Plants solitary, globose, light green, 12-14 cm (4.7-5.5 in) high, to 13 cm (5.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 13, acute, notched. Areoles round, prominent, gray, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) apart. Central spine sometimes one, usually absent. Radial spines 5-6, thin, awl shaped, whitish to yellowish, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. Fruits elliptical, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Distribution: Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Echinopsis knuthiana (Backeberg) H. Friedrich &G. D.
Rowley 1974 Trichocereus knuthianus Backeberg 1937 Azureocereus deflexispinus Backeberg ex Rauh 1958
Plants treelike, branching above the ground, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high, usually with distinct trunks. Stems cylindrical, bright light blue-green, frosted, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs about 7, rounded, broad. Areoles round, woolly, gray. Central spine one, grayish white, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Radial spines 7, yellowish, becoming grayish white. Flowers large, white. Distribution: upper reaches of the Marañón, Peru.
Echinopsis korethroides Werdermann ex Backeberg 1931 Soehrensia korethroides (Werdermann ex Backeberg) Backeberg 1951, Trichocereus korethroides (Werdermann ex Backeberg) F. Ritter 1980
Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps. Stems globose to oblong, dull to glossy green, to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Ribs more than 20, tuberculate. Areoles whitish. Central spines 4, yellowish to reddish brown, sometimes banded and
flattened, sharp. Radial spines 12-20, unequal, whitish to yellowish, with dark tips, needle-like, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Flowers bell shaped to funnelform, intense red, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long and 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. Distribution: northern Argentina.
Echinopsis lageniformis (Förster) H. Friedrich & G. D.
Rowley 1974 Cereus lageniformis Förster 1861
Cereus bridgesii Salm-Dyck 1850, Trichocereus bridgesii (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1920
Plants treelike with some branching, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, pale green, slightly glaucous, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 4-8, obtuse, with broad furrows. Areoles large, to 2 cm (0.8 in) apart. Spines 2-6, unequal, needle- to awl-like, not swollen basally, yellowish, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Flowers white, to 18 cm (7.1 in) long. Fruits globose, hairy, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long. Distribution: La Paz, Bolivia.
Echinopsis lamprochlora (Lemaire) H. Friedrich & Glaetzle
1983 green torch
Cereus lamprochlorus Lemaire 1838, Trichocereus lamprochlorus
(Lemaire) Britton & Rose 1920 Trichocereus purpureopiiosus Weingart 1930, Echinopsis purpureo-pilosa (Weingart) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974
Plants shrubby with some basal branching, to 2 m (6.6 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, erect, glossy green, 7-8 cm (2.8-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 15, low, rounded. Spines stiff, sharp, yellowish with brown tips, becoming reddish brown with age. Central spines 4, forming a cross, lower one curving downward, 27-30 mm (1.1-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 12-15,6-9 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers funnelform, white, 20-24 cm (7.9-9.4 in) long. Distribution: Bolivia. There is some disagreement about what plant, exactly, Lemaire originally saw.
Echinopsis lateritia Gürke 1907 Lobivia lateritia (Gürke) Britton & Rose 1922 Lobivia carminantha Backeberg 1935 Lobivia kupperiana Backeberg 1935
Lobivia cintiensis Cárdenas 1959, Hymenorebutia cintiensis (Cárdenas) F. Ritter 1980 Lobivia scopulina Backeberg 1962 Lobivia camataquiensis Cárdenas 1963 Hymenorebutia torataensis F. Ritter 1980 Hymenorebutia torreana F. Ritter 1980
Plants always solitary, globose to short cylindrical, glaucous green, to 60 cm (24 in) high, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) in diam eter. Ribs 18, straight or slightly spiraling, acute, notched. Areoles sunken in notches, round, yellowish or gray, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) apart. Central spines 1-2, spreading, curved upward slightly, brownish, thickened basally, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines about 10, more or less curved, brownish, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers open during the day, funnelform, brick red to carmine, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) long. Fruits globose, semidry, dehiscent. Distribution: southern Bolivia.
272 Echinopsis leucantha
Echinopsis leucantha (Gillies ex Salm-Dyck) Walpers 1843
queen ofthe night, rose easter lily cactus
Echinocactus leucanthus Gillies ex Salm-Dyck 1834, Cereus leucan-
thus (Gillies ex Salm-Dyck) Pfeiffer 1837 Echinopsis cordobensis Spegazzini 1905 Echinopsis intricatissima Spegazzini 1905 Echinopsis melanopotamica Spegazzini 1905 Echinopsis shaferi Britton & Rose 1922 Echinopsis spegazziniana Britton & Rose 1922
Plants usually solitary but sometimes forming small clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, to 35 cm (14 in) high and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-14, obtuse, slightly notched. Areoles yellowish white, oblong, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) apart. Central spine one, thick, curved upward, brown, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) long. Radial spines 8-10, curved, yellowish brown, somewhat twisted, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, white, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Fruits globose, fleshy, deep red. Distribution: western Argentina.
Echinopsis litoralis (Johow) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley
1974 quisco costero
Cereus litoralis Johow 1921, Trichocereus litoralis (Johow) Looser 1929
Plants shrubby with several arching or erect branches arising basally, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, gray to dark green, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs about 20, fairly prominent, not wide, somewhat tuberculate. Areoles oblique, yellowish, to 1 cm (0.4 in) apart. Spines yellowish at first, later gray. Central spines 2-6, not alike, fairly
Echinopsis leucantha thick, 1.6-2.4 cm (0.6-0.9 in) long. Radial spines 15-29, thin, awl shaped, radiating. Flowers borne laterally near the stem tips, curving somewhat, white, 12-14 cm (4.7-5.5 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Fruits brownish green, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: along the coast north of Valparaiso, Chile.
Echinopsis macrogona (Salm-Dyck) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley 1974
Cereus macrogonus Salm-Dyck 1850, Trichocereus macrogonus (Salm-Dyck) Riccobono 1909
Plants shrubby with several erect stems, 2-3 m (6.6-9.8 ft) high. Stems cylindrical, stiff, blue-green, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 6—9, prominent, rounded, with narrow furrows between. Areoles gray, 1.5-2 cm (0.6-0.8 in) apart. Spines needle-like, yellowish to brown. Central spines 1-3, spreading, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) long. Radial spines 6-9, spreading, straight, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, showy, white, to 18 cm (7.1 in) long. Distribution: Bolivia.
Echinopsis mataranensis 273
Echinopsis mamillosa Gürke 1907 Echinopsis ritteri Boedeker 1932
Pseudolobivia kermesina Krainz 1942, Echinopsis kermesina (Krainz)
Krainz 1961 ? Echinopsis herbasii Cárdenas 1956 ? Echinopsis roseolilacina Cárdenas 1957 Echinopsis silvatica F. Ritter 1965, E. mamillosa subsp. silvatica (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995
Plants solitary, flattened globose to depressed globose, glossy dark green, to 30 cm (12 in) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-17, acute, deeply furrowed, distinctly tubercu-late. Areoles round, to 1.2 cm (0.5 in) apart. Spines straight or curved, yellowish with brown tips. Central spines 1-4, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 8-12, awl shaped, 0.5-1 cm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers slightly curving funnelform, white with rose tips, 13-18 cm (5.1-7.1 in) long, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Fruits globose. Distribution: Bolivia.
Two subspecies of Echinopsis mamillosa are recognized. Subspecies mamillosa tends to be much smaller, rarely exceeding 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, and has 17 ribs and somewhat curved spines; it occurs in the vicinity of Tarija. Subspecies silvatica may reach 30 cm (12in) in height,has 13-16 ribs, and mostly straight spines; it occurs in O'Connor province, Tarija.
Echinopsis marsoneri Werdermann 1932 Lobivia marsoneri (Werdermann) Backeberg 1935, L. chrysantha subsp. marsoneri (Werdermann) Rausch ex G. D. Rowley 1982 Lobivia haageana Backeberg 1933 Lobivia jajoiana Backeberg 1933, L. chrysantha subsp.jajoiana
(Backeberg) Rausch exG. D. Rowley 1982 Lobivia iridescens Backeberg 1935 Lobivia rubescens Backeberg 1935 Lobivia nigrostoma Kreuzinger & Burning 1950 Lobivia uitewaaleana Buining 1951 Lobivia muhriae Backeberg 1963, not validly published Lobivia glauca Rausch 1971 Lobivia buiningiana F. Ritter 1980 Lobivia miniatinigra F. Ritter 1980 Lobivia tuberculosa F. Ritter 1980
Plants usually solitary, light gray-green, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and in diameter. Ribs about 20, compressed, spiraling. Spines whitish gray to yellowish, darker basally. Central spines 2-5, projecting outward, hooked, thickened basally. Radial spines 8-12, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Flowers yellow with orange to red to brown throats, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long and in diameter. Distribution: northern Argentina.
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