Cylindropuntia xviridiflora Britton 8c Rose F M Knuth

1935, as a species Opuntia viridiflora Britton & Rose 1919

Cylindropuntia Xviridiflora is a naturally occurring hybrid, C. imbricata X C. whipplei. Distribution: New Mexico.

Cylindropuntia versicolor

Cylindropuntia Xvivipara (Rose) F. M. Knuth 1935, as a species Opuntia vivipara Rose 1909

Cylindropuntia xvivipara is a naturally occurring hybrid, C. arbuscula x C. versicolor. Distribution: Arizona.

Cylindropuntia whipplei (Engelmann & Bigelow) F. M. Knuth 1935

clokey cholla, plateau cholla, rattail cholla, whipple's cactus, whipple's cholla Opuntia whipplei Engelmann & Bigelow 1856 Opuntia hualpaensis Hester 1943, Cylindropuntia hualpaensis (Hester) Backeberg 1958

Plants treelike or shrubby, low to upright, sparingly to much branched, branches whorled or nearly so, 0.5-1.3 m (1.6-4.3 ft) high. Stem segments slender, green, 3-15 cm (1.2-5.9 in) long, 0.5-2.2 cm (0.2-0.9 in) in diameter, with very prominent short tubercles. Areoles with pale yellow to white wool, aging gray, oval to triangular. Glochids yellow, 1-3 mm long. Spines 1-10, usually 3-8, on all but the most basal areoles, white to reddish brown, dimorphic; sheaths white to pale yellow. Distal spines 4-6, stout, spreading to form a cross, 2-4.5 cm (0.8-1.8 in) long. Basal spines usually 4 and lateral, slender, flattened basally, bent backward, 5-8 mm (0.20.3 in) long. Flowers pale yellow, yellow, to greenish yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Fruits broadly cylindrical to nearly round, pulpy to fleshy, spineless, yellow to greenish yellow, 1.8-3.5 cm (0.7-1.4 in) long, 1.5-3.2 cm (0.6-1.3 in) in diameter. Distribution: upper deserts, grasslands, woodlands, sagebrush desert, and pine forests in Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Roots of Cylindropuntia whipplei are used medicinally (Chapter 2, under Cacti as Medicine).

Cylindropuntia wolfii (L. D. Benson) Rebman 2001 Opuntia echinocarpa var. wolfei L. D. Benson 1969,0. wolfii (L. D. Benson) M. A. Baker 1992

Plants more or less erect shrubs with dense branching, 0.51.5 m (1.6-4.9 ft) high. Stem segments yellowish to gray-green, 6-40 cm (2.4-16 in) long, 2.5-4 cm (1-1.6 in) in diameter, with prominent tubercles. Areoles with tan to yellow wool, aging gray, round to triangular. Glochids yellow to light brown, irregular in length. Spines 12-30, gold to pale brown, becoming dark brown with age, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long; sheaths translucent yellow to pale brown. Flowers yellowish green with tinges of bronze to purplish brown. Fruits dry, densely spiny, grayish tan, with prominent tubercles, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long, 1.5-3 cm (0.6-1.2 in) in diameter. Distribution: dry, rocky areas in California, and adjacent Baja California, Mexico.

Cylindropuntia whipplei

Spiny Treelike Cactus

Dendrocereus undulosus ments usually short, cylindrical. Ribs 3-5, thin, high, with wavy or notched margins. Areoles lacking longhairs. Spines not differentiated as centrals and radials, sometimes absent. Flowers borne near the stem tips, open at night, broadly funnelform, white; floral tubes cylindrical, with short, reflexed scales; perianth parts spreading; peri-carpels with few areoles bearing a few spines. Fruits globose to pear shaped, Indehiscent, naked, green. Seeds brown, rough. Distribution: Cuba and Haiti.

Dendrocereus nudiflorus (Engelmann ex Sauvalle) Britton

& Rose 1920 flor de copa, goblet flower Cereus nudiflorus Engelmann ex Sauvalle 1869

Plants treelike, much branched, 7-10 m (23-33 ft) high with distinct trunks to 1 m (3.3 ft) high and 60 cm (24 in) in di


Dendrocereus is one of several poorly understood genera of tropical cacti. Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose described the genus in 1920, the name Dendrocereus derived from the Greek dendron, tree, thus tree cereus. The type of the genus is Cereus nudiflorus (= D. nudiflorus), which some consider to be a synonym of D. undulosus. The International Cacta-ceae Systematics Group (Hunt 1999a), however, has provisionally accepted two species and that decision is followed here. The group has struggled with the placement of these taxa, first placing them in Acanthocereus (Hunt and Taylor 1986,1990) with the statement that perhaps they are simply more treelike forms of Acanthocereus. Further discussions led to the conclusion that it is best to consider Dendrocereus a separate genus, pending further research. Dendrocereus is treelike with distinct, woody trunks. The stems have three to five ribs and usually are very spiny. Flowers are open at night, broadly funnelform, and white.

Dendrocereus Britton & Rose 1920

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Pachycereeae. Plants treelike with many erect or pendent branches and well-formed trunks. Stem seg


Dendrocereus undulosus

Dendrocereus nudiflorus ameter. Stem segments short, dull green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs 3-5, winglike, notched, to 7 cm (2.8 in) high. Spines 2-15, sometimes absent, needle-like, gray with dark tips, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers narrowly tubular, white, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) long. Fruits usually globose, smooth, 8-12 cm (3.1-4.7 in) long. Distribution: Cuba. Dendrocereus nudiflorus maybe the same as IX undulosus.

Dendrocereus undulosus (A. P. de Candolle) Britton & Rose


Cereus undulosus A. P. de Candolle 1828, Acanthocereus undulosus

(A. P. de Candolle) Croizat 1943

Plants treelike, much branched, to 10 m (33 ft) high; trunks stout, erect, very spiny. Stem segments three- to five-winged, light or dull green, with deeply undulate margins. Spines several, needle-like, straight, nearly erect, light colored, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers narrowly tubular, white, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) long, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter; pericarpels and floral tubes nearly naked. Fruits globose to pear shaped, yellow, hard, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Distribution: Haiti.


At times Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose must have had difficulty thinking of names for the genera of cacti they were describing. Denmoza is perhaps a case in point for they simply created an anagram of Mendoza, the province in Argentina from which the original plant came. Beat Leuenberger (1993) made an excellent study of the taxonomic history of the genus and emphasized that there has long been disagreement as to whether it is distinct and how many species should be included.

The first collection of Denmoza was made by John Gilles near the town of Mendoza, probably in 1821. The first name applied to the plant sent to Europe by Gilles was Cactus coccinea, but it was never formally described. However, a sheet in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, labeled with that name and bearing plant material probably collected by Gilles, serves as the neotype specimen. Plants from the same Gilles collection appeared in Germany about the same time and were described in 1834 by Prince Salm-Dyck as Echinocactus rhodacanthus. The species was placed in a number of different genera, including Cereus, Cleistocactus, Echinopsis, Oreocereus, and Pilocereus; Britton and Rose separated it into its own genus, Denmoza (type, Echinocactus rhodacanthus = D. rhodacantha). The International Cacta-ceae Systematics Group (Hunt and Taylor 1986,1990) first included it in Cleistocactus but now accepts it as a distinct genus (Hunt 1999a). Denmoza varies in form from barrel shaped to columnar, and the flowers are open during the day in summer, pollinated by hummingbirds.

Denmoza Britton & Rose 1922

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Trichocereeae.

Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocactus rhodacanthus Salm-Dyck 1834, Echinopsis rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck) Förster 1846, Cleistocactus rhodacanthus (SalmDyck) Lemaire 1861, Cereus rhodacanthus (Salm-Dyck) F. A. C. Weber ex A. Berger 1929 Pilocereus erythrocephalus K. Schumann 1897, Cereus erythroceph-alus (K. Schumann) A. Berger 1905, Denmoza erythrocephala (K. Schumann) A. Berger 1929

Plants solitary, globose to short columnar, to 1.5 m (59 in) high, 20-30 cm (7.9-12 in) in diameter. Ribs as many as 30, broad basally, to 1 cm (0.4 in) high. Areoles separate at first, later confluent. Spines brownish red, becoming gray, very different on young and old plants. Central spine one, sometimes absent, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 8-10, awl shaped, slightly curved. Flower-producing areoles often bearing several long, brown bristles as well as spines to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Flowers borne near the tops of the stems, open during the day, tubular, bilaterally symmetrical, scarlet; floral tubes usually curved and slightly dilated above the pericarpels, which bear small appressed scales; filaments red, with anthers exserted at least 10 mm (0.4 in) beyond the tubes; nectar chambers with staminodial collars and hairs. Fruits globose, dry when ripe, dehiscent, with tuffs of short hairlike spines. Distribution: eastern slope and the foothills of the Andes from Mendoza to Salta in northwestern and western Argentina.

Denmoza	Rhodacantha
Denmoza rhodacantha

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