Consolea corallicola Small 1930

semaphore cactus

Opuntia corallicola (Small) Werdermann 1931

Plants treelike, to 2 m (6.6 ft) or more high. Trunks straight and upright, elliptical or oval in cross section, well armed

Consoles macracantha 171

Consoles macracantha 171

Consolea Corallicola

Console a falcata with bristles. Roots fibrous. Stem segments green, elliptical or nearly so, relatively thin, more or less curved, reticulate, 20-30 cm (7.9-12 in) long. Spines 5-9, salmon colored, becoming gray and darker with age, needle-like, one much longer than the others, 7-12 cm (2.8-4.7 in) long. Flowers bright red. Fruits obovoid to club shaped, yellow, 2.5-5 cm (1-2 in) long, with spreading spines. Distribution: Key Largo and Big Pine Key, Florida. Some researchers feel that Consoled corallicola is the same as C. spinosissima but Alberto Are-ces-Mallea (pers. comm.) believes it to be distinct.

Consoleafalcata (Ekman & Werdermann) F. M. Knuth 1935 Opuntia falcata Ekman & Werdermann 1932

Plants treelike, to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high. Stem segments dark glossy green, sometimes sickle shaped, the surfaces occasionally with small prominences but not reticulate, to 35 cm (14 in) long and 9 cm (3.5 in) wide. Spines 2-8 or absent, needle-like, rough, yellowish to pale brown, 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 in) long. Flowers reddish, 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in) in diameter. Distribution: northwestern Haiti.

Consoled macracantha (Grisebach) A. Berger 1926 Opuntia macracantha Grisebach 1866

Plants strongly branched, to 3 m (9.8 ft) or more high. Trunks to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter with numerous divergent spines to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Stem segments oblong to

Console a falcata

Opuntia Corallicola
Consolea corallicola

172 Consolea macracantha ovate, flat, shiny green, smooth. Glochids numerous, brown. Spines 1-4 or absent, whitish, stout, awl shaped, to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Flowers often many, with widely spreading perianth segments, orange-yellow. Distribution: Cuba.

Consolea millspaughii (Britton) A. Berger 1926

Opuntia millspaughii Britton 1908

Consolea millspaughii subsp. caymanensis Areces 2000

Plants to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high, branching above; trunks 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) in diameter with numerous dense clusters of spines bent backward, to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Stem segments light green, smooth, narrowly oblong to obliquely lance shaped, to 40 cm (16 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) wide, 1-1.5 cm (0.40.6 in) thick. Areoles on mature segments pitted. Glochids short, yellowish brown, sometimes absent. Spines 6-45, restricted to margins, purplish when young, shorter than those on trunks. Flowers cup shaped, orange-red to carmine, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Fruits compressed ovoid, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long and 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter, with a few spines. Distribution: Cuba, Cayman Islands, and Bahamas.

Two subspecies of Consolea millspaughii are recognized. Subspecies millspaughii is a large shrub to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high, with 6-15 stiff spines and many glochids, and orange-red flowers; it occurs in the Bahamas and northern Cuba. Subspecies caymanensis is a smaller shrub to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high, with 20-45 spines and no glochids, and carmine flowers; it occurs on the Cayman Islands.

Consolea moniliformis (Linnaeus) A. Berger 1926 Cactus moniliformis Linnaeus 1753, Opuntia moniliformis (Linnaeus) Haworth ex Steudel 1841, Nopalea moniliformis (Linnaeus) K. Schumann 1898

Cactus ferox Willdenow 1813, Opuntia ferox (Willdenow) Haworth

1819, Consolea ferox (Willdenow) Lemaire 1862 Opuntia testudinls-crus F. A. C. Weber ex Roland-Gosselin 1904 Opuntia haitiensis Britton 1908

Consolea moniliformis subsp.guantanamana Areces 1996

Plants treelike, to 4 m (13 ft) high, freely branching in the crowns. Trunks somewhat flattened toward the top with dense, sharp, spreading, yellow or gray spines to 12 cm (4.7 in) long. Stem segments oblong to sickle shaped, reticulately tuberculate, to 30 cm (12 in) long and 13 cm (5.1 in) wide. Glochids brown. Spines 3-6 in young segments, later 5-8, yellowish, sometimes absent, to 8 mm (0.3 in) long. Flowers opening widely, with recurved perianth parts, yellow to orange, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Fruits oblong to ovoid, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Distribution: Cuba, Hispaniola, and Desecheo.

Areces-Mallea (1996) recognized two subspecies of Con solea moniliformis. Subspecies moniliformis has distinctly reticulate ultimate stem segments and occurs on Hispaniola and Desecheo. Subspecies guantanamana has only scanty reticulation and occurs only in Cuba. Thus the two taxa are quite disjunct.

Consolea nashii (Britton) A. Berger 1926

Opuntia nashii Britton 1905

Consolea nashii subsp.gibarensis Areces 1996

Plants shrubby to treelike, 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) high. Trunks round in cross section, spiny, 5-12 cm (2-4.7 in) in diameter. Stem segments variable; principal ones blunt, notched, to 1 m (3.3 ft) or more long, 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) wide; secondary or lateral segments opposite or alternate, oblong to linear oblong, blunt, notched, with some protuberances but not distinctly reticulate, to 30 cm (12 in) long, 8 cm (3.1 in) wide, and 6 mm (0.2 in) thick. Areoles slightly elevated. Glochids very small, brown. Spines 2-5, slender, straight, diverging, sharp, light gray, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Flowers red, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long and 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Bahamas and Cuba.

Moniliformis Moniliformis
Consolea moniliformis subsp. moniliformis

Areces-Mallea (1996) recognized two distinct, disjunct subspecies of Consolea nashii. Subspecies nashii is often treelike to 2 m (6.6 ft) high and occurs in the Bahamas. Subspecies gibarensis is usually a low, medium-size shrub and occurs only in Cuba.

Consoled picardae (Urban) Areces 2000 Opuntia picardae Urban 1919

Plants erect, treelike, branching above, 3-10 m (9.8-33 ft) high. Trunks not jointed, elliptic, becoming cylindrical with age, densely armed with clusters of spines. Stem segments thin, flat, glossy dark green, weakly tuberculate, spineless or nearly so, narrowly oblong to lance shaped, slightly asymmetrical, 12-35 cm (4.7-14 in) long, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) wide, 4-9 mm (to 0.4 in) thick. Spines often absent on lateral and ultimate segments, common on trunks. Flowers orange or yellow, becoming red with age, 2.5-4.5 cm (1-1.8 in) in diameter; pericarpels with spineless areoles. Fruits ovoid to el-liptically ovoid, slightly compressed, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) long, 4-6.5 cm (1.6-2.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Hispaniola.

Consolea spinosissima 173

Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex A. P. de Candolle)

Lemaire 1862 Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck ex A. P. de Candolle 1828 Opuntia guanicana K. Schumann 1908, Consolea guanicana (K. Schumann) F. M. Knuth 1935

Plants erect, treelike, branching above, to 6 m (20 ft) high. Trunks nearly cylindrical below, somewhat flattened above, with clusters of spines to 8 cm (3.1 in) long or spineless, to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter. Stem segments thin, flat, dark green to reddish green, not reticulate except when young, but with protuberances, oblong to ovate, to 25 cm (9.8 in) long. Spines several, sometimes absent, whitish, needle-like, 1-6 cm (0.4-2.4 in) long. Flowers red, orange, or yellow, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Fruits ovoid to globose, reddish, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Distribution: Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

Consolea spinosissima (P. Miller) Lemaire 1862

semaphore cactus

Opuntia spinosissima P. Miller 1768

Plants erect, treelike, branching in the crowns at right angles to older segments, to 4.5 m (15 ft) high. Trunks nearly cylindrical, heavily spined, to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Stem segments dull to light green, flattened, relatively thick, elliptical to elongate, reticulate, 15-28 cm (5.911 in) long, 5-9 cm (2-3.5 in) wide. Glochids brown. Spines 1-3, sometimes absent, needle-like, yellowish to whitish, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Flowers orange-yellow, becoming reddish, 3-7.5 cm (1.2-3 in) long, 1.2-2.5 cm (0.5-1 in) in diameter. Fruits often flattened, spiny, yellow, 2.5-6 cm (1-2.4 in) long,

Consolea Corallicola Images

Consolea rubescens

Consolea nashii subsp. nashii

Consolea rubescens

174 Conso/ea spinosissima

174 Conso/ea spinosissima

Cleistocactus Sucrensis

Consolea spinosissima

2-4 cm (0.8-1.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Jamaica and Virgin Islands.

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