Ferocactus cylindraceus Engelmann Orcutt 1926

BIZNAGA, CALIFORNIA BARREL CACTUS, CLIFF BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS CACTUS, DESERT BARREL CACTUS, GOLDEN-SPINED BARREL CACTUS, LE CONTE BARREL CACTUS, SPINY BARREL CACTUS

Echinocactus viridescens [var.] cylindraceus Engelmann 1852, E.

cylindraceus (Engelmann) Engelmann 1856 Echinocactus acanthodes Lemaire 1839, rejected name (seeTaylor 1979b); Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britton & Rose 1922, rejected name

Echinocactus lecontei Engelmann 1856, Ferocactus lecontei (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1922, E acanthodes var. lecontei (Engelmann) G. E. Lindsay 1955, F, cylindraceus var. lecontei (Engelmann) Bravo 1980, F. cylindraceus subsp. lecontei (Engelmann) N. P. Taylor 1998

Ferocactus rostii Britton & Rose 1922, F. acanthodes var. rostii (Britton

& Rose) W. T. Marshall & Bock 1941 Echinocactus hertrichii Weinberg 1929 Ferocactus tortulispinus H. E. Gates 1933, F. acanthodes var. tor-tuiispinus (H. E. Gates) G. E. Lindsay 1955, F. cylindraceus var. tortulispinus (H. E. Gates) Bravo 1980, F. cylindraceus subsp. tortulispinus (H. E. Gates) N. P. Taylor 1998

Plants solitary, rarely branching. Stems globose to cylindrical, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs 20-30, usually tuberculate, sometimes undulate, with transverse creases. Spines variable, white, red, yellow, or brown, somewhat flexible. Central spines 4-7, some round in cross section but others flattened, sometimes curved or hooked, 5-15 cm (2-5.9 in) long. Radial spines 15-25, hairlike to stout, often intergrading with centrals. Flowers funnelform, yellow but sometimes tinged with red, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, fleshy, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: southern California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, and Baja California and Sonora, Mexico.

Three subspecies of Ferocactus cylindraceus are recognized. Subspecies cylindraceus may grow to 3 m (9.8 ft) high, has twisted yellow, red, or brown central spines, and 15-25 radials; it occurs in southern California, southwestern Ari zona, northern Baja California, and northwestern Sonora. Subspecies lecontei has untwisted central spines that are never hooked and are often closely pressed to the stem; it occurs in southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, southern California, and much of Arizona. Subspecies tortulispinus has much shorter stems, often with flattened stem tips, and very twisted gray spines; it is restricted to northern Baja California.

Ferocactus diguetii (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose 1922

Echinocactus diguetii F. A. C. Weber 1898

Ferocactus diguetiivar.carmenensisG. E. Lindsay 1955

Plants solitary, massive, columnar, to 4 m (13 ft) high and 60 cm (24 in) in diameter. Ribs 25-35, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high,becoming sinuate with age. Spines 4-8, clear yellow to reddish brown, not differentiated as centrals and radials, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers funnelform, red, 4 cm (1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

Two varieties of Ferocactus diguetii are recognized. Variety diguetii has massive cylindrical stems to 4 m (13 ft) high and 60 cm (24 in) in diameter; it occurs on several islands off the east coast of Baja California Sur. Variety carmenensis has stems that are globose to cylindrical, only 1 m (3.3 ft) high and 40 cm (16 in) in diameter; it is rare and occurs only on Carmen Island.

Ferocactus eastwoodiae (L. D. Benson) L. D. Benson 1982 Ferocactus acanthodes var. eastwoodiae L. D. Benson 1969, F. cylindraceus var. eastwoodiae (L. D. Benson) N. P. Taylor 1984

Plants solitary, short to tall cylindrical, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high and 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Ribs 18-27 with poorly developed tubercles. Spines dense, partly obscuring the stems, yellowish to straw colored. Central spines usually 4, forming a cross, upper and lower ones broader and thicker, lower one slightly curved, 7.5-8 cm (3-3.1 in) long. Radial spines 1214, slightly flattened, flexible, curving irregularly, mostly ribbed, 3.5-6 cm (1.4-2.4 in) long. Flowers yellow with reddish tint, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits yellow, fleshy, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) in diameter. Distribution: restricted to central Arizona and the Grand Canyon. Ferocactus eastwoodiae is closely related to F. cylindraceus.

Ferocactus echidne (A. P. de Candolle) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactus echidne h. P. de Candolle 1834 Echinocactus victoriensis Rose 1909, Ferocactus echidne var. victo-riensis (Rose) G. E. Lindsay 1955, F. victoriensis (Rose) Backeberg 1961

Echinocactus rafaelensis J. A. Purpus 1912, Ferocactus rafaelensis

(J. A. Purpus) Borg 1937 Ferocactus rhodanthus Fritz Schwarz 1979

Plants solitary or many-stemmed, flattened globose to cylindrical, dull to gray-green, to 35 cm (14 in) or more high and 20 cm (7.9 in) or more in diameter. Ribs about 13, acute, not clearly tuberculate. Spines amber, needle-like, smooth, thin. Central spine one, erect, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spines 7-9, radiating, shorter than the central. Flowers borne at the center of the stems, funnelform, yellow, 2-4.5 cm (0.8-1.8 in) long, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to ovoid, light green to white and tinged pink, or red, fleshy, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, not dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: central Mexico in Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Tamaulipas, and Guanajuato.

Two varieties of Ferocactus echidne are recognized. Variety echidne has flattened globose stems and central spines less than 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long; it occurs throughout the range of the species. Variety victoriensis has more cylindrical stems

Ferocactus Emoryi Subs Covillei
Ferocactus cylindraceus subsp. cylindraceus, also illustrated on page 21
Ferocactus Emoryi Subs Covillei
Ferocactus echidne var. echidne

Ferocactus fordii 329

with central spines longer than 4.5 cm (1.8 in); it occurs only in the vicinity of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.

Ferocactus emoryi (Engelmann) Orcutt 1926

COVILLE'S BARREL CACTUS, EMORY'S BARREL CACTUS,

TRAVELER'S FRIEND

Echinocactus emoryi Engelmann 1856

Echinocactus emoryi [var.] rectispinus Engelmann 1896, Ferocactus rectispinus (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1922, F. emoryi var. rectispinus (Engelmann) N. P. Taylor 1984, F. emoryi subsp. rectispinus (Engelmann) N. P.Taylor 1998 Ferocactus covillei Britton & Rose 1922

Plants solitary, globose to cylindrical, light to glaucous green, to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high and 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter. Ribs 1530, sometimes more, with distinct tubercles when young. Spines whitish to reddish. Central spine one, very stout, flattened, straight, curved, or hooked, 4-10 cm (1.6-3.9 in) long. Radial spines 7-9, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Flowers broadly funnelform, mahogany, red, red tinged with yellow, or yellow, to 7.5 cm (3 in) long, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits obovoid to oblong, to 5 cm (2 in) long, not dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: southern central Arizona, and Sonora, Sinaloa, and Baja California Sur, Mexico.

Ferocactus emoryi is used medicinally by the Seri, and spines have been used in making face paint (Chapter 2, under Cacti as Medicine, and Cacti as a Source of Dyes). Two subspecies of F. emoryi are recognized. Subspecies emoryi has stems to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high and 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter, with 30 or more ribs; it occurs in southwestern Arizona, south into Sonora and northern Sinaloa. Subspecies rectispinus has much smaller stems, usually no more than 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high and 45 cm (18 in) in diameter, and usually about 21 ribs; it occurs only in northern Baja California Sur.

Ferocactusflavovirens (Scheidweiler) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus flavovirens Scheidweiler 1841, Bisnaga flavovirens (Scheidweiler) Orcutt 1926

Plants many-stemmed, often forming mounds to 1 m (3.3 ft) high and more than 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stems globose to cylindrical, light or dull green, 30-40 cm (12-16 in) high, to 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 13, acute, with widely spaced areoles. Spines light brown to gray, needle-like. Central spines 4-6, radiating, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long, lowermost one longest and pointing downward. Radial spines 12-20, radiating, upper ones sometimes lighter colored and bristle-like. Flowers borne on young areoles in the center of the stems, funnelform, yellow to yellowish red, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Fruits elliptical, red, to 2.8 cm (1.1 in) long, completely covered with long, brown, ciliate scales with bristle-like tips. Distribution: southeastern Puebla and northern Oaxaca, Mexico.

Ferocactus fordii (Orcutt) Britton 8c Rose 1922 Echinocactus fordii Orcutt 1922

Plants usually solitary, depressed globose to short cylindrical, to 50 cm (20 in) high and 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs about 21, tuberculate. Spines gray. Central spines 4, forming a cross, with bands, flattened or angled, to 5 cm (2 in) long, upper 3 ascending and straight, lower one descending and curved or hooked at the tip. Radial spines about 17, upper 2 erect and stout, others radiating. Flowers funnelform, rose purple to pink, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long and in diameter. Fruits oval, pink to yellow. Distribution: a very restricted coastal zone in western Baja California, Mexico. Ferocactus fordii was extensively studied by a research group financed by cites. It is severely threatened because of habitat destruction but is not yet listed in Appendix I of cites.

Ferocactus Fordii Baja California
Ferocactus emoryi subsp. emoryi
Ferocactus Fordii Baja California
Ferocactus fordii

330 Ferocactus glaucescens

Ferocactus glaucescens (A. P. de Candolle) Britton & Rose 1922

Echinocactus glaucescens A. P. de Candolle 1829, Bisnaga glaucescens (A. P. de Candolle) Orcutt 1926 Echinocactus pfeifferi Zuccarini 1837, Ferocactus pfeifferi (Zuccarini) Backeberg 1961

Plants solitary or many-stemmed. Stems globose with flattened or slightly depressed tops, distinctly glaucous, to 45 cm

(18 in) or more high and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-17, acute, not tuberculate, with elongate areoles that often interconnect. Spines awl shaped, yellow, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long, not easily distinguishable as centrals and radials. Central spine one. Radial spines 6-7, sometimes fewer. Flowers bell shaped, yellow, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long, 2.5-3.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, fleshy, whitish or yellowish, tinged with red, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long, covered with yellowish ciliate scales. Distribution: Hidalgo, Mexico.

Ferocactus glaucescens

Ferocactus gracilis subsp. coloratus

Continue reading here: Ferocactus gracilis H E Gates 1933

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