Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching basally. Stems globose to oval, dark to blackish green, 9-10 cm (3.5-3.9 in) high, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Tubercles nearly round, conical, with naked axils. Areoles woolly at first, later naked. Central spines 3-5, sometimes absent, gray. Radial spines 12-15, thin, whitish, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers whitish cream to yellow, 2.5-4 cm (1-1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits oblong, gray-green, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Durango, Mexico. There is considerable confusion about the nature of Coryphantha calochlora, which has been interpreted taxonomically in different ways.
Coryphantha clavata (Scheidweiler) Backeberg 1942 Mammillaria clavata Scheidweiler 1838, Neolloydia clavata (Scheidweiler) Britton & Rose 1923
Plants usually solitary. Stems cylindrical to club shaped, dark blue-green, to 30 cm (12 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Tubercles distant, obliquely conical, with shallow
furrows, with one or two red glands, axils with white wool. Central spine one, sometimes absent, straight, yellowish to brown, 20-30 mm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 8-9, brownish with dark tips, 8-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Flowers pale yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
in) in diameter. Distribution: widely distributed in central Mexico but mainly in Hidalgo and Queretaro.
Coryphantha cornuta (Hildmann ex K. Schumann)
A. Berger 1929 Mammillaria cornuta Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898
Coryphantha compacta (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria compacta Engelmann 1848 Coryphantha palmerI Britton & Rose 1923
Plants usually solitary. Stems globose, pale to dark green, 2-6 cm (0.8-2.4 in) high, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) in diameter. Tubercles close set, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Central spine one, sometimes absent, stout, hooked, yellowish with dark tip, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 11-16, rigid, flattened against the stem surface and interwoven, white to yellow, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and in diameter. Fruits ovate. Distribution: Chihuahua, Tamauli-pas, and Durango, Mexico. The ethnobotanical use of Coryphantha compacta is mentioned in Chapter 2, under Cacti as Medicine.
Coryphantha cornifera (A. P. de Candolle) Lemaire 1868
Plants solitary. Stems globose to ovoid, pale or glaucous green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) high. Tubercles diamond shaped to conical, somewhat imbricate, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Central spine one, sometimes absent, stout, curved downward, dark colored. Radial spines 16-17, grayish, 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long and 6 cm (2.4
Plants solitary, flattened globose to globose, gray-green, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) high, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Tubercles imbricate, to 17 mm (0.7 in) high. Central spine one, stout, bent downward, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Radial spines 5-7, radiating, compressed, whitish to yellowish, with dark tips, 4-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers yellow, often fading to pink. Distribution: Mexico. Coryphantha cornuta is poorly known and it is questionable whether it warrants taxonomic recognition.
Coryphantha delaetiana (Quehl) A. Berger 1929 Mammillaria delaetiana Quehl 1908
Mammillaria s aim-dyckiana ScheerexSalm-Dyck 1850, Coryphantha salm-dyckiana (Scheerex Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria gladiispina Boedeker 1925, Coryphantha gladiispina
(Boedeker) A. Berger 1929 Coryphantha pseudonlckelsiae Backeberg 1949 Coryphantha laui L. Bremer 1979 Coryphantha cuencamensis L. Bremer 1980
Plants solitary, often forming clumps with age. Stems globose to short cylindrical, light green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles rhomboid, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Central spines 1-4, reddish to black, lower one stout and slightly curved but sometimes absent, others ascending, 20-29 mm (0.8-1.1 in) long. Radial spines 7-15, gray or whitish, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers pale yellow, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Distribution: Durango, Coahuila, and Chihuahua, Mexico.
Coryphantha difficilis (Quehl) Orcutt 1926 Mammillaria difficilis Quehl 1908
Plants solitary, globose, ovoid, to short cylindrical, pale blue-gray, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Tubercles strongly erect, distorted conical, imbricate, to 10 mm (0.4 in) high. Central spines 4, very rigid, strongly curved, whitish to reddish brown, with dark tips, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 12-14, both rigid and slender, whitish with brown tips, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers yellow, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Fruits green. Distribution: Coahuila and possibly Nuevo León, Mexico. Coryphantha difficilis apparently intergrades and is sympatric with C. salinensis.
Coryphantha durangensis (Rünge ex K. Schumann) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria durangensis Rünge ex K. Schumann 1898
Plants commonly branching, forming small clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, pale blue-gray or gray-green,
5-15 cm (2-5.9 in) high, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) in diameter. Tubercles somewhat compressed, axils very woolly. Central spine one, rarely as many as 3, erect, blackish, straight or slightly curved, 11-18 mm (0.4-0.7 in) long. Radial spines
6-20, spreading, white, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers white to very pale yellowish, sometimes with reddish purple tips, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) in diameter. Fruits greenish, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long and 5 mm in diameter. Distribution: Coahuila and Durango, Mexico.
Coryphantha echinoidea (Quehl) Britton &Rose 1923 Mammillaria echinoidea Quehl 1913
Coryphantha schwarziana Boedeker ex Backeberg & F. M. Knuth 1935
Plants solitary, globose, opaque green, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles loosely disposed, conical, some truncated, to 10 mm (0.4 in) high, axils slightiy woolly when young, later naked. Central spines 1-3, awl shaped, straight or slightiy curved downward, rigid, reddish to brownish, with darker tips, 11-16 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 20-24, needle-like, flexible, straight to slighdy curved, white to gray, with dark tips, 10-14 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers rose to lemon yellow, 3.5-5 cm (1.4-2 in) in diameter. Fruits widely club shaped, opaque green, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Distribution: Durango, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
Coryphantha echinus (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1923
cory-cactus hedgehog, sea urchin cactus Mammillaria echinus Engelmann 1856
Mammillaria pectinata Engelmann 1856, Coryphantha pectinata (Engelmann) Britton & Rose 1923
Plants often solitary but sometimes forming large clumps nearly hidden by dense spines. Stems globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, 3-20 cm (1.2-7.9 in) high, 3-6.5 cm (1.2-2.6 in) in diameter. Tubercles tough, conical to cylindrical, to 12 mm (0.5 in) long. Central spines 1-4, sometimes absent, whitish with dark tips, upper one very rigid, erect, usually straight, lower ones straight and more slender. Radial spines 16-30, interlacing, whitish, 10-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers glossy bright yellow, 2.5-5.5 cm (1-2.2 in) in diameter. Fruits green, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Distribution: west Texas south into Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico.
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