Cleistocactus orthogonus Crdenas 1959

Plants shrubby, short columnar, to 80 cm (31 in) high. Stems pale green, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter. Ribs 15-17, straight, low. Areoles close set, gray. Spines about 10, not differentiated as centrals and radials, radiating, needle-like, fine, whitish, to 5-30 mm (0.2-1.2 in) long. Flowers straight, radially symmetrical, magenta to rose, 4.5-5 cm (1.8-2 in) long. Fruits globose, rose colored, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Potosí, Bolivia.

Cleistocactuspachycladus (Rauh 8t Backeberg) Ostolaza 1998

Loxanthocereus pachycladus Rauh & Backeberg 1957 Loxanthocereus piscoensis Rauh & Backeberg 1957, Oreocereus pis-

coensis (Rauh & Backeberg) F. Ritter 1981 Loxanthocereus yauyosensis F. Ritter 1981

Plants shrubby, often semiprostrate with the stem tips directed upward. Stems grass green to gray-green, 1-3 m (3.39.8 ft) long, 3.5-10 cm (1.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-12, constricted with notches between low protuberances. Areoles not close set. Central spine one, stout, gray, ribbed, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Radial spines 6-12, needle-like, stout, yellowish brown, becoming gray, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Flowers vermilion, to 9 cm (3.5 in) long. Fruits green. Distribution: central Peru.

Cleistocactus pachycladus, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

160 Cleistocactus palhuayensis

Cleistocactus palhuayensis F. Ritter & Shahori 1980 Cleistocactus viridiflorus Backeberg 1963 Cephalocleistocactus pallidus Backeberg 1966

Plants shrubby, branching basally to produce erect stems, 23 m (6.6-9.8 ft) high. Stems green, 1.5-4 cm (0.6-1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 14-19, somewhat wavy. Areoles close set. Central spines about 10, needle-like, erect, yellowish white to yellow, 5-20 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Radial spines about 20, somewhat sticking out, white, 5-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers green to greenish white, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) long. Fruits pale green. Distribution: Río Palhuaya, Muñecas province, Bolivia.

Cleistocactus paraguariensis

Cleistocactus parapetiensis

Cleistocactus paraguariensis f. Ritter 1979 Cleistocactus baumannii subsp. paraguariensis (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995

Plants shrubby, sprawling and forming low clumps. Stems green, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-11, notched. Central spines 4-5, reddish brown, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Radial spines 12-15, yellow to reddish yellow, 0.2-0.6 cm (to 0.2 in) long. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, curved, orange-red, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Distribution: Paraguari department, Paraguay.

Cleistocactus parapetiensis Cárdenas 1952 Cleistocactus azerensis Cárdenas 1961

Plants shrubby, columnar, not branched, 60-70 cm (24-28 in) high. Stems tapering, green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 19, low, with transverse furrows. Areoles close set, prominent. Spines about 20, not readily differentiated as centrals and radials, unequal, needle-like, whitish to brown, some hairlike, 3-10 mm (to 0.4 in) long. Flowers slightly bent above the pericarpels, greenish yellow to red, 3-3.5 cm (1.21.4 in) long, 6-7 mm (0.2-0.3 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, purplish brown, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Cleistocactus parviflorus (K. Schumann) Gosselin 1904 Cereus parviflorus K. Schumann 1897

Cereus areolatus Muehlenpfordtex K. Schumann 1897, Cleistocactus areolatus (Muehlenpfordt ex K. Schumann) Riccobono 1909 Cleistocactus herzogianus Backeberg 1934 Cleistocactus fusiflorus Cárdenas 1957

Plants shrubby with some basal branching, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high. Stems erect, green, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 1215 with distinct notches. Spines variable in color, from brown to yellowish to greenish. Central spines 1-3, to 25 mm (1 in) long. Radial spines 5-9, to 4 mm long. Flowers straight, red, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long. Fruits yellow, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Comarapa area between Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Anatomy of the epidermis of Cleistocactus parviflorus is illustrated on page 28.

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