Echinopsis sucrensis Crdenas 1963

Plants commonly forming clusters. Stems globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, 3-7 cm (1.2-2.8 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs about 12, acute above, rounded below. Areoles gray, close set. Spines light gray, swollen basally. Central spine one, directed downward, awl shaped, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 14-16, flattened against the stem surface, needle-like, 0.8-1.5 cm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, to 21 cm (8.3 in) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution: Oropeza province, Chuquisaca, Bolivia.

Echinopsis tacaquirensis (Vaupel) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Cereus tacaquirensis Vaupel 1916, Trichocereus tacaquirensis (Vaupel) Cárdenas ex Backeberg 1959 Trichocereus taquimbaiensis Cárdenas 1953, Echinopsis taquim-balensis (Cárdenas) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974, E. tacaquirensis subsp. taquimbaiensis (Cárdenas) G. Navarro 1996

Plants shrubby, branching basally with crowded ascending branches to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, robust, dark green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs variable, as many as 9, to 2 cm (0.8 in) high. Areoles white, large, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Spines sometimes not clearly differentiated as centrals and radials, mostly radiating, bristle- to needle-like, sometimes interlacing, white to pink to blackish, 1-6 cm (0.4-2.4 in) long. Flowers white to delicate pink, to 23 cm (9.1 in) long; floral tubes with brown hairs. Fruits dark green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: western Argentina and Bolivia.

Two subspecies of Echinopsis tacaquirensis are recognized. Subspecies tacaquirensis typically does not have readily distinguishable central and radial spines; it occurs in western Argentina. Subspecies taquimbaiensis has easily distinguishable central and radial spines; it occurs in Taquimbala province, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Echinopsis taratensis (Cárdenas) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Trichocereus taratensis Cárdenas 1966

Plants shrubby, branching basally with several upright branches 1-1.5 m (3.3-4.9 ft) high. Stems club shaped, dark green, 7-8 cm (2.8-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs about 15, acute. Areoles round, sunken, gray, to 1.2 cm (0.5 in) apart. Spines yellowish gray to yellow. Central spine one, pointing downward, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) long. Radial spines 8-10, spreading, 0.4-1.2 cm (to 0.5 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, open during the day, funnelform, white, 19-20 cm (7.5-7.9 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Tarata province, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Echinopsis tarijensis (Vaupel) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Cereus tarijensis Vaupel 1916, Trichocereus tarijensis (Vaupel) Werdermann 1940; Helianthocereus tarijensis (Vaupel) Backeberg 1955, not validly published; Lobivia formosa subsp. tarijensis (Vaupel) Rausch 1977

Trichocereus poco Backeberg 1935, Helianthocereus poco (Backeberg) Backeberg 1951, Echinopsis poco (Backeberg) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974 Trichocereus herzogianus Cárdenas 1953, Helianthocereus herzo-gianus (Cárdenas) Backeberg 1955, Echinopsis herzogiana (Cárde-

Lobivia Large Central Spine
Echinopsis tarijensis subsp. tarijensis

Echinopsis terscheckii 283

ñas) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974, £ taríjensis subsp. herzog-iana (Cárdenas) G. Navarro 1996 Trichocereus herzogianus var. totorensis Cárdenas 1953, T. totorensis (Cárdenas) F. Ritter 1980, Echinopsis taríjensis subsp. totorensis (Cárdenas) G. Navarro 1996 ?Trichocereus narvaecensis Cárdenas 1953, ?Helianthocereus nar-vaecensis (Cárdenas) Backeberg 1955, ?Echinopsis narvaecensis (Cárdenas) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Plants shrubby, solitary at first, later branching from the sides, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, stout, dark green, to 35 cm (14 in) in diameter. Ribs 15-21. Areoles large, prominent, with dense gray felt, close set. Spines rigid, sharp, swollen basally, unequal, slightly curving, pale brown to whitish, 1-8 cm (0.4-3.1 in) long. Central spines 1-4. Radial spines 50 or more. Flowers borne near the stem tips, funnelform, red to pink to creamy white, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long and 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Fruits ovoid, green, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: southern Bolivia and northern Argentina.

Three subspecies of Echinopsis taríjensis are recognized. Subspecies tarijensis typically has about 15 ribs and 3-4 central spines; it occurs in Bolivia and Argentina. Subspecies herzogiana usually has about 21 acute ribs and a single central spine; it occurs near La Paz, Bolivia. Subspecies totorensis also has about 21 ribs but 3-4 central spines; it occurs on the road to Totora, Bolivia.

curved, horn colored with dark tips, to 6 mm (0.2 in) long, the longest sometimes hooked. Flowers borne laterally, red to orange to yellow, with pinkish orange throats, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long; perianth parts short. Fruits green, thin skinned, juicy, spiny, to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Distribution: Huan-cayo to Tarma, Junin, Peru.

Echinopsis terscheckii (Parmentier) H. Friedrich &G. D. Rowley 1974

Cereus terscheckii Parmentier 1837, Pilocereus terscheckii (Parmentier) Riimpler 1885, Trichocereus terscheckii (Parmentier) Britton & Rose 1920

Trichocereus werdermannianus Backeberg 1935, Echinopsis werder-manniana (Backeberg) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Plants treelike, many branched with age, with several erect columnar branches, 10-12 m (33-39 ft) high with distinct trunks to 45 cm (18 in) in diameter. Stems cylindrical, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-18, obtuse, prominent. Areoles large, brownish, 1.5-3 cm (0.6-1.2 in) apart. Spines 8-15, often more in older areoles, yellowish to brownish, 1-7 cm (0.4-2.8 in) or more long. Flowers borne laterally, bell shaped to funnelform, white, 15-20 cm (5.9-7.9 in) long, to 12.5 cm (4.9 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with dense white or brown axillary hairs. Fruits globose. Distribution: northern Argentina.

Echinopsis terscheckii

Echinopsis tarmaensis (Rauh & Backeberg) H. Friedrich &

G. D. Rowley 1974 Trichocereus tarmaensis Rauh & Backeberg 1956

Plants shrubby, branching basally with more or less erect branches to 2 m (6.6 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, dark green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 8, rounded, obliquely notched. Areoles somewhat sunken, gray. Spines horn colored, becoming gray with age. Central spine usually one, pointing horizontally, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Radial spines 25, 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Flowers white. Fruits 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Tarma, Junin, Peru.

Echinopsis tegeleriana (Backeberg) D. R. Hunt 1987 Lobivia tegeleriana Backeberg 1936, Acantholobivia tegeleriana

(Backeberg) Backeberg 1942 Lobivia incuiensls Rauh & Backeberg 1957, Acantholobivia incuiensis

(Rauh & Backeberg) Rauh & Backeberg 1958 Lobivia akersii Rausch 1973

Plants usually solitary, only occasionally forming small clumps. Taproots large. Stems globose, green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs about 16, distinctly tuberculate. Areoles oblong, to 1.7 cm (0.7 in) apart. Spines 12, more or less

Echinopsis terscheckii

284 Echinopsis thelegona

Echinopsis thelegona (F. A. C. Weber) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Cereus thelegonus F. A. C. Weber 1898, Trichocereus thelegonus (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose 1920

Plants shrubby with few branches, prostrate to creeping along the ground with slightly raised or ascending stem tips. Stems cylindrical, dark green, to 2 m (6.6 ft) long, 7-8 cm (2.8-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, low, forming prominent hexagonal tubercles. Areoles borne at tubercle tips, round. Spines pale yellow, becoming gray with age, often with dark tips. Central spine one, protruding, 2-4 cm (0.81.6 in) long. Radial spines 6-7, needle-like, spreading, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) long, lowest longest. Flowers funnelform, white, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter; floral tubes with reddish bristles and hairs. Fruits globose to ovoid, yellowish to red, dehiscent, tuberculate, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Tucuman, Argentina.

Echinopsis thelegonoides (Spegazzini) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974

Cereus thelegonoides Spegazzini 1905, Trichocereus thelegonoides

(Spegazzini) Britton & Rose 1920 Trichocereus rubinghianus Backeberg 1963, not validly published; Echinopsis rubinghiana (Backeberg) H. Friedrich &G. D. Rowley 1974, not validly published

Plants treelike with several erect branches, 4-6 m (13-20 ft) high with distinct trunks to 18 cm (7.1 in) in diameter. Stems

Echinopsis thelegona cylindrical, somewhat curved, obtuse apically, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 15-16, low, obtuse, not tuberculate but notched. Areoles small, round. Spines yellow to brownish, bristly. Central spines 4,7-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Radial spines about 11, 5-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers white, 20-24 cm (7.9-9.4 in) long. Distribution: Jujuy, Argentina.

Echinopsis thionantha (Spegazzini) Werdermann 1931 Echinocactus thionanthus Spegazzini 1905, Lobivia thionantha (Spegazzini) Britton & Rose 1922, Acanthocalycium thionanthum (Spegazzini) Backeberg 1935 Echinocactus chionanthus Spegazzini 1905, Lobivia chionantha (Spegazzini) Britton & Rose 1922, Echinopsis chionantha (Spegazzini) Werdermann 1931, Acanthocalycium chionanthum (Spegazzini) Backeberg 1935 Acanthocalycium griseum Backeberg 1963, not validly published Acanthocalycium brevispinum F. Ritter 1964, Echinopsis brevispina

(F. Ritter) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974 Acanthocalycium catamarcense F. Ritter 1980

Plants usually solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dark green to gray-green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 9-15, round, slightly notched and tuberculate. Areoles elliptical. Spines awl shaped, gray with dark tips, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Central spines 1—4, sometimes absent. Radial spines 5-10. Flowers somewhat bell shaped, bright yellow to red to white, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long and in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes with dark, spine-tipped scales and brown to white hairs and bristles. Fruits globose, dehiscent, hard, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Salta, Argentina.

Echinopsis tiegeliana (Wessner) D. R. Hunt 1991 Lobivia tiegeliana Wessner 1939, Hymenorebutia tiegeliana (Wessner)

F. Ritter 1980 Lobivia peclardiana Krainz 1948

Lobivia pusilla F. Ritter 1966, Hymenorebutia pusilla (F. Ritter) F. Ritter 1980

Mediolobivia hirsutissima Cárdenas 1971

Lobivia fricii Rausch 1973, Echinopsis fricii (Rausch) H. Friedrich 1974

Plants usually solitary, small, depressed globose to globose, shiny green, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 17-20, acute, spiraling, forming tubercles. Areoles white, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Spines awl shaped, reddish to horn colored, becoming gray with age. Central spines as many as 3, pointing downward, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Radial spines 8-10,4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, open during the day, shiny violet-pink, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and 4.2 cm (1.7 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to ovoid, semidry, dehiscent. Distribution: southern Bolivia and northern Argentina.

Echinopsis uyupampensis 285

Echinopsis trichosa (Cárdenas) H. Friedrich &G. D. Rowley 1974

Trichocereus trichosus Cárdenas 1957

Plants usually solitary, columnar, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stems cylindrical to club shaped, glaucous gray-green, 5-6 cm (22.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 9, round, broad. Areoles gray, triangular, to 5 cm (2 in) apart. Spines not readily differentiated as centrals and radials, awl shaped, stout, swollen basally, gray with dark tips. Central spine one, directed upward, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Radial spines 4-6, spreading or flattened against the stem surface, 1-3.5 cm (0.4-1.4 in) long. Flowers borne at the stem tips, funnelform, white, to 23 cm (9.1 in) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter; floral tubes with dense white and brown hairs. Fruits globose, very hairy, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Distribution: Cordillera province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Lobivia Large Central Spine
Echinopsis thionantha
Echinopsis Tubiflora
Echinopsis tubiflora

Echinopsis tubiflora (Pfeiffer) Zuccarini ex A. Dietrich 1846 Cereus tubiflorus Pfeiffer 1837 Echinopsis albispinosa K. Schumann 1903

Plants solitary or clustering. Stems globose to short cylindrical, dark green, to 75 cm (30 in) high, 12-15 cm (4.7-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-12, acute, wavy, deeply notched. Areoles white to gray to black, to 2 cm (0.8 in) apart. Spines yellowish with dark tips. Central spines 3-4, stout, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Radial spines as many as 20, erect, unequal, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers funnelform, white, to 24 cm (9.4 in) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution: northern Argentina.

Echinopsis tulhuayacensis (Ochoa) H. Friedrich & G. D.

Rowley 1974 Trichocereus tulhuayacensis Ochoa 1957

Plants columnar, branching basally or slightly above the ground, to 2 m (6.6 ft) high, sometimes with short trunks. Stems cylindrical, dark green, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-9, notched, forming low tubercles. Areoles yellow at first, later gray. Spines directed downward, whitish gray with dark tips. Central spines 3-4, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Radial spines about 8, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, bright rose to light pink, with cream throats, 7-12 cm (2.8-4.7 in) long; floral tubes with black hairs. Fruits dark green with brown hairs, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. Distribution: near Huancayo, Junin, Peru.

Echinopsis tunariensis (Cárdenas) H. Friedrich & G. D.

Rowley 1974 Trichocereus tunariensis Cárdenas 1959

Plants columnar, branching basally, 2-3 m (6.6-9.8 ft) high. Stems club shaped to cylindrical, dull green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 16-21, acute. Areoles oval, gray, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines about 17, not differentiated as centrals and radials, radiating, needle-like, flexible, some directed downward, 0.5-6 cm (0.2-2.4 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, open at night, funnelform, white, 15-17 cm (5.9-6.7 in) long, 12-15 cm (4.7-5.9 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Cercado province, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Echinopsis uyupampensis (Backeberg) H. Friedrich & G. D.

Rowley 1974 Trichocereus uyupampensis Backeberg 1935 ?Echinopsis valida Monville ex Salm-Dyck 1850, ?Trichocereus validus (Monville ex Salm-Dyck) Backeberg 1935

Plants shrubby with several prostrate to pendent branches. Stems cylindrical, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 9, flat,

286 Echinopsis uyupampensis narrow, slightly tuberculate. Areoles small, light brown. Spines 8-10, fine, pointing irregularly, dark, 2-6 mm (to 0.2 in) long. Flowers white with reddish exterior, to 16 cm (6.3 in) long. Distribution: Peru and Bolivia. Echinopsis uyupampensis is poorly known and its status very uncertain.

Echinopsis vasquezii (Rausch) G. D. Rowley 1975 Trichocereus vasquezii Rausch 1974

Plants branching basally, commonly forming clumps to 80 cm (31 in) high. Stems cylindrical, fresh green, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-14, low. Areoles round, white, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines needle-like, light brown, becoming gray with age. Central spines 1-4, forming a cross, 3-6 cm (1.22.4 in) long. Radial spines 10-12, pectinate, 0.8-1.5 cm (0.30.6 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, white, to 22 cm (8.7 in) long and 14 cm (5.5 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to ovoid, greenish brown, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Distribution: between Pojo, Cochabamba, and Comarapa, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Echinopsis vatteri (R. Kiesling) G. D. Rowley 1979 Trichocereus vatteri R. Kiesling 1976

Plants shrubby, branching to form low mats, to 50 cm (20 in) high and 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stems cylindrical, ascending, light green, 5.5-8 cm (2.2-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 14-16, obtuse. Areoles round, whitish to brownish, 1-1.5 cm (0.40.6 in) apart. Spines yellowish, at times reddish, needle-like, flexible. Central spines 1-4,3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long. Radial spines 10,1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) long. Flowers funnelform, odorless, red, orange, yellow, and intermediate colors, 10-14 cm (3.9-5.5 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Distribution: La Rioja, Argentina.

Echinopsis volliana (Backeberg) H. Friedrich 8c G. D. Rowley 1974

Trichocereus voilianus Backeberg 1935

Plants shrubby, branching basally with several erect stems. Stems cylindrical, glossy light green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, rounded. Areoles to 2.5 cm (1 in) apart. Spines amber. Central spine one, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Radial spines 8-11, radiating, thin, sharp, to 0.7 cm (0.3 in) long. Flowers white, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. Fruits oblong, hairy. Distribution: Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Echinopsis walteri (R. Kiesling) H. Friedrich & Glaetzle 1983 Lobivia walteri R. Kiesling 1976, Trichocereus walteri (R. Kiesling) J. G. Lambert 1998

Plants commonly forming clumps. Stems globose, green, to 16 cm (6.3 in) high and in diameter. Ribs about 11,1.5-2.5

cm (0.6-1 in) wide. Areoles whitish. Spines 5-15 or more, flexible, needle-like, yellow, 1-2.5 cm (0.4-1 in) long. Flowers borne from the very young areoles, bell shaped, open during the day, somewhat aromatic, yellow, 7.5-9 cm (3-3.5 in) long, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, greenish yellow, 1.7-2 cm (0.7-0.8 in) long, 2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) in diameter. Distribution: Quebrada de Escoipe, Salta, Argentina.

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