spines 611, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long. Flowers with slightly curved tubes, carmine red, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) long, 4-7.5 cm (1.6-3 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, green and red, 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long, 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: valley of the Ma-ranon, Cajamarca and Amazonas, Peru, at elevations of 8001000 m (2600-3300 ft).

Matucana aurantiaca subsp. aurantiaca

Matucanafruticosa F. Ritter 1966 Borzicactusfruticosus( F. Ritter) Donald 1971

Plants commonly branching basally to form many-headed clumps to 1 m (3.3 ft) wide. Stems narrow cylindrical, green, 10-50 cm (3.9-20 in) high, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-21 with transverse grooves. Spines straight, needlelike, yellow to brown, becoming gray. Central spines absent. Radial spines 5-10,8-60 mm (0.3-2.4 in) long. Flowers slightly oblique to straight, golden yellow basally, becoming carmine red above, 7-9 cm (2.8-3.5 in) long, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, ribbed vertically, green, becoming yellow, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: San Juan, Cajamarca, Peru.

Matucana haynei (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactus haynei Otto ex Salm-Dyck 1850, Cereus haynei (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Croucher 1878, Arequipa haynei (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Krainz 1963, Borzicactus haynei (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Kimnach 1960 Echinocactus myriacanthus Vaupel 1913, Arequipa myriacantha (Vau-pel) Britton & Rose 1922, Submatucana myriacantha (Vaupel) Backeberg 1966, Matucana myriacantha (Vaupel) Buxbaum 1973, Borzicactus myriacanthus (Vaupel) Donald 1974, M. haynei subsp. myriacantha (Vaupel) Mottram 1997 Matucana blancii Backeberg 1956 Matucana brevifiora Rauh & Backeberg 1956 Matucana cereoides Rauh & Backeberg 1956 Matucana elongata Rauh & Backeberg 1956 Matucana herzogiana Backeberg 1956, M. haynei subsp. herzogiana

(Backeberg) Mottram 1997 Matucana hystrix Rauh & Backeberg 1956, M. haynei subsp. hystrix

(Rauh & Backeberg) Mottram 1997 Matucana multicolor Rauh & Backeberg 1956 Matucana variabilis Rauh & Backeberg 1956, Borzicactus variabilis

(Rauh & Backeberg) Donald 1970 Matucanayanganucensis Rauh & Backeberg 1956 Matucana crinifera F. Ritter 1963 Matucana megalantha F. Ritter 1966 Matucana calocephala Skarupke 1973, Borzicactus calocephalus

(Skarupke) Donald 1976 Matucana purpureoalba Ritter 1981 Matucana supertexta F. Ritter 1981 Matucana winteri F. Ritter 1981

Plants solitary to many-stemmed. Stems globose to broad cylindrical, green, to 30 cm (12 in) high and 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 14-30, tuberculate. Spines variable, white to pale brown, gray with age. Central spines 1-20, 10-70 mm (0.4-2.8 in) long. Radial spines 14-45, 8-40 mm (0.3-1.6 in) long. Flowers mostly bilaterally symmetrical, carmine red to salmon to purplish red, 4-9 cm (1.6-3.5 in) long, to 4 cm

(1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to club shaped, reddish green, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long and in diameter. Distribution: widespread on the western slope of the Andes from La Libertad to Arequipa, Peru, at elevations of 2400-4100 m (7900-13,500 ft).

Four subspecies of Matucana haynei are recognized. Subspecies haynei has stems to 30 cm (12 in) high and at least 30 spines; it occurs near Matucana. Subspecies herzogiana rarely reaches more than 10 cm (3.9 in) high and has relatively few spines; it occurs in the Cordillera Negra. Subspecies hystrix has stems to 30 cm (12 in) high, 4 distinct central spines, and numerous radials; it occurs between Nazca, lea, and Lucanas, Ayacucho. Subspecies myriacantha has very short stems, rarely more than 8 cm (3.1 in) high, and as many as 10 central spines and 25 radials; it occurs above Balsas, Cajamarca.

Matucana huagalensis (Donald & A. B. Lau) Bregman 1988 Borzicactus huagalensis Donald & A. B. Lau 1970

Plants mostly solitary, occasionally branching basally. Stems flattened globose to broad cylindrical, green, to 25 cm (9.8 in) high and 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 18, acute, tuberculate. Spines white to pale brown, some with dark tips. Central spines 3-4, to 40 mm (1.6 in) long. Radial spines 1820,10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers somewhat oblique, pale pink to nearly white, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Fruits globose, green. Distribution: near the confluence of the Mara-non and Rio Crisnejas, Cajamarca, Peru.

Matucana huagalensis, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

Matucana intertexta F. Ritter 1963 Submatucana intertexta (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Borzicactus inter-textus (F. Ritter) Donald 1971

Plants usually solitary. Stems globose to broad cylindrical, green, to 30 cm (12 in) high, 7-18 cm (2.8-7.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 14-25, blunt, with flattened tubercles. Spines white to darker with age, straight to slightly curved, erect to somewhat divergent. Central spines as many as 20 at first and 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long, later 2-5 and 20-40 mm (0.8-1.6 in) long. Radial spines as many as 20 at first and 5-10 mm (0.20.4 in) long, later 10-15 and 7-20 mm (0.3-0.8 in) long. Flowers oblique, pale orange to vermilion to scarlet, with violet margins, 7-10.5 cm (2.8-4.1 in) long, 3.5-8 cm (1.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, green, 1-1.8 cm (0.4-0.7 in) in diameter. Distribution: Cajamarca, Peru, at elevations of 1500-2300 m (4900-7500 ft). Bregman (1996) proposed two varieties of M. intertexta, intertexta and celendinensis. He and others suggest that the latter may be a hybrid, M. intertexta x M. aurantiaca.

Matucana krahnii (Donald) Bregman 1986 Borzicactus krahnii Donald 1979 Matucana calliantha F. Ritter 1981

Plants usually solitary, occasionally branching basally. Stems flattened globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, 10-14 cm (3.9-5.5 in) high, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-18, broad, with conical tubercles. Spines yellowish brown, becoming gray with age, mostly curved, flexible. Central spines 1-4, 2-15 cm (0.8-5.9 in) long. Radial spines 8-15, 1.5-5 cm (0.6-2 in) long. Flowers straight to slightly curved, carmine red, to 8.5 cm (3.3 in) long and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, green, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: north of Balsas, Amazonas, Peru, at elevations of 1650-1750 m (5400-5700 ft).

Matucana madisoniorum (Hutchison) G. D. Rowley 1971 Borzicactus madisoniorum Hutchison 1963, Submatucana madisoniorum (Hutchison) Backeberg 1966, Loxanthocereus madisoniorum (Hutchison) Buxbaum 1974, Eomatucana madisoniorum (Hutchison) F. Ritter 1981

Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching basally. Stems flattened globose to broad columnar, dull gray-green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-12, broad, flat, with transverse grooves. Spines 0-5, blackish brown, becoming gray with age, curved, flexible, readily detachable, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long. Flowers narrow funnel-form, orange-red, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) long, 4-5.5 cm (1.62.2 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, hairy, to 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Distribution: northeast of Bagua, Amazonas, Peru, at elevations of 400-1000 m (1300-3300 ft). Matucana madisoniorum has been heavily collected and has a very limited distribution; its long-term survival is in question.

Matucana oreodoxa (F. Ritter) Slaba 1986 Eomatucana oreodoxa F. Ritter 1965, Borzicactus oreodoxus (F. Ritter) Donald 1971

Plants usually solitary. Stems globose, grass green to dark green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Taproots large. Ribs 7-12, flattened, forming round tubercles. Spines brownish, becoming gray, flexible, straight to slightly curved. Central spines 1-2,15-40 mm (0.6-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 4-10, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Flowers slender funnelform, radially symmetrical, orange-red, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits oval, pale green, to 8 mm (0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: valley of the Rio Puchca, Ancash, Peru, at an elevation of about 3000 m (9800 ft).

Matucana paucicostata F. Ritter 1963 Submatucana paucicostata (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Borzicactus paucicostatus (F. Ritter) Donald 1971

Plants often branching basally. Stems globose to short cylindrical, dark gray-green, 7-15 cm (2.8-5.9 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Taproots short. Ribs 7-11, broad, straight, forming conical tubercles. Spines reddish brown, becoming gray, curved, somewhat flexible. Central spines 01, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long. Radial spines 4-8,5-30 mm (0.21.2 in) long. Flowers slightly curved, carmine red, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits green, 11 mm

Matucana huagalensis, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

(0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: valleys of the Rio Puchca, Rio Mosna, Rio Huari, and Maranon, at elevations of 18002800 m (5900-9200 ft).

Matucana polzii Diers, Donald & Zecher 1986

Plants commonly branching basally. Stems flattened globose, green, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Roots diffuse, not taproots. Ribs 9—16, flat, rounded, with transverse grooves. Spines flexible, white to brownish yellow to black, later gray. Central spines 1-3, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Radial spines 6-12, 6-18 mm (0.2-0.7 in) long. Flowers slightly curved, carmine red, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) in diameter. Fruits oval, purplish brown, 5-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: upper reaches of the Maranon, Huanuco, Peru, at elevations of 2100-2300 m (6900-7500 ft).

Matucana pujupatii (Donald & A. B. Lau) Bregman 1988 Borzicactus madlsoniorum var. pujupatii Donald & A. B. Lau 1971

Plants sometimes basally branching weakly. Stems globose to oval, gray-green to blue-green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12, straight, broad, tu-berculate. Spines brown with yellowish bases, becoming gray with age, curved, flexible. Central spines 1-2, sometimes absent, to 50 mm (2 in) long. Radial spines 6-9,5-20 mm (0.20.8 in) long. Flowers slightly curved, carmine red, 6-7 cm (2.4-2.8 in) long, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to oval, purplish green, to 10 mm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Cajamarca, Peru, at elevations of 1000-1500 m (3300-4900 ft).

Matucana ritteri Buining 1959 Submatucana ritteri (Buining) Backeberg 1962, Borzicactus ritteri (Buining) Donald 1971

Plants usually solitary. Stems flattened globose, glossy dark green, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) high, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) in diameter. Taproots weak. Ribs 12-22, blunt. Spines brownish black, becoming gray, straight to slightly curved. Central spines 15,20-40 mm (0.8-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 7-14, 10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Flowers oblique, carmine red, 7-9 cm (2.8-3.5 in) long, 4.5-5 cm (1.8-2 in) in diameter. Fruits shiny red and green, scaly, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Otuzco, La Libertad, Peru, at an elevation of 2500 m (8200 ft).

Matucana tuberculata (Donald) Bregman, Meerstadt,

Melis&Pullen 1987 Borzicactus tuberculatus Donald 1979 Matucana tuberculosa F. Ritter 1981

Plants commonly branching basally or higher. Stems globose to oval, bright green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Roots diffuse, not taproots. Ribs 14-18, broad, straight to slightly twisted, forming conical tubercles. Spines white to yellow, straight. Central spines 1-4, with dark tips, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 8-12, 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers straight to curved, orange-red with violet margins, 5-5.5 cm (2-2.2 in) long, 3.5-4 cm (1.41.6 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, green or reddish brown, to 6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: valley of the Maranon, La Libertad, Peru, at elevations of 1800-2400 m (59007900 ft).

Matucana paucicostata, photograph by JeanMarie Solichon

Matucana intertexta

Matucana madisoniorum

Matucana weberbaueri (Vaupel) Backeberg 1939 Echinocactus weberbaueri^aupel 1913, Borzicactus weberbaueri (Vaupel) Donald 1971

Plants usually solitary. Stems globose to somewhat cylindrical, green, to 20 cm (7.9 in) high and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 18-30, with transverse ridges, forming tubercles. Spines 25-30, golden to dark brown, not differentiated as centrals and radials, straight, needle-like, 10-50 mm (0.4-2 in) long. Flowers straight to slightly oblique, lemon yellow, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits oval, green and red, to 8 mm (0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: east of the Maraiion at elevations of 2000-2100 m (66006900 ft).

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