Copiapoa cinerea subsp. haseltonia (Backeberg) N. P.Taylor 1997
Copiapoa gigantea Backeberg 1936, C. cinerea subsp. gigantea
(Backeberg) Slaba 1997 Copiapoa eremophila F. Ritter 1980 Copiapoa tenebrosa F. Ritter 1980
Plants commonly forming large clumps, branching both basally and laterally, to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high and 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stems globose to cylindrical, gray-green to gray, 12-25 cm (4.7-9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 20-37, notched, becoming flattened. Areoles large, orangish. Central spine one, sometimes absent. Radial spines as many as 9, yellowish with darker tips, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Flowers yellow. Distribution: vicinity of Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile. Copiapoa haseltoniana is believed by some to be a population of C. cinerea.
Copiapoa humilis (Philippi) Hutchison 1953
Echinocactus humilis Philippi 1860 Copiapoa paposoensis F. Ritter 1980
Plants sometimes solitary, usually forming clumps. Taproots large, connected to the stems by long slender necks. Stems globose, olive green to dark green, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) high,
3-9 cm (1.2-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-14, forming distinct tubercles. Areoles well separated, with white wool. Central spines 1-4, sometimes absent on young stems, fairly slender, erect, gray, straight or curved, 10-35 mm (0.4-1.4 in) long.
Radial spines 7-13, needle-like, flattened against the stem surface, 2-25 mm (to 1 in) long. Flowers dark yellow, with odor, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long. Fruits round, naked, bright red, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Distribution: Tocopilla, Antofagasta, south along the coast to Barquito, Atacama, just south of Chanaral, Antofagasta, Chile.
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