Plants solitary, globose, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) high and in diameter. Ribs usually 15, divided into rounded tubercles. Cen tral spine sometimes one but usually absent. Radial spines 6-10, brown, needle-like, twisted, spreading, 2-3 mm long. Flowers sulfur yellow, 3.4-4 cm (1.3-1.6 in) long. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Frailea phaeodisca (Spegazzini) Y. Itó 1957 Echinocactus pygmaeus [var.] phaeodiscus Spegazzini 1905 Frailea perbella Prestlé 1980
Plants solitary, flattened globose, dark gray-green, 2-7 cm (0.8-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 30, divided into low tubercles. Areoles brownish black. Spines 6-12, whitish, not differentiated as centrals and radials, 1-4 mm long. Flowers yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Tacuarembó, Uruguay, and possibly neighboring Brazil. Frailea phaeodisca is a poorly understood taxon that many believe belongs in F. pygmaea.
Frailea pseudopulcherrima Fric ex Y. Itó 1957 Echinocactus pseudopulcherrimus Fric 1934, without description
Plants solitary at first, later branching basally to form small clumps. Stems depressed globose, deep green, 2-4 cm (0.81.6 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 15, forming flat, round tubercles. Spines about 10, sometimes fewer, brown, becoming gray, thin, sometimes curved, spreading, to 3 mm long. Flowers funnelform, yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Uruguay.
Frailea pumila (Lemaire) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus pumilus Lemaire 1838
Echinocactus colombianus Werdermann 1931, Frailea colombiana (Werdermann) Backeberg 1935, F. pumila subsp. colombiana (Werdermann) Prestlé 1997
Frailea gracillima subsp. horstii, photograph by Werner Rauh
340 Frailea pumila
Frailea carminifilamentosa Kilian 1963
Frailea chrysacanthaV. Hrabe 1965, not validly published
Frailea hllneckyana Cervinka 1971, F. pumila subsp. hlineckyana
(Cervinka) Prestle 1997 Frailea jajoiana Cervinka 1971, F. pumila subsp.jajolarta (Cervinka) Prestle 1997
Frailea deminuta Burning & Brederoo 1972, F. pumila subsp. deminuta (Buining & Brederoo) Prestle 1997 Frailea albiareolata Buining & Brederoo 1973, F. pumila subsp. albiare-
olata (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea pumila var. major F. Ritter 1979, F. pumila subsp. major (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995
Plants usually branching basally to form clumps. Stems globose, depressed apically, deep green, becoming reddish, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-20, becoming tubercu-late. Spines not readily distinguishable as centrals and radi-als, pubescent, yellowish brown, 1-5 mm long. Central spines 1-3, erect. Radial spines 9-14, bristle-like, flattened against the stem surface. Flowers yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Fruits green. Distribution: Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina.
Several subspecies of Frailea pumila have been described but probably only two should be recognized. Subspecies pumila has stems 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) in diameter and 13-15 ribs; it occurs in Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. Subspecies deminuta has stems about the same size but only 1720 ribs; it occurs north of Livarmento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Frailea pygmaea (Spegazzini) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactus pygmaeus Spegazzini 1905 Echinocactus pulcherrimus Arechavaleta 1905, Malacocarpus pul-cherrimus (Arechavaleta) Britton & Rose 1922, Frailea pulcherrima (Arechavaleta) Backeberg 1935 Frailea albicolumnaris F. Ritter 1970, F. pygmaea subsp. albicolum-naris (F. Ritter) Hofacker 1998
Frailea pumila subsp. pumila, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon
Frailea asperispina F. Ritter 1970, F. pygmaea subsp. asperispina
(F. Ritter) P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea aureispina F. Ritter 1970, F. pygmaea subsp. aureispina (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea fulviseta Buining & Brederoo 1973, F. pygmaea subsp./w/W-
seta (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea aureinitens Buining & Brederoo 1976, F. pygmaea subsp. aure-
initens (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea pygmaea var. antigibbera F. Ritter 1979, F. pygmaea subsp. anti-
gibbera (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea pygmaea var. lilalunula F. Ritter 1979, F. pygmaea subsp. lila-lunula (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995
Plants extremely variable, solitary to forming clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, bright to gray-green, to 7 cm (2.8 in) high and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-24, forming small, barely distinguishable tubercles. Spines 6-9, not readily separated into centrals and radials, bristly, white, flattened against the stem surface, 1-4 mm long. Flowers yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits spherical. Distribution: Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.
Several subspecies of Frailea pygmaea have been described but only three should be recognized. Subspecies pygmaea occurs in Argentina and Uruguay; it has stems to only 3 cm (1.2 in) high and 13-21 ribs. Subspecies albicolumnaris occurs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; it tends to have cylindrical stems to 6 cm (2.4 in) high and 21-24 ribs. Subspecies fulviseta occurs in Rio Grande do Sul; it tends to have solitary stems to 7 cm (2.8 in) high and as many as 20 ribs.
Frailea schilinzkyana (F. Haage) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactus schilinzkyanus F. Haage 1897 Frailea concepcionensis Buining & Brederoo 1971, F. schilinzkyana subsp. concepcionensis (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995
Frailea ignacionensis Buining & G. Moser 1971
Frailea schilinzkyana 341
Fraileaybatensis Burning & G. Moser 1971, F. grahliana subsp.ytoafen-s/s (Burning & G. Moser) Prestle 1997
Plants sometimes solitary but commonly branching to form flat mats. Stems broadly globose, light green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-18, forming well-defined, six-sided to rounded tubercles. Spines not readily distinguishable as centrals and radials. Central spine usually one, black, erect, to 4 mm long. Radial spines 10-14, blackish, thin, flattened against the stem surface and often pectinate, 2-3 mm long. Flowers funnelform, sulfur yellow, sometimes cleistogamous, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long, 2-4.5 cm (0.8-1.8 in) in diameter. Fruits yellowish to brownish, to 6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Argentina and Paraguay. Frailea schilinzkyana is an extremely variable species that is fairly widespread; it is unclear if taxonomic recognition of subspecies is justified.
Frailea schilinzkyana 341
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