Gymnocalycium carmianthum Borth Koop 1976
Plants solitary, flattened globose with depressed stem tips, dull blue-green or gray-green, to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 6-11, flattened except at the tips, with angular tubercles. Central spines 1-2, sometimes absent, strongly curved upward, 0.8-1.5 cm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 5-9, usually 7, thick, awl shaped, angular, in pairs, lowermost one pointing downward and flattened on the stem surface, reddish brown, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, carmine, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Fruits pear shaped, olive green, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long and 1.1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Catamarca, Argentina.
Gymnocalycium castellanosii Backeberg 1936 Gymnocalycium bozsingianum Schütz 1977 Gymnocalycium ferox (Backeberg) Slaba 1984, not validly published Gymnocalycium acorrugatum J. G. Lambert 1988
Plants solitary, globose to elongate globose, dull blue-green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12, wide, flat, divided into small, sharply separated tubercles. Spines stout, straight, whitish with dark tips. Central spine one. Radial spines 5-7, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers bell shaped to funnelform, white with pink tint, to 4.5 cm
(1.8 in) long and in diameter. Fruits globose, green. Distribution: La Rioja and Córdoba, Argentina.
Gymnocalycium catamarcense H. Till & W. Till 1995 Gymnocalycium catamarcense subsp. acinacispinumH.TtW & W. Till 1995
Gymnocalycium catamarcense subsp. schmidianum H. Till & W. Till 1995
Plants usually solitary, flattened globose to globose, gray-green, with sunken stem tips, 3.5-6 cm (1.4-2.4 in) high, 7.5-9 cm (3-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-26, broad, rounded. Areoles oval to elongate, with bright yellow to yellowish brown wool. Spines variable, 5-9, usually 7, flattened, yellowish to light brown, becoming gray, often of two colors. Central spines as many as 3, often absent, strongly curved when present. Radial spines about 9, one pointing downward, others incurved to the sides, often interlacing, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long. Flowers white to greenish white, 5-5.5 cm (2-2.2 in) long, 4-4.3 cm (1.6-1.7 in) in diameter. Fruits green. Distribution: Catamarca, Argentina.
Three subspecies of Gymnocalycium catamarcense are recognized. Subspecies catamarcense has spines of two col-
352 Cymnocalycium catamarcense ors; it occurs fairly widely in Catamarca. Subspecies schmid-ianum differs from subspecies catamarcense in having brown spines that are oval in cross section; it occurs near Tinogasta. Subspecies acinacispinum has sharp-cornered, upright ribs with strong chinlike protrusions and light spination; it occurs in the Sierra de Manchao.
Gymnocalycium chiquitanum Cárdenas 1963 Gymnocalycium hammerschmidii Backeberg 1963, not validly published
Plants usually solitary, flattened globose, gray-green to light green, sometimes flushed with red, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) or more high, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 6-7 with prominent chinlike protrusions. Central spine usually absent, sometimes one, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 5-9, yellowish brown to gray, with dark tips, curved backward, 1-2.5 cm (0.4-1 in) long. Flowers lilac-pink, sometimes white or salmon, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long and in diameter. Fruits spindle shaped, dark bluish purple, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Distribution: San José and Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Continue reading here: Gymnocalycium deeszianum Dlz 1943
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