F. Ritter 1981
Tephrocactus crassicylindricus Rauh & Backeberg 1956, Opuntia crassicylindrica (Rauh & Backeberg) G. D. Rowley 1958
Plants lax shrubs. Stem segments large, ellipsoidal to somewhat cylindrical, tuberculate, to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Areoles as many as 40 or more, covering the segments. Spines as many as 7, stout, erect or spreading, mostly on upper parts of segments, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers bright yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long; pericarpels tuberculate, spiny. Fruits spiny. Distribution: Arequipa, Peru.
Cumulopuntia dactylifera (Vaupel) E. F. Anderson 1999 Opuntia dactylifera Vaupel 1913, Tephrocactus dactylifer (Vaupel) Backeberg 1958
Tephrocactus cylindrarticulatus Cárdenas 1952, Opuntia cylindrarticu-
lata (Cárdenas) G. D. Rowley 1958 Tephrocactus noodtiae Backeberg & Jacobs 1957, Opuntia noodtiae (Backeberg & Jacobs) G. D. Rowley 1958
Plants forming dense cushions. Stem segments ovoid to oblong, often glaucous, with imbricated tubercles, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) or more long. Areoles 12-14, on upper parts of segments. Spines as many as 7, sometimes absent, borne on uppermost areoles only, erect, reddish brown, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Fruits elongate, date shaped, bare, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile.
Cumulopuntia frígida F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia frígida (F. Ritter) G. Navarro 1996
Plants forming very dense cushions of medium size. Stem segments small, short cylindrical, somewhat obtuse, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Spines 10-15, straight, reddish to white, shiny, spreading to obliquely erect, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers yellow to orange. Fruits larger than stem segments, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long, without areoles below, rim crowded with areoles bearing bristles to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Distribution: watershed between Oruro and Potosí, Bolivia, at elevations above 4000 m (13,000 ft).
Cumulopuntia fulvicoma (Rauh 8c Backeberg) E. F. Anderson 1999
Tephrocactus fulvicomus Rauh & Backeberg 1956, Opuntia fulvicoma (Rauh & Backeberg) G. D. Rowley 1958
Plants forming cushions. Stem segments subglobose to ovoid, to 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) long. Areoles about 20, borne on indistinct tubercles only on upper portion of segments. Spines 3-5, arising from areoles near the segment tips, mostly erect, unequal, leather brown, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers yellow within, reddish without, with unusually short stigma lobes; pericarpels with stiff spines to 2 cm (0.8 in) at rims. Distribution: Ayacucho, Peru.
Cumulopuntia galerasensis F. Ritter 1981 Opuntia galerasensis (F. Ritter) D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming small, dense cushions. Stem segments ellipsoidal, somewhat tuberculate, extensively spiny, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Areoles large. Spines as many as 12, strong, needlelike, erect or spreading, straight or curved, orange-brown, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Flowers lemon yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long; pericarpels spiny near the rims. Fruits globose, with erect spines to 4 cm (1.6 in) long at the rims. Distribution: Ayacucho, Peru.
Cumulopuntia hystrix F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia sanctae-barbarae D. R. Hunt 1997
Plants forming cushions. Stem segments stout, tuberculate, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, with areoles extending more than halfway down with extensive and strong spines. Tubercles prominent, elongated. Areoles not sunken. Spines 12, very strong, needle-like, densely spreading in all directions, straight, gray-brown, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) or more long. Flowers golden yellow tinged with purple, to 5 cm (2 in) long; pericarpels with spiny areoles near rims. Fruits to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, bearing spines 1-6 cm (0.4-2.4 in) long on rims. Distribution: Antofagasta, Chile.
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