Copiapoa esmeraldana F Ritter 1980

Plants solitary or forming clusters. Roots large, tuberous. Stems globose, green to brownish, 3.5-7 cm (1.4-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 13-16, tuberculate, deeply notched, to 1 cm (0.4 in) high. Areoles whitish. Spines brown, straight. Central spines 3-4, awl shaped, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 6-8, needle-like, 0.5-1 cm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers yellow, scented, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) long. Fruits globose, dull green. Distribution: vicinity ofEsmeralda,Antofagasta, Chile.

Copiapoafiedleriana (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1935 Echinocactus fiedlerianus K. Schumann 1903 Copiapoa echinata F. Ritter 1959 Copiapoa totoralensis F. Ritter 1960

Copiapoa intermedia F. Ritter ex Backeberg 1962, not validly published

Plants solitary to many-stemmed. Roots large, fleshy. Stems globose, gray-green, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) high and in diameter. Ribs 15-20, straight, laterally compressed, tuberculate. Areoles round to oval, gray, separated. Spines blackish or grayish brown. Central spines usually absent. Radial spines 4-8, rigid, straight to slightly curved, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long. Flowers pure yellow, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) long. Fruits globose. Distribution: Huasco to north of Carrizal Bajo, Ata-cama, Chile.

Copiapoa grandiflora F. Ritter 1963

Copiapoa montana subsp. grandiflora (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor 1997

Plants readily forming clusters to 50 cm (20 in) wide. Roots large, tuberous. Stems globose to short cylindrical, gray-green, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-19, tuberculate, notched, 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) high and wide. Are-

Copiapoa grandiflora F. Ritter 1963

Copiapoa montana subsp. grandiflora (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor 1997

178 Copiapoa grand/flora oles whitish. Spines black to brown, straight. Central spines

2-4, thick. Radial spines 7-10, needle-like, 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2 in) long. Flowers yellow, 3-5.5 cm (1.2-2.2 in) long. Fruits globose, reddish or brownish, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long and in diameter. Distribution: vicinity of Esmeralda, Antofagasta, Chile.

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