Cereus fluminensis Miquel 1838, Cephalocereus fluminensis (Miquel) Britton & Rose 1920, Austrocephalocereus fluminensis (Miquel) Buxbaum 1968 Leocereus paulensis Spegazzini 1925
Coleocephalocereus decumbens F. Ritter 1968, C. fluminensis subsp.
decumbens (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor & Zappi 1997 Coleocephalocereus paulensis F. Ritter 1968, C. fluminensis var. paulensis (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun 1991, C. fluminensis subsp. paulensis (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Coleocephalocereus fluminensis var. braamhaarli P. J. Braun 1982, C. fluminensis subsp. braamhaarii (P. J. Braun) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995
Coleocephalocereus diersianus P. J. Braun & Esteves 1988
Plants semiprostrate with upturned stems, branching basally, to 3 m (9.8 ft) long. Stems dark green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 5-17, straight. Central spine one, brownish yellow, becoming gray. Radial spines 4-14, yellowish, becoming gray with age. Flowering stems with different spination, grayish yellow, flexible, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, 2-10 stout, other 2-4 small and erect. Cephalia to 1 m (3.3 ft) long and 5 cm (2 in) wide, with copious white wool and bristles. Flowers whitish to slightly pink, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Fruits slender, top shaped, shiny violet, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Distribution: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Espirito Santo, and Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Two subspecies of Coleocephalocereus fluminensis are recognized. Subspecies fluminensis has stems to 2 m (6.6 ft) long and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter, with about 17 ribs and 4-7 radial spines; it occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Espirito Santo. Subspecies decumbens has stems to 3 m (9.8 ft)
Coleocephalocereus pluricostatus, photograph by Nigel Taylor
Coleocephalocereus goebelianus, photograph by Charles Glass long and 3.5-7 cm (1.4-2.8 in) in diameter, with 5-13 ribs and 8 radial spines; it occurs near Agua Vermelha in the northeastern part of Minas Gerais.
Coleocephalocereus goebelianus (Vaupel) Buining 1970 Cereus goefte/zanus Vaupel 1923-1924 Coleocephalocereus pachystele F. Ritter 1968
Plants tall, columnar, branching at or near the ground, to 2 m (6.6 ft) high. Stems to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-20. Spines 10-12, brown, needle-like, thin, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Cephalia to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long and 20 cm (7.9 in) wide,
Coleocephalocereus pluricostatus, photograph by Nigel Taylor densely woolly, dark, bristly. Flowers bell shaped, pinkish white, widely spreading, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Distribution: central Bahia, Brazil.
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