Frailea buiningiana Prestle 1997

Plants solitary, cylindrical, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) high, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) in diameter, with densely spiny stem tips. Ribs 24-26, forming low tubercles. Areoles brownish, round. Central spines 3, erect, straight, not sharp, reddish brown, to 3 mm long. Radial spines 12-15, hyaline white, straight, interwoven, to 2 mm long. Flowers whitish yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Frailea castanea Backeberg 1935 Frailea asterioides Werdermann 1937

Frailea asterioides var. harmoniana F. Ritter 1979, F. castanea subsp. harmoniana (F. Ritter) P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995

Plants solitary, depressed globose, dark reddish to chocolate brown, sometimes blue-green to gray-green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) high, 3-4.5 cm (1.2-1.8 in) in diameter. Roots conical, tuberous. Ribs 8-14, low, and convex. Areoles small. Spines 3-11, dark brown, pointing downward and flattened against the stem surface, 0.5-1.5 mm long. Flowers fairly large, pale yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits yellowish green. Distribution: southern Brazil and northern Uruguay.

Two subspecies of Frailea castanea are recognized. Subspecies castanea is as much as 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter, has 9-14 ribs, and 7-11 spines; it occurs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and neighboring Uruguay. Subspecies harmoniana is only 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, has 8-11 ribs, and 3-7 spines; it occurs in Rio Grande do Sul.

Frailea cataphracta (Dams) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus cataphractus Dams 1904 Frailea uhligiana Backeberg 1963 Frailea cataphractoides Backeberg 1966 Frailea cataphracta var. tuyensis Burning & Brederoo 1971, F. cataphracta subsp. tuyensis (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995

Frailea matoana Buining & Brederoo 1971

Frailea melitae Buining & Brederoo 1974, F. cataphracta subsp. meli-

tae (Buining & Brederoo) P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea cataphracta var. duchii G. Moser 1977, F. cataphracta subsp. duchii(G. Moser) P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995

Plants solitary or sprouting basally with several stems. Stems depressed globose, dull green to bronze, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter, with distinctly depressed tips. Ribs 8-21, low, divided into flat tubercles, with crescent-shaped, purplish marks below the areoles. Areoles 3 mm apart, with sparse wool. Spines 5-9, golden yellow, becoming gray, thin, to 2 mm long, pointing downward and flattened against the stem surface. Flowers light yellow, to 3.8 cm (1.5 in) long and in diameter. Fruits globose, 4 mm in diameter. Distribution: Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay.

Four subspecies of Frailea cataphracta are recognized. Subspecies cataphracta occurs in Bolivia and Paraguay, has 8-15 ribs, and is dull green. Subspecies duchii occurs southeast of Asunción, Paraguay, has as many as 18 ribs, and is dirty bronze in color. Subspecies melitae occurs in Mato Grosso, Brazil and has as many as 21 flattened, tuberculate

Frailea Pullispina
Frailea cataphracta subsp. cataphracta, photograph by Wilhelm Barthlott

ribs. Subspecies tuyensis occurs in Paraguay and has as many as 20 ribs.

Frailea chiquitana Cárdenas 1951 Frailea pullispina Backeberg 1963 Frailea larae R. Vásquez 1994

Plants solitary and many-stemmed, often forming low, flat clusters partly buried in the ground. Stems subglobose to short cylindrical, greenish yellow to dark green to purplish, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) high, 2.5-3 cm (1—1.2 in) in diameter. Roots large, tuberous. Ribs 24-31, forming distinct tubercles. Areoles elliptical, prominent, white to dark brown. Cen-

Frailea Uhligiana
Frailea chiquitana, photograph by James Mauseth
Wilhelm Barthlott
Frailea curvispina, photograph by Wilhelm Barthlott

tral spines 1-3, dark brown, to 3 mm long. Radial spines 4-5, pectinate, bristle-like, white, to 3 mm long. Flowers broadly funnelform to bell shaped, light yellow, 1.7-2 cm (0.7-0.8 in) long, to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, red, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Cordillera province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Frailea curvispina Buining&Brederoo 1972

Plants solitary, occasionally clustering. Stems cylindrical, gray-green, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Ribs about 32, vertical, forming small tubercles. Areoles oval, with yellow felt at first, later glabrous. Spines dense at the stem tips, bent and interwoven, white to yellowish, grayish brown below. Central spine one. Radial spines about 14,4-6 mm (0.2 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Fruits to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter, with white hairs and long brown bristles. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Frailea friedrichii Buining & G. Moser 1971

Plants usually solitary, dark green to coppery red, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high and in diameter. Ribs 17-20, vertical, forming tubercles. Areoles brown, later glabrous, to 1.5 mm apart. Spines thin, amber. Central spines as many as 2, often absent, erect, slightly curved. Radial spines as many as 15, radiating, pectinate, 3-4 mm long. Flowers funnelform, lemon yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and in diameter. Fruits 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long, with light brown bristles and hairs. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Frailea gracillima (Monville ex Lemaire) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactusgracillimus Monville ex Lemaire 1839 Frailea alacriportana Backeberg & Voll 1950 Frailea albifusca F. Ritter 1970, F. gracillima subsp.albifusca (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea horstii F. Ritter 1970, F. gracillima subsp. horstii (F. Ritter)

P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Frailea lepida Buining & Brederoo 1973 Frailea pseudogracillima F. Ritter 1979, not validly published Frailea horstii subsp. fecotrigensis Prestle 1997

Plants solitary, fairly slender, cylindrical, gray-green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 13, rounded, indistinct, forming tubercles. Central spines 2-6, erect, to 5 mm long, darker than radials. Radial spines as many as 20, light colored, thin, flattened against the stem surface, to 2 mm long. Flowers yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits greenish, to 6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay. Three subspecies of Frailea gracillima are recognized.

Frailea pumita 339

Subspecies gracillima typically has 16 or fewer radial spines and never more than 2 centrals; it occurs in Paraguay. Subspecies albifusca has 8-11 radial spines and 2-5 centrals; it occurs in Uruguay. Subspecies horstii usually has 15-20 radial spines and 3-6 centrals; it occurs in Ca^apava, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Fraileagrahliana (F. Haage) Britton & Rose 1922

Echinocactus grahlianus F. Haage 1899

Frailea moseriana Burning & Brederoo 1973, F. grahliana subsp.

mosericma (Buining & Brederoo) Prestle 1997 Frailea grahliana subsp. concepcionensis Prestle 1997

Plants forming clusters. Stems depressed globose, green, to 2.5 cm (1 in) high, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 15, forming low and nearly indistinct tubercles. Central spine usually absent, sometimes one, yellowish white with dark tip, to 4 mm long. Radial spines usually 10, flattened against the stem surface, whitish, to 3.5 mm long. Flowers bright yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Fruits to 6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Paraguay and Argentina.

Two subspecies of Frailea grahliana are recognized. Subspecies grahliana almost always lacks a central spine; it occurs in Paraguay and Argentina. Subspecies moseriana often has a single central spine; it occurs in eastern Paraguay.

Frailea knippeliana (Quehl) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus knippelianus Quehl 1902

Plants solitary, short cylindrical, to 4 cm (1.6 in) high and 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter, bright green. Ribs 15, low, divided into flat tubercles. Central spines 2, dark amber, difficult to distinguish from radials, 3-5 mm long. Radial spines 14, amber, flattened against the stem surface. Flowers yellow with reddish midveins, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Distribution: Paraguay.

Frailea mammifera Buining & Brederoo 1972

Plants usually solitary, occasionally branching basally. Stems subglobose, glossy dark green, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 17, forming distinct tubercles that are round or tapering. Areoles on upper side of tubercles. Central spines 2-4, erect, brown, stout, 2.5-3 mm long. Radial spines 18-20, radiating, white, thin, 1.5-2 mm long. Flowers funnelform, yellow, 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits to 8 mm (0.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: north of Pedrito, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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