Eriosyce

Eriosyce, as revised and amplified by Fred Kattermann (1994), contains many of the fascinating globose cacti of the dry deserts of western South America. These cacti have long been enigmatic, the subject of numerous papers and an almost unbelievable number of descriptions. It was only through Kattermann's extensive fieldwork, spanning many years, and Robert Wallace's phylogenetic analysis that the group finally is understood. Some are disturbed at Kattermann's conservative approach and the sinking of several genera into synonymy, but my observations in the field and those of other researchers tend to support him. Many of the species are widely ranging and somewhat variable in spination and other minor characteristics. Eriosyce islayensis, for example, extends along the dry coast of northern Chile into southern Peru; it has received numerous specific epithets and was even placed in its own genus, Islaya. A study of popula-

Eriosyce andreaeana 293

tions of this taxon shows some variation, but in my and Kat-termann's opinion it is a single, variable species of Eriosyce. On the other hand, a study of Eriosyce by Reto Nyffeler and Urs Eggli (1997) support most of Kattermann's conclusions but suggests that Islaya might be distinct.

Rudolph Philippi described the genus Eriosyce (type, Echinocactus sandillon = Eriosyce aurata) in 1872, deriving the name from the Greek erion, wool, and syce, fig, referring to the distinctive woolly fruits. He distinguished it from Echinocactus, in which all known plants of this South American group had been placed, because its floral tube extends beyond the ovary and is spiny at the tip. In Volume 3 of The Cactaceae, Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose (1919-1923) subdivided Echinocactus into several segregate genera, including many of the globose cacti from western South America. Further collecting and research, particularly by Friedrich Ritter (1979-1981), led to many additional new names, and inevitable confusion. Kattermann's monograph addresses many of these problems. The genus comprises 35 species that flower during the day throughout much of the year; they are pollinated by insects and hummingbirds.

Eriosyce Philippi 1872

Neoporterid Britton & Rose 1922 Pyrrhocactus (Berger) A. Berger 1929 Islaya Backeberg 1934 Chileniopsis Backeberg 1935 Chilenia Backeberg 1938 Horridocactus Backeberg 1938 Neochllenla Backeberg 1942 Reicheocactus Backeberg 1942 Thelocephala Y. Ito 1957

Chileorebutia Fric ex F. Ritter 1959, illegitimate name Rodentiophila F. Ritter 1959

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Notocacteae. Plants usually solitary, subglobose, globose, to somewhat elongate, variable in size, 1-100 cm (0.4-39 in) high, 2-50 cm (0.8-20 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous or taproots, sometimes connected to the stems by thin necks. Ribs 7-30 or more, usually notched between areoles and tuberculate. Tubercles variable. Areoles borne on tubercle tips. Spines few to many, stiff and needle-like to thin and bristle-like, 2-50 mm (to 2 in) long. Flowers borne on young or older areoles near the stem tips, usually one per areole, funnelform to nearly tubular, yellow to deep carmine; pericarpels and floral tubes with many scales subtending dense tufts of wool, sometimes with bristle-like spines. Fruits hollow berries, often with loose seeds within, often woolly, usually dehiscing basally; floral remains persistent. Seeds 0.7-3 mm long, sometimes without an obvious micropyle. Distribution: sea level to 3000 m (9800 ft) on the eastern and western slopes of the Andes from central Chile north into southern Peru, then east into northwestern Argentina.

Eriosyce aerocarpa (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Chileorebutia aerocarpa F. Ritter 1960, not validly published; Neochlle-nia aerocarpa (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1980, Thelocephala aerocarpa (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1980, Neoporteria reichei var. aerocarpa (F. Ritter) Ferryman 1991 Thelocephala nuda F. Ritter 1980

Plants subglobose to elongate, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) in diameter. Taproots large, conical. Ribs many, disappearing into tubercles. Spines short, needle-like, reddish brown to gray, straight to somewhat curved. Central spines 0-2, thick, erect, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 6-14, somewhat pectinate, 2-3 mm long. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnel-form, pale reddish with darker midveins, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) in diameter. Fruits elongate, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: Huasco, Atacama, Chile.

Eriosyce andreaeana Kattermann 1994 Neochilenia andreaeana Backeberg 1959, not validly published; Neoporteria andreaeana (Backeberg) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, not validly published; Acanthocalycium andreaeanum (Backeberg) Donald 1975, not validly published

Plants globose, becoming cylindrical, dark gray-green, 15-18 cm (5.9-7.1 in) high, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) in diameter, naked apically. Taproots conical. Ribs 11-14, slightly notched. Spines horn colored, some curved upward. Central spines 4, forming a cross, with expanded bases, 19-40 mm (0.7-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 12, radiating, slightly curved, 12-18 mm (0.5-0.7 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnel-form, reddish, 3 cm (1.2 in) long, 3.7 cm (1.5 in) in diameter. Fruits slightly elongate, 1.3 cm (0.5 in) long, covered by many bristles, dehiscing by basal openings with lids. Distribution: La Rioj a, Argentina.

Eriosyce Aerocarpa
Eriosyce aerocarpa

294 Eriosyce aspillagae

Eriosyce aspillagae (Sohrens) Kattermann 1994 Echinocactus aspillagae Sohrens 1929, Neoporteria aspillagae (Sohrens) Backeberg 1935, Neochilenia aspillagae (Sohrens) Backeberg 1942, Pyrrhocactus aspillagae (Sohrens) F. Ritter 1959

Plants flattened at first with sunken stem tips partly covered by curved spines, becoming globose, dark green, 8-15 cm (3.1-5.9 in) in diameter. Taproots large, carrodike. Ribs 5-8, later as many as 14, notched, forming tubercles. Spines white with dark tips, becoming gray. Central spines 1-4, thick, straight to curved, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 4-12, thin, needle-like, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnelform, light silky yellow with reddish midveins, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter; peri-carpels and floral tubes woolly and bristly. Fruits oval to elongate, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long, dehiscing by basal slits. Distribution: Colchagua, Libertador, Chile.

Eriosyce aurata (Pfeiffer) Backeberg 1936

sandillon

Echinocactus auratus Pfeiffer 1847

Echinocactus sandillon Gay 1848, Eriosyce sandillon (Gay) Philippi 1872

Eriosyce ceratistes Britton & Rose 1922

Eriosyce algarrobensis F. Ritter 1980

Eriosyce ausseliana F. Ritter 1980, not validly published

Eriosyce ihotzkyanae F. Ritter 1980

Eriosyce lapampaensis F. Ritter 1980

Eriosyce splnibarbis F. Ritter 1980, E. aurata var. spirtibarbis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Plants subglobose to globose, sometimes elongate, green, 10-50 cm (3.9-20 in) in diameter, with naked to slightly woolly stem tips. Roots fibrous. Ribs 24-42 or more, depressed between areoles. Spines needle-like, curved upward, yellowish to horn colored, becoming grayish. Central spines 4-8, strongly curved upward, 25-45 mm (1-1.8 in) long. Radial spines 12-16,25-40 mm (1-1.6 in) long. Flowers borne on older areoles, arranged in spirals, funnelform, yellow to reddish, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) long, 2.2 cm (0.9 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes completely covered by dense wool and bristles. Fruits elongate, covered by wool, with bracts, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: Santiago north to just above Copiapo, Atacama, Chile.

Two varieties of Eriosyce aurata are recognized. Variety aurata is the most widespread, occurring from Santiago north to 29° south latitude. It has 4-6 central spines and fruits that are covered by dense wool and large bracts. Variety spinibarbis has a much more restricted distribution, occurring only in the region of Copiapo. It has 6-8 central spines and fruits that have loose wool and small bracts.

Eriosyce bulbocalyx (Werdermann) Kattermann 1994 Echinocactus bu/boca/yx Werdermann 1937, Pyrrhocactus bulbocalyx (Werdermann) Backeberg 1959, Neoporteria bu/boca/yx (Werdermann) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966 Pyrrhocactus dubius Backeberg 1935, Neoporteria dubia (Backeberg)

Donald & G.D.Rowley 1966 Pyrrhocactus umadeave var. marayesensis Backeberg 1963, not validly published; P. marayesensis (Backeberg) J. G. Lambert 1993, not validly published Pyrrhocactus megliolii Rausch 1974, Neoporteria megliolii (Rausch) Donald 1976

Plants globose to elongate, glaucous green, to 20 cm (7.9 in) high, 8-12 cm (3.1-4.7 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous. Ribs 13, notched, obtuse. Spines gray, stout, strongly curved upward. Central spines 5-8. Radial spines 8-12. Flowers often borne on older areoles near the stem tips, straw yellow with red throats, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 2 cm (0.8 in) in diam

Eriosyce bulbocalyx

Eriosyce aurata var. aurata

Eriosyce cr/spa 295

eter; pericarpels and floral tubes with wool and sometimes bristles. Fruits short ovoid, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: San Juan and La Rioja, Argentina.

Eriosyce chilensis (Hildmann ex K. Schumann) Kattermann

1994 chilenito

Echinocactus chilensis Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898, Neoporteria chilensis (Hildmann exK. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, Chilenia chilensis (Hildmann exK. Schumann) Backeberg 1939, Neochilenia chilensis (Hildmann ex K. Schumann) Backeberg 1951, Pyrrhocac-tus chilensis (Hildmann ex K. Schumann) F. Ritter 1959 Pyrrhocactus chilensis var. albidiflorus F. Ritter 1980, Eriosyce chilensis var.albidiflora (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus krausii F. Ritter 1980

Plants globose to elongate, yellowish to green, sometimes procumbent, to 100 cm (39 in) high, 6-12 cm (2.4-4.7 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous. Ribs 14-16, deeply notched, tuber-culate. Spines yellow to brownish, stiff, needle-like, not readily distinguishable as centrals and radials. Central spines 6-8, 15-25 mm (0.6-1 in) long. Radial spines 16-24, often bristly, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, sometimes more than one per areole, yellow to fuchsia red; pericarpels and floral tubes with tufts of wool and glassy white bristles. Fruits elongate, bright red, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast on the border of Choapa province, Coquimbo, and Petorca province, Valparaiso, Chile.

Two varieties of Eriosyce chilensis are recognized. Variety chilensis tends to produce fuchsia red flowers that sometimes have white centers. Variety albidiflora is known only from Pichidangui, Coquimbo; it tends to have yellow flowers tinged with red.

Eriosyce confinis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus confinis F. Ritter 1961, Neochilenia confinis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria confinis (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Plants subglobose, becoming elongate, green, with stem tips naked to spiny, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Taproots short, with fibrous roots. Ribs 13-15, small, obtuse, deeply notched above the areoles. Spines grayish brown to grayish black, slightly curved. Central spines 4-7,20-40 mm (0.81.6 in) long. Radial spines 10-12,10-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long. Flowers funnelform, pinkish to whitish, with red midveins, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter; pericarpels grayish green with small reddish bracts and tufts of white wool. Fruits red, fleshy, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: throughout the valley of the Copiapo, Atacama, Chile.

Eriosyce crispa (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Pyrrhocactus crispus F. Ritter 1959, Horridocactus crispus (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria crispa (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Pyrrhocactus atroviridis F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus atroviridis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria atroviridis (F. Ritter) Ferryman 1991, N. tuberisulcata var. atroviridis (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce crispa subsp. atroviridis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Pyrrhocactus huascensis F. Ritter 1961, Neochilenia huascensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria huascensis (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce crispa var. huascensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Eriosyce Chilensis
Eriosyce chilensis var. chilensis
Eriocyse Nigriscoparia
Eriosyce confinis

296 Eriosyce crispa

Neochilenia nigriscoparia Backeberg 1962, not validly published Pyrrhocactus totoralensis F. Ritter 1961, Neochilenia totoralensls (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria totoralensis (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce crispa var. totoralensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus carrizalensis F. Ritter 1963, Horrldocactus carrizalensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria carrizalensis (F. Ritter) A. E. Hoffmann 1989, N. totoralensis var. carrizalensis (F. Ritter) Ferryman 1991, Eriosyce crispa var.carrizalensis(F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Plants flattened, subglobose, to slightly elongate, blackish gray-green, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) in diameter. Rootstocks tuberous, sometimes separated by necks. Ribs 10-16, notched or depressed, tuberculate. Spines black to brown, curved upward, sometimes contorted, sometimes hairlike. Central spines 1-5,20-80 mm (0.8-3.1 in) long. Radial spines 6-14, 15-50 mm (0.6-2 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnelform, whitish with red midveins, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with bracts, wool, and white bristles. Fruits somewhat elongate, reddish, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast from Huasco to north of Totoral Bajo, Atacama, Chile.

Two subspecies (one with four varieties) of Eriosyce crispa are recognized by Kattermann (1994). Subspecies crispa has hairlike, contorted, black spines not easily distinguishable as centrals and radials; it is found only west of Freirina. Subspecies atroviridis comprises four varieties. Variety atroviridis has thick, needle-like spines and 12-14 radials; it occurs around Vallenar and Freirina. Variety carrizalensis has stiff, needle-like spines, 10-13 radials, and 15 ribs; it occurs near Carrizal and Carrizal Bajo. Variety huascensis has stiff, needle-like spines, only 6-8 radials, and 10-12 ribs; it occurs east of Huasco. Variety totoralensis has twisted spines and few ribs; it occurs near Copiapo and Totoral Bajo.

Cactus Expert
Eriosyce crispa var. huascensis

Eriosyce curvispina (Bertero exColla) Kattermann 1994

cacto rojo

Cactus curvispinus Bertero ex Colla 1834, Echinocactus curvispinus (Bertero ex Colla) Gay 1848, Malacocarpus curvispinus (Bertero ex Colla) Britton & Rose 1922, Pyrrhocactus curvispinus (Bertero ex Colla) A. Berger 1929, Horridocactus curvispinus (Bertero ex Colla) Backeberg 1940, Neoporteria curvispina (Bertero ex Colla) Donald &G. D. Rowley 1966 Echinocactus horridus Gay 1848, Pyrrhocactus horridus (Gay) Backeberg 1935, Neoporteria horrida (Gay) D. R. Hunt 1987 ?Echinocactus jussieui Monville ex Salm-Dyck 1849, ?Neoporteria jussieui (Monville ex Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1922, ?Chilenia jussieui (Monville ex Salm-Dyck) Backeberg 1939,7Neochilenia jussieui (Monville ex Salm-Dyck) Backeberg 1942, ?Pyrrhocactus jussieui (Monville ex Salm-Dyck) F. Ritter 1980 Echinocactus tuberisulcatus Jacobi 1856, Pyrrhocactus tuberisulca-tus (Jacobi) A. Berger 1929, Horridocactus tuberisulcatus (Jacobi) Y. Itö 1952, Neoporteria tuberisulcata (Jacobi) Donald & G. D. Rowley

1966, Eriosyce curvispina var. tuberisulcata (Jacobi) Kattermann 1994

? Echinocactus occultus Philippi 1860, ? Neoporteria occulta (Philippi) Britton & Rose 1922, ?Chilenla occulta (Philippi) Backeberg 1939, ?Neochilenia occulta (Philippi) Backeberg 1942 ? Echinocactus froehlichianus K. Schumann 1903, ?Pyrrhocactus froehlichianus (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1935, ? Horridocactus froehlichianus (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1959 ? Horridocactus kesselringianus Dölz 1942, ? Neoporteria kessel-ringiana (Dölz) Hutchison 1955, ?Pyrrhocactus kesselringianus (Dölz) F. Ritter 1959 Horridocactus andicola F. Ritter 1959, Pyrrhocactus andicola (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1959

Pyrrhocactus aconcaguensis F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus aconcaguensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Eriosyce curvispina var. aconcaguensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus armatus F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus armatus (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria armata (F. Ritter) Krainz 1967, Eriosyce curvispina var. armata (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus choapensis F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus choapensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria choapensis (F. Ritter) Krainz

1967, Eriosyce curvispina var. choapensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Pyrrhocactusgrandiflorus F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus grandiflorus

(F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962 Pyrrhocactus odoriflorus F. Ritter 1960, Neochilenia odoriflora (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962 Pyrrhocactus robustus F. Ritter 1960; Horridocactus robustus (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, not validly published; Neochilenia robusta (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Eriosyce curvispina var. robusta (i. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus coliguayensis F. Ritter 1980 Pyrrhocactus horridus var. mutabilis F. Ritter 1980, Eriosyce curvispina var. mutabilis(F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus pamaensis F. Ritter 1980 Pyrrhocactus truncatipetalus F. Ritter 1980

Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching, subglobose to globose, rarely elongate, 8-20 cm (3.1-7.9 in) in diameter, with naked stem tips. Roots usually fibrous though sometimes developing short taproots. Ribs 14-24, deeply notched, often with chinlike protrusions. Spines horn colored with darker tips, becoming gray, mostly curved upward, thin to thick, awl shaped. Central spines 4-8,20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 10-15,10-30 mm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles and often forming circles around the stem tips, wide funnelform, yellow or yellow with reddish midveins or reddish, 3-5.5 cm (1.2-2.2 in) long and in diameter. Fruits short oval to elongate, reddish, fleshy, to 1.1 cm (0.4 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: Copi-apo and Caldera, Atacama, Chile, south to the Rio Maule.

Eriosyce curvispina is variable and has been given numerous names. Seven varieties are recognized here. Variety curvispina never branches, has strongly curved spines 20 mm (0.8 in) or longer, and flowers to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter; it occurs throughout the range of the species. Variety acon-caguensis never branches and has strongly curved spines but pure yellow flowers only 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter; it occurs only at Cuesta Las Chacras, north of Llaillay. Variety armata, is like variety aconcaguensis but has flowers that are yellow with deep red midveins; it occurs only south and west of Santiago. Variety choapensis has strongly curved spines only 10 -15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long; it occurs in the valley of the Rio Choapa. Variety mutabilis often produces several stems; it is restricted to an area north, south, and east of Punto Pichi-dangui. Variety robusta never branches and the flowers have much elongated pericarpels; it is known only from the vicinity of Ocoa. Variety tuberisulcata has almost straight, very stout spines and nearly red flowers; it occurs only around Valparaiso.

Eriosyce engleri (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Horridocactus engleri F. Ritter 1959, Pyrrhocactus engleri (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1959, Neoporteria engleri(F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Plants large, elongate, to 30 cm (12 in) high, 14-18 cm (5.57.1 in) in diameter, densely covered by spines. Roots fibrous. Ribs 16-20, notched, with small chinlike protrusions. Spines thick, curved upward, whitish or yellowish below, brown to black above. Central spines 5-8, 40-70 mm (1.6-2.8 in) long. Radial spines 12-20, shorter than the centrals. Flowers borne near the stem tips, funnelform, pale lemon yellow with reddish midveins, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long, 4-4.5 cm (1.6-1.8 in) in diameter. Fruits reddish. Distribution: high mountains between Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile.

Eriosyce esmeraldana (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

esmeraldano

Chileorebutia esmeraldana F. Ritter 1963, not validly published; Neochilenia esmeraldana (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria esmeraldana (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Thelocephala esmeraldana (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1980

Plants geophytic, flattened, sometimes branching, dark green to reddish brown, 3-4 cm (1.2—1.6 in) in diameter. Taproots long, conical. Ribs 13-22, dissolved into tubercles. Spines 5-7, thin, needle-like, 3-5 mm long. Flowers borne on young areoles, yellow to reddish, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes covered by dense wool and with black bristles. Fruits oval, thin walled and dry, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast from north of Pan de Azúcar National Park south to Esmeralda, Chile.

Eriosyce garaventae (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Horridocactus garaventae F. Ritter 1959, Pyrrhocactus garaventae (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1959, Neoporteria garaventae (F. Ritter) Ferryman 1991

Pyrrhocactus subaianus Backeberg 1959, Neoporteria subaiana (Backeberg) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Plants globose to elongate, grass green to blue-green, 6-12 cm (2.4-4.7 in) in diameter, with spiny stem tips. Roots fibrous, arising from short taproots. Ribs 11-16, deeply notched, with small chinlike protrusions below areoles. Spines straw yellow, fairly thick. Central spines 1-6, curved upward, 25-45 mm (1-1.8 in) long. Radial spines 12. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnelform, pale yellow, becoming reddish toward the base, sometimes with reddish midveins, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits

Heinrichianus
Eriosyce esmeraldana

elongate, yellowish, hollow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: Cerro Campana, Valparaiso, Chile.

Eriosyce heinrichiana (Backeberg) Kattermann 1994 quisquito don rodolfo

Horridocactus heinrichianus Backeberg 1942, Pyrrhocactus heinrichi-anus (Backeberg) F. Ritter 1959, Neoporteria heinrichiana (Backeberg) Ferryman 1991 Neochilenia trapichensis F. Ritterex Backeberg 1959, not validly published; Pyrrhocactus trapichensis F. Ritter 1980 Pyrrhocactus chorosensis F. Ritter 1960, Neochilenia chorosensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria chorosensis (F. Ritter) Donald &G.D. Rowley 1966 Pyrrhocactus wagenknechtii F. Ritter 1960, Neochilenia wagenknechtii

(F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962 Pyrrhocactus simulans F. Ritter 1961, Neochilenia simulans (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria simulans (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce heinrichiana subsp. simulans (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Eriosyce Heinrichiana
Eriosyce heinrichiana subsp. heinrichiana
Eriosyce Heinrichiana
Eriosyce islayensis, also illustrated on page 36

Pyrrhocactus dimorphus F. Ritter 1962, Neochilenia dimorpha (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria dimorpha (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Pyrrhocactussetosiflorus F. Ritter 1962, Neochilenia setosiflora (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria setosiflora (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce heinrichiana var.setosiflora (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Pyrrhocactus setosiflorus var. intermedius F. Ritter 1962, Eriosyce heinrichiana subsp. intermedia (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Neochilenia deherdtiana Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria deherdtiana (Backeberg) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Pyrrhocactus deherdtia-nus (Backeberg) Kattermann 1983 Neoporteria ritteri Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966 Pyrrhocactus chaniarensis F. Ritter 1980

Plants rising barely above ground level, subglobose to globose to occasionally elongate, brownish to blackish green, 4-10 cm (1.6-3.9 in) in diameter. Taproots large, narrowed into necks where joining the stems. Ribs 14-22, forming tubercles. Spines straight to curved, stiff, needle-like, sometimes absent. Central spines 1-4,3-15 mm (to 0.6 in) long. Radial spines 6-10,3-12 mm (to 0.5 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, creamy yellow to reddish, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with tufts of wool and bristles. Fruits oval, thin walled, red, fleshy, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: mostiy along the coast from Huasco south to Quebrada Las Palmas, Chile.

Three subspecies (one with two varieties) of Eriosyce heinrichiana are recognized. Subspecies heinrichiana usually has dark brownish stems that are rarely elongate; it occurs from south of Huasco to El Tofo. Subspecies intermedia comprises two varieties. Variety intermedia has stems that are sometimes elongate; it occurs in the Elqui Valley. Variety setosiflora does not have elongate stems; it occurs in the coastal areas of the Elqui and Limari Valleys. Subspecies simulans often has elongate stems with long white wool covering the stem tips; it occurs in the lower Choros Valley.

Eriosyce islayensis (Förster) Kattermann 1994 Echinocactus islayensis Förster 1861, Islaya islayensis (Förster) Backeberg 1934, Neoporteria islayensis (Förster) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Echinocactus molendensis Vaupel 1913, Islaya molendensis (Vaupel)

Backeberg 1935 Islaya minor Backeberg 1934

Islaya bicolor Akers & Burning 1951, Neoporteria bicolor (Akers & Buin-

ing) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966 Islaya brevicyllndrica Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Islaya copiapoides Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Islayagrandiflorens Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Islaya grandis Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Islaya paucispina Rauh & Backeberg 1957

Eriosyce kunzei 299

Islaya paucispinosa Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Islaya krainziana F. Ritter 1963, Neoporteria krainziana (F. Ritter) Donald & G.D.Rowley 1966 Islaya divarlcatiflora F. Ritter 1964 Islaya flavida F. Ritter 1981 Islaya maritima F. Ritter 1981 Islaya minuscula F. Ritter 1981 Islaya unguispina F. Ritter 1981

Plants globose to elongate, to 40 cm (16 in) or more long, 520 cm (2-7.9 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous. Ribs as many as 25 with very woolly areoles. Spines usually gray to blackish. Central spines 4-7, thick, 12-16 mm (0.5-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 12-22, short, radiating, 6-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers borne on young areoles, wide funnelform, yellow, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with tufts of dense wool and bristles. Fruits distinctive, club shaped, balloonlike, pinkish red, to 5 cm (2 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast from the Chilean border north to just south of Lima, Peru. Eriosyce islayensis is extremely variable and has received many names, but it is clear from fieldwork that the populations constitute a single species.

Eriosyce krausii (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Chileorebutia krausiiF. Ritter 1960, not validly published; Neochilenia krausii (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1959, not validly published; Thelo-cephala krausii (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1980 Chileorebutia malleoiata F. Ritter 1963, not validly published; Neochilenia malleolata (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Thelocephala malleoiata (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1980 Thelocephala longirapa F. Ritter 1980

Plants geophytic, sometimes branching from beneath the ground, subglobose to flattened, gray-green to reddish brown, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) in diameter. Taproots long, tapering, conical, without necks. Ribs 12-14, forming tubercles. Spines needle-like, very thin, straight to slightly curved, erect to radiating, grayish. Central spines 0-1,2 mm long. Radial spines 3-8,1-2 mm long. Flowers borne on young areoles, funnelform, yellow, sometimes with reddish midveins, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with long wool and bristles. Fruits elongate, thin walled, wind dispersed, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: north of Caldera, Atacama, to Cifuncho, Antofagasta, Chile.

Eriosyce kunzei (Förster) Kattermann 1994 CUNZE

Echinocactus kunzei Förster 1845, Neoporteria kunzei (Förster) Backeberg 1935, Pyrrhocactus kunzei (Förster) Borg 1937, Chilenia kunzei (Förster) Backeberg 1939, Neochilenia kunzei (Förster) Backeberg 1942

? Echinocactus geissei Poseigerex K. Schumann 1898, ? Horridocactus geissei (Poselger ex K. Schumann) Dölz 1942 Horridocactus eriosyzoides F. Ritter 1959, Pyrrhocactus eriosyzoides (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1959, Neochilenia eriosyzoides (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria eriosyzoides (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966

Pyrrhocactus vallenarensis F. Ritter 1959, Horridocactus vallenarensis

(F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962 Pyrrhocactus transitensis F. Ritter 1963, Neochilenia transitensis (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Neoporteria transitensis (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966, Eriosyce kunzei var. transitensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Echinocactus nidus Söhrens ex K. Schumann 1900, Neoporteria nidus (Söhrens ex K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, Chilenia nidus (Söhrens ex K. Schumann) Backeberg 1938

Plants somewhat flattened globose to elongate, green, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) high, 13-14 cm (5.1-5.5 in) in diameter, the

Eriosyce Kunzei
Eriosyce kunzei var. kunzei

300 Eriosyce kunzei sunken stem tips nearly without spines but spines covering the stems. Ribs 16-20, obtuse, enlarged at areoles and forming tubercles. Spines curved upward to inward, yellowish, becoming gray. Central spines 2-4, thick, 45-50 mm (1.8-2 in) long. Radial spines 10-12, straight, pointed downward, 13-45 mm (0.5-1.8 in) long, upper ones longest. Flowers broadly funnelform, whitish yellow with reddish midveins, 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits oval, fleshy, hollow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: mountains to the north and south of Elqui Valley, Chile.

Two varieties of Eriosyce kunzei are recognized. Variety kunzei has very thin, needle-like spines and is found throughout the range of the species. Variety transitensis has much thicker spines and is found east ofVallenar to Conay, Atacama.

Eriosyce laui J. M. Luthy 1994

Plants globose to slightly elongate toward their bases, whitish green to reddish, weakly covered with wax, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Taproots carrot shaped, clearly distinguished from the stems. Ribs barely distinguishable, forming nipple-shaped tubercles with narrow leaflike structures. Spines 9-13, not differentiated as centrals and radials, thin, needlelike, brittle, translucent white, spreading, to 9 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers often borne in clusters of as many as six at the stem tips, narrowly funnelform, sulfur yellow above, whitish yellow below, 20 mm (0.8 in) long, 15 mm (0.6 in) in diameter; pericarpels naked or nearly so. Fruits elongate, red, naked, balloonlike, to 35 mm (1.4 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast south of Tocopilla, Anto-fagasta, Chile.

Eriosyce limariensis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus limariensis F. Ritter 1980, Neoporteria limariensis (F. Ritter) Ferryman 1991 ?Echinopsis nigricans Linke 1857, ?Chilenia nigricans (Linke) Backeberg 1939

?Echinocactus nigricans A. Dietrich ex K. Schumann 1898, ?Neoporteria nigricans (A. Dietrich ex K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1922, ? Horridocactus nigricans (A. Dietrich ex K. Schumann) Backeberg & Dolz 1942

Plants globose, gray-green, lacking spines apically, 5-15 cm (2-5.9 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous or occasionally large taproots. Ribs 13-20, notched, with chinlike protrusions below the areoles. Spines brown with darker tips, slightly curved, awl shaped, somewhat curved upward. Central spines 1-4, sometimes forming a cross, 20-45 mm (0.8-1.8 in) long. Radial spines 6-10, more or less pointing sideways, 1540 mm (0.6-1.6 in) long, upper one longest. Flowers funnelform, sulfur yellow with purplish midveins, 3.5-5.5 cm

(1.4-2.2 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels with short wool. Fruits oval, thick walled, fleshy, reddish, hollow, to 2.7 cm (1.1 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: Samo Alto and Coquimbo south into the valleys of the Rio Molles and Rio Limari, thence to Combarbalä, Chile.

Eriosyce marksiana (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus marksianus F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus marksianus (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Neoporteria marksiana (F. Ritter) Donald & G. D. Rowley 1966 Pyrrhocactus lissocarpus F. Ritter 1960, Horridocactus lissocarpus (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1962, Eriosyce marksiana var. lissocarpa (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994 Pyrrhocactus lissocarpus var. gracilis F. Ritter 1960 Eriosyce marksiana var. gracilis (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Plants flattened globose to subglobose, later elongate, with sunken and naked stem tips, gray-green, 12-24 cm (4.7-9.4 in) in diameter. Roots fibrous. Ribs 16-28, sunken above and below the areoles. Spines thick, grayish brown with dark tips. Central spines 1-6, not flattened, curved strongly upward. Radial spines 8-12, directed sideways and somewhat upward. Flowers numerous, borne near the stem tips, funnelform to bell shaped, lemon yellow to occasionally reddish yellow, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits brownish red to greenish, fleshy, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: along the coast and into the Andes south of Santiago, Chile.

Three varieties of Eriosyce marksiana are recognized. Variety marksiana has thick, needle-like spines and occurs throughout the range of the species. Variety gracilis has much thinner, longer, yellow spines; it occurs from Cerro Horcon de Piedra south to Cerro Nacimiento. Variety lissocarpa has thin, horn-colored to gray spines; it occurs between Colch-agua, Libertador, and Curicö, Maule, Chile.

Eriosyce napina (Philippi) Kattermann 1994

NAPIN

Echinocactus napinus Philippi 1872, Neoporteria napina (Philippi) Backeberg 1935, Chilenia napina (Philippi) Backeberg 1939, Neochilenia napina (Philippi) Backeberg 1942, Thelocephala napina (Philippi) Y. I to 1957; Chileorebutia napina (Philippi) F. Ritter 1959, not validly published Echinocactus mitis Philippi 1894, Neochilenia mitis (Philippi) Backeberg 1959

Neochilenia imitans Backeberg 1959, not validly published Neochilenia lembckei Backeberg 1959, not validly published; Thelocephala lembckei (Backeberg) F. Ritter 1980, not validly published; Eriosyce napina subsp. lembckei Kattermann 1994 Neochilenia neoreichei Backeberg 1959, not validly published; Reich-eocactus neoreichei (Backeberg) Backeberg 1962, not validly published

Eriosyce odien 301

Chileorebutia duripulpa F. Ritter 1963, not validly published; Neochiie-nia duripulpa (F. Ritter) Backeberg 1963, Thelocephala duripulpa (F, Ritter) F. Ritter 1980, Eriosyce napina var. duripulpa (F. Ritter) Kattermann 1994

Plants small, flattened globose to slightly elongate, 2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) in diameter, with naked or slightly woolly stem tips. Taproots large, tuberous, connected to the stems by necks. Ribs developing into low tubercles with sunken areoles. Spines few to many, appearing as radials except possibly one as a central, horn colored, flattened against the surface or somewhat radiating, 2-5 mm long. Flowers borne on young tubercles, funnelform, pale yellow to pale reddish; peri-carpels and floral tubes with whitish wool and bristles. Fruits elongate, dehiscing by basal pores. Distribution: valley of the Rio Huasco from Huasco to Vallenar, Atacama, Chile.

Two subspecies (one with two varieties) of Eriosyce napina are recognized. Subspecies napina has large tubercles, stems that never elongate, and black spines flattened against the stem surface; it occurs from Huasco to 15 km (9.3 miles) south of Freirina. Subspecies lembckei comprises two varieties. Variety lembckei has small tubercles, stems that sometimes become elongate, and horn-colored spines; it occurs only west of Freirina. Variety duripulpa has globose stems, small tubercles, and horn-colored spines; it occurs from Vallenar to Huasco.

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