Maihueniopsis atacamensis Philippi f Ritter 1980
Opuntia atacamensis Philippi 1860, Pseudotephrocactus atacamensis (Philippi) Fric 1933, Tephrocactus atacamensis (Philippi) Backeberg 1935
Plants forming dense, raised, fairly large cushions to 30 cm (12 in) high, 60-80 cm (24-31 in) wide. Stem segments ovoid to conical, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Areoles as many as 30 and extending well down the segments, very close set, with glochids, the upper half with spines. Central spines 1-2, erect, straight, rounded to somewhat flattened, yellow to darkish red, striped, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Radial spines 1-2, sometimes as many as 4, bent away, 2-3 mm long. Flowers yellow or orange, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long; pericarpels spineless but with glochids. Fruits globose, green, with areoles near the rims. Distribution: south of the Salar de Atacama, Chile.
Maihueniopsis bonnieae (D. J. Ferguson 8c R. Kiesling)
E.F.Anderson 1999 Puna bonnieae D.J. Ferguson & R. Kiesling 1997
Plants small, geophytic, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Taproots thick, branched, obconical. Stem segments obconical, globose to cylindrical, firm, broadly attached basally, blue-green, becoming ashy gray with age, 1.2-2.5 cm (0.5-1 in) in diameter. Tubercles low, flat, bordered by grooves. Areoles round, small. Spines 9-20, flattened on the surface, radiating, pinkish to darker, becoming white or gray with age, 1-4 mm long. Flowers pinkish white to light pink, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter; pericarpels with few areoles, naked or with fine bristle-like spines on the rims to 3 mm long. Fruits top shaped to broadly obovoid, thin walled, soft, fleshy, becoming dry, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Distribution: near Loro Huasi, Tinogasta department, Catamarca, Argentina.
Maihueniopsis camachoi (Espinosa) F. Ritter 1980
Opuntia camachoi Espinosa 1933, Tephrocactus camachoi (Espinosa) Backeberg 1958
Tephrocactus chilensis Backeberg 1953, Opuntia chilensis (Backeberg) G. D. Rowley 1958
Plants forming large cushions. Stem segments ovoid, sharply pointed, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long, with tiny papillae. Areoles small, close set, white, over most of segment. Central spines 1-3, straight, slender, some slightly flattened, directed slightly upward, white, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Radial spines 1-2, short, stiff, bristle-like, usually bent away, slightly flattened. Flowers to 6 cm (2.4 in) long; pericarpels slightly bristly at rims, with many close-set areoles. Distribution: Antofagasta, Chile.
Maihueniopsis clavarioides (Pfeiffer) E. F. Anderson 1999 Opuntia clavarioides Pfeiffer 1837, Cylindropuntia clavarioides (Pfeiffer) F. M. Knuth 1930, Austrocylindropuntia clavarioides (Pfeiffer) Backeberg 1941, Puna clavarioides (Pfeiffer) R. Kiesling 1982
Plants small, consisting of clusters of subterranean stems arising from large, swollen roots, with little branching. Stem segments 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long, without tubercles, dark grayish brown, cylindrical to obconical, sometimes with flattened faces apically. Areoles very small, numerous and crowded on upper parts of segments, infrequent below. Glochids absent. Spines as many as 10, minute, pectinate and flattened against the surface. Flowers borne laterally, yellow-green to olive green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long; pericarpels without developed areoles but with small scales bearing short hairs and bristles, especially near the rims. Fruits pear shaped, dry, dehiscing irregularly. Distribution: San Juan and Mendoza, Argentina.
Maihueniopsis colorea (f. Ritter) f. Ritter 1980 Tephrocactus coloreus F. Ritter 1963, Opuntia colorea (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants small lax shrubs. Stem segments somewhat conical, without tubercles, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Areoles prominent, large, extending well down segments. Central spines 1-4, erect, stout, straight, white with darker tips, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers not known. Distribution: northeast of Copi-apo, Atacama, Chile. Maihueniopsis colorea is poorly known.
Maihueniopsis crassispina F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia crassispina (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming cushions. Stem segments stout, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Central spines 1-2, awl shaped, straight, round in cross section, brown, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spine one, sometimes none, erect, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, often with bristles. Flowers golden yellow, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long; pericarpels with spines to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Fruits spiny above. Distribution: Quebrada Maitencillo, Huasco department, Atacama, Chile.
Maihueniopsis darwinii (Henslow) F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia darwinii Henslow 1836-1837, Tephrocactus darwinii
(Henslow) Fric 1934 Opuntia platyacantha Pfeiffer 1837, Tephrocactus platyacanthus
(Pfeiffer) Lemaire 1868 Opuntia hickenii Britton & Rose 1919, Tephrocactus hickeni (Britton &
Rose) Spegazzini 1926 Opuntia neuquensis Borg 1937, Tephrocactus neuquensis (Borg)
Backeberg 1953, Maihueniopsis neuquensis (Borg) F. Ritter 1980 Maihueniopsis albomarginata F. Ritter 1980
Plants prostrate, to 4 cm (1.6 in) high. Stem segments globose to ovoid, slightly tuberculate, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Are-
oles large, 18-20, with felt, evenly distributed per segment, upper 10-12 bearing spines. Spines 4-6, straight, erect or spreading, sometimes flattened, yellow to reddish yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers to 5 cm (2 in) long; pericarpels covered with areoles, upper ones bearing spines to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Fruits with glochids and spines above. Distribution: Santa Cruz, Argentina.
Maihueniopsis domeykoensis f. Ritter 1980 Opuntia domeykoensis (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming low cushions. Stem segments conical to obo-void, slightly tuberculate, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Areoles small, about 40 per segment, extending to the base. Main spines 1-3, usually over the entire segment though sometimes absent apically, erect, needle-like, straight or slightly curved, yellow-brown to black, white below, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) long. Secondary spines 1-3, slender, more or less erect. Flowers golden yellow, sometimes with orange-red tips, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long; pericarpels with unequal spines to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Fruits with areoles bearing spines to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Distribution: Huasco department, Atacama, Chile.
Maihueniopsis glomerata (Haworth) R. Kiesling 1984 conoideo, copana, le0ncit0, quep0, quisco Opuntia glomerata Haworth 1830, Tephrocactus glomeratus (Haworth) Backeberg 1953 Opuntia ovallei Gay 1847, Tephrocactus ovallei (Gay) Backeberg 1958,
Maihueniopsis ovallei (Gay) F. Ritter 1980 Maihueniopsis molfinoi Spegazzini 1925, Opuntia molfinoi (Spegazzini)
Werdermann 1931 Opuntia leoncito Werdermann 1929, Tephrocactus leoncito (Werdermann) Backeberg 1944, Maihueniopsis leoncito (Werdermann) F. Ritter 1980
Opuntia hypogaea Werdermann 1931, Tephrocactus hypogaeus (Werdermann) Backeberg 1935, Maihueniopsis hypogaea (Werdermann) F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia reicheana Espinosa 1940, Tephrocactus reichianus (Espinosa) Backeberg 1958 Tephrocactus conoideus F. Ritter ex Backeberg 1958, not validly published; Opuntia conoidea (F. Ritter ex Backeberg) G. D. Rowley 1958, not validly published; Maihueniopsis conoidea (F. Ritter ex Backeberg) F. Ritter 1980, not validly published Maihueniopsis leptoclada F. Ritter 1980
Plants dense, strong-jointed, hemispheric cushions. Stem segments ovoid, pointed, somewhat tuberculate, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) long. Areoles small, about 20 per segment, felty, uppermost 1-2 sometimes spineless. Principal spines 1-2, narrowly flattened, more or less erect, straight, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Secondary spines 0-2, bristle-like. Flowers pale yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long; pericarpels obconical, with 15-18 areoles,
402 Maihueniopsis glomerata those on the rim with bristles. Fruits globose, spineless, green, becoming yellowish. Distribution: Jujuy, Argentina.
Maihueniopsis grandiflora F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia llanos-de-huanta D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming large cushions to 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stem segments large, narrow, elongate to ovoid, slightly tuberculate, upper portions spiny. Principal spines as many as 6, unequal, strongly needle-like, erect, close set, narrowly diverging, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Subsidiary spines 1-2, bent backward, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers golden yellow, to 8.5 cm (3.3 in) long; pericarpels spiny above. Fruits poorly known, apparently often empty. Distribution: Coquimbo, Chile.
Maihueniopsis minuta (Backeberg) R. Kiesling 1984 Tephrocactus minutus Backeberg 1935, Opuntia minuta (Backeberg)
A. Castellanos 1950 Tephrocactus mandragora Backeberg 1953, Opuntia mandragora (Backeberg) G. D. Rowley 1958, Maihueniopsis mandragora (Backeberg) F. Ritter 1980
Plants small, much branched, compact, often partly concealed in the ground. Stem segments ovoid, tapered, barely tuberculate, often becoming purplish, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Areoles small, sunken, close set, horizontally elongate, extending nearly to the base of the segment. Spines mostly absent, 1-2 when present, bristle-like, abruptly bent backward, 7-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) in diameter. Fruits fleshy but dry within. Distribution: northern Argentina.
Maihueniopsis nigrispina (K. Schumann) R. Kiesling 1984 Opuntia nigrispina K. Schumann 1898, Tephrocactus nigrispinus (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1935, Platyopuntia nigrispina (K. Schumann) F. Ritter 1980 Tephrocactus atroglobosa Backeberg 1962, not validly published; Platyopuntia atroglobosa (Backeberg) F. Ritter 1980, not validly published; Opuntia atroglobosa (F. Ritter) R. Crook & Mottram 1995, not validly published
Plants shrubby, much branched, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high. Stem segments more or less upright, oblong to ellipsoidal, round in cross section, dull green or reddish violet, tuberculate when young. Areoles 2-3 mm in diameter, with abundant wool and glochids. Spines 3-5, borne on upper areoles, straight, spreading, weak, purplish black, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Flowers purple, 2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) long. Distribution: Bolivia and Argentina.
Maihueniopsis ovata (Pfeiffer) F. Ritter 1980
Opuntia ovata Pfeiffer 1837, Pseudotephrocactus ovata (Pfeiffer) Fric 1933, Tephrocactus ovatus (Pfeiffer) Backeberg 1935, not (Loudon) F. Ritter 1980 (see T. aoracanthus)
Opuntia purpurea R. E. Fries 1905
Opuntia russellii Britton & Rose 1919, Tephrocactus russellii (Britton & Rose) Backeberg 1953
Plants forming small, somewhat dense cushions to 10 cm (3.9 in) high and 50 cm (20 in) wide. Stem segments ovoid, sometimes tapering above, green, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Areoles about 20 per segment, extending to bases of segments, with spines present only on upper third. Glochids prominent, straw yellow, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Spines 3-8, erect, unequal, stiff, the largest ones awl shaped to somewhat flattened, reddish brown to yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers brilliant yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter; pericarpels with about 16 areoles, upper ones with bristles. Fruits subcylindrical, yellow, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) long, sometimes bristly. Distribution: Mendoza and San Juan, Argentina, and possibly Chile.
Maihueniopsis rahmeri (Philippi) F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia rahmeri Philippi 1891
Maihueniopsis rahmeri is virtually unknown. Until more material, including fruits and seeds, is available, it is impossible to determine with certainty its affinity to other cacti. Distribution: Tarapacá, Chile.
Maihueniopsis subterránea (R. E. Fries) E. F.Anderson 1999
Opuntia subterránea R. E. Fries 1905, Pseudotephrocactus subterra-neus (R. E. Fries) Kreuzinger 1935, Tephrocactus subterraneus (R. E. Fries) Backeberg 1935, Cumulopuntia subterránea (R. E. Fries) F. Ritter 1980, Puna subterránea (R. E. Fries) R. Kiesling 1982 Tephrocactus variflorus Backeberg 1962, not validly published
Plants very small, partially buried, sometimes rising only 1 cm (0.4 in) above ground level. Stem segments simple or with one or two short branches, round in cross section, elongate. Glochids minute, present only on lower areoles, to 1 mm long. Spines as many as 10, pectinate, pressed closely to the surface, to 2 mm long. Flowers brown to deep rose red to pale or yellowish rose, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long; pericarpels without areoles but with a few scales bearing hairs and bristles. Fruits globose, dry. Distribution: northern Argentina, north into Potosí, Bolivia.
Maihueniopsis tarapacana (Philippi) f. Ritter 1980 Opuntia tarapacana Philippi 1891, Tephrocactus tarapacanus
(Philippi) Backeberg 1935
Plants forming cushions. Stem segments oval, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Glochids yellowish white. Spines 1-2, stiff, awl shaped, reddish yellow, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Distribution: Tarapacá, Chile. There is so little material of Maihueniopsis tarapacana available for study that its affinities to various genera are uncertain. Fruits and seeds must be observed.
Maihueniopsis wagenknechtii F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia wagenknechtii (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming dense cushions. Stem segments elongate to ovoid, sharply pointed, somewhat tuberculate, bluish green, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Spines 5-7, needle-like, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers, fruits not known. Distribution: Coquimbo, Chile.
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