Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, gray to glaucous green, to 60 cm (24 in) high and 40 cm (16 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-18. Spines gray, banded. Central spine one, straight,
Ferocactus latispinus subsp. latispinus
round in cross section, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long. Radial spines 5-6, straight or somewhat curved, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long, 3-4 cm (1.21.6 in) in diameter. Fruits ovoid, purple, 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long and in diameter. Distribution: plain of the Rio Balsas, Mi-choacán, Mexico. Ferocactus lindsayi is not well known.
Ferocactus macrodiscus (Martius) Britton &Rose 1922
Echinocactus macrodiscus Martius 1832, Bisnaga macrodisca (Martius) Doweld 1999 Ferocactus macrodiscus var. septentrionalis J. Meyrán 1987, F. macrodiscus subsp. septentrionalis (J. Meyrán) N. P. Taylor 1998, Bisnaga macrodisca subsp. septentrionalis (J. Meyrán) Doweld 1999
Plants solitary, disk shaped, blue-green, usually flat and set well into the soil, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, 30-40 cm (12-16 in) in diameter. Taproots strong. Ribs 13-35, acute, usually tu-berculate, notched, flattened and thick under the widely separated areoles. Spines red or yellow, curved against the plant body, banded. Central spines 4, somewhat flattened, forming
a cross, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Radial spines 6-8, mostly round in cross section, curved backward, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Flowers bell shaped, purplish pink with white margins, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits irregularly globose, magenta, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Distribution: central Mexican highlands in San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Guanajuato, Puebla, and Oaxaca.
Two subspecies of Ferocactus macrodiscus are recognized. Subspecies macrodiscus is blue-green, has areoles 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long, and curved, reddish or yellow spines; it is widely distributed throughout the range of the species. Subspecies septentrionalis is greenish yellow, has areoles 12—25 mm (0.5-1 in) long, and strong straight spines; it occurs only in Guanajuato.
Ferocactus peninsulae (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus peninsulae F. A. C. Weber 1895 Ferocactus horridus Britton & Rose 1922
Plants solitary, ovoid to club shaped to tapering toward the tip from the base, dark blue-green, usually about 70 cm (28 in) high but sometimes as high as 2.5 m (8.2 ft), to 40 cm (16 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-20, deep, prominent. Spines grayish red with yellowish tips, to whitish. Central spines 4, forming a cross, banded, straight, 4-15 cm (1.6-5.9 in) long, lowermost one flattened and hooked. Radial spines 6-13, variable, slender, sometimes twisted and bristle-like. Flowers funnel-form, red to yellow with orange to red midveins, 5-6 cm (22.4 in) long. Fruits globose, yellow, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Distribution: Baja California Sur, Mexico.
Ferocactus macrodiscus subsp. macrodiscus
334 Ferocactus pilosus
FerocactUSpilosus (Galeotti ex Salm-Dyck) Werdermann 1933
MEXICAN LIME CACTUS, VIZNAGA DE LIMA Echinocactus pilosus Galeotti ex Salm-Dyck 1849 Echinocactus pilosus [var.] stainesii Salm-Dyck 1850, Ferocactus stainesii (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus piliferus Lemaire ex Labouret 1853, Ferocactus piliferus
(Lemaire ex Labouret) G. Unger 1986 Echinocactus pilosus [var.] pringlei J. M. Coulter 1896, Ferocactus pringleiQ. M. Coulter) Britton & Rose 1922
Plants solitary or forming massive clumps of several stems. Stems to 3 m (9.8 ft) high and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-20, acute in young plants, rounded in adults, not tuber-culate, with areoles nearly confluent. Spines bright red, yellow, or a mixture of both, banded, slightly curved, spreading, awl shaped, not strongly differentiated as centrals and radials. Central or main spines 6-12, stout, usually red, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spines usually reduced to many whitish bristles or absent. Flowers produced in circles around the stem tips with the perianth parts remaining erect, yellow to red, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Fruits ovoid, yellow, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long. Distribution: northern central Mexico in San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas, Durango, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas. Ferocactus pilosus is one of the most spectacular species of the genus.
Ferocactuspottsi (Salm-Dyck) Backeberg 1961 Echinocactus pottsii Salm-Dyck 1850
Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dull glaucous green, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-25, broad, obtuse. Spines gray, straight. Central spine one, to 7.5 cm (3 in) long. Radial spines 3-8, radiating, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long. Flowers cup shaped, yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Distribution: southwestern Chihuahua, southeastern Sonora, and northern Sinaloa, Mexico.
Ferocactus robustus (Pfeiffer) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus robustus Pfeiffer 1837
Plants many-stemmed, forming large clusters to 1 m (3.3 ft) high and 5 m (16 ft) wide. Stems globose to club shaped, deep green, 8-16 cm (3.1-6.3 in) in diameter. Ribs 8, acute, tuberculate, with widely spaced areoles. Spines tan, reddish, or purplish. Central spines 4-7, stout, erect, straight, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Radial spines 10-14, radiating, upper ones like the centrals, lower ones bristle-like. Flowers funnelform, yellow, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits globose, yellow, fleshy, 2-3 cm (0.8—1.2 in) long. Distribution: southeastern Puebla, Mexico.
Ferocactus santa-maria Britton & Rose 1922 Ferocactus townsendianus var. santa-maria (Britton & Rose) G. E. Lindsay 1955, F. peninsulae var. santa-maria (Britton & Rose) N. P. Taylor 1984
Plants solitary, cylindrical, to 70 cm (28 in) high and 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, obtuse, somewhat tuber-culate, straight. Central spines 4, usually straight, gray, ribbed, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long, lower one longest, flattened, and slightly curved at the tip. Radial spines about 15, upper ones bristle-like, lighter colored, radiating, some lower ones like the centrals, some nectariferous. Flowers funnelform, yellow, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits yellow, fleshy, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ferocactus santa-maria is closely related to F. peninsulae.
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