Copiapoa calderana F Ritter 1959

Copiapoa lembckei Backeberg 1959, not validly published

Copiapoa calderana var. spinosiorF. Ritter 1980

Plants solitary to forming loose clumps. Stems globose to cylindrical, bright gray-green with gray tips, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-17, wide, blunt, not notched, to 1 cm (0.4 in) high. Areoles round, gray, becoming black with age, to 7 mm (0.3 in) apart. Spines awl shaped to needle-like, straight, black or brown, becoming gray with age. Central spines 1-2, 1.5-3 cm (0.6-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 4-7, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Flowers funnelform, yellow, scented, 2.5-3.5 cm (1-1.4 in) long. Distribution: near the coast north of Caldera, Atacama, Chile.

Copiapoa cinerascens (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1922

erizo gris

Echinocactus cinerascens Salm-Dyck 1845 Echinocactus coplapensis Pfeiffer 1847 Copiapoa applanata Backeberg 1959

Plants usually forming clumps. Roots large, tuberous. Stems depressed globose, dirty gray-green, convex and with gray wool apically, to 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 20, narrow,

Copiapoa bridgesii

Copiapoa calderana

Copiapoa cinerascens

Copiapoa cinerea, also illustrated on page 40

Copiapoa Calderana

Copiapoa conglomerata tuberculate, indented between the areoles. Areoles crowded, round, gray or black. Spines rigid, straight, black, becoming ash gray with age. Central spines 2,18-21 mm (0.7-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 8, spreading, interlacing, 10-13 mm (0.4-0.5 in), lower ones longest. Flowers opening widely, yellow, somewhat fragrant, 2.7-5.5 cm (1.1-2.2 in) long. Fruits reddish or greenish, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Distribution: south of Barquito, Atacama, north to Taltal, Antofa-gasta, Chile.

Copiapoa cinerea (Philippi) Britton & Rose 1922

copiapoa de philippi

Echinocactus cinereus Philippi 1860

Copiapoa albispina Backeberg 1959, without description

Copiapoa columna-alba F. Ritter 1959; C. cinerea subsp. columna-alba

(F. Ritter) Meregalli 1992, not validly published Copiapoa meianohystrix F. Ritter 1980

Plants solitary, later branching at the base and higher to form clumps. Stems extremely variable, globose to cylindrical, gray, covered with white wax, to 1.3 m (4.3 ft) high. Ribs variable in number, 12-37, broad, obtuse. Spination variable in color, number, and length. Central spines 1-2, 13-33 mm (0.5-1.3 in) long. Radial spines 1-7, sometimes absent, 5-20 mm (0.2-0.8 in) long. Flowers yellow to yellow with pink or reddish tint, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits cream to pink to reddish, with a few scales. Distribution: Chanaral, Antofagasta, Chile, north, mostly along the coast but also into the coastal mountains, nearly to Botija.

Copiapoa conglomerata (Philippi) Lembcke 1966 Echinocactus conglomerata Philippi 1860 Copiapoa varispinata F. Ritter 1980

Plants commonly forming clumps. Stems globose, green, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 14-22, forming distinct tubercles. Areoles round, with white wool. Spines mostly dark brown, sometimes yellowish brown, straight. Central spines 5-10, very stout, 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Radial spines 10-15, needle-like, 3-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers sulfur yellow, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Distribution: 40 km (25 miles) north of Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile.

Copiapoa coquimbana (Karwinsky ex Rümpler) Britton &

Rose 1922 c0quimban0

Echinocactus coquimbanus Karwinsky ex Rümpler 1885 Copiapoa pendulina F. Ritter 1959 Copiapoa wagenknechtii F. Ritterex Backeberg 1959 Copiapoa alticostata F. Ritter 1963 Copiapoa pseudocoquimbana F. Ritter 1963 Copiapoa vallenarensis F. Ritter 1980

Plants often forming large clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, bright green to blue-green, 5-14 cm (2-5.5 in) in diameter. Ribs indistinct, 10-20, obtuse, tuberculate. Areoles woolly at first, later naked. Central spines usually absent, sometimes as many as 3. Radial spines 4-9, black when young, later gray, curved, horizontal. Flowers yellow with reddish midveins, 2.5-5.5 cm (1-2.2 in) long. Fruits reddish brown. Distribution: the southernmost species, just south of Fray Jorge, north to the vicinity of Huasco, Atacama, and inland in the Elqui and Choros Valleys, Chile.

Copiapoa conglomerata

Copiapoa Cinerea

Copiapoa cinerea, also illustrated on page 40

Copiapoa grandiflora 177

Copiapoa echinoides (Salm-Dyck) Britton &Rose 1922

duro

Echinocactus echinoides Salm-Dyck 1845 Echinocactus cupreatus Poselgerex Rumpler 1885, Copiapoa cupreata (Poselgerex Rumpler) Backeberg 1959 Copiapoa cuprea F. Rltter 1959 Copiapoa dura F. Rltter 1963

Plants solitary or forming dense clusters. Stems globose, firm, green, flattened and woolly apically, 7-18 cm (2.8-7.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-17, truncated. Areoles yellowish, becoming gray with age. Spines maroon to black, straight to somewhat curved upward. Central spines 0-3, 10-30 mm (0.4—1.2 in) long. Radial spines 6—10. Flowers pale yellow, with odor, 3.5-4 cm (1.4-1.6 in) long. Fruits round, brown

Copiapoa coquimbana\ root system illustrated on page 29

ish red, with a few scales. Distribution: near Totoral, Ataca-ma, Chile.

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