Cleistocactus baumannii Lemaire Lemaire 1861

firecracker cactus, scarlet bugler Cereus baumannii Lemaire 1851

Cereus baumannii \iar. flavispinus K. Schumann 1897, note, flavispinus Saim-Dyck 1822 (see Haageocereus pseudomelanostele); Cleistocactus flavispinus (K. Schumann) Backeberg 1959 Cereus anguinus Gurke 1907, Cleistocactus anguinus (Gurke) Britton & Rose 1920, Cleistocactus baumannii subsp.anguinus (Gurke) P.J.Braun&Esteves 1995 Cleistocactus aureispinus Fric 1928 Cleistocactus bruneispinus Backeberg 1959 Cleistocactus jugatiflorus Backeberg 1962 Cleistocactus santacruzensis Backeberg 1966, C. baumannii subsp.

santacruzensis (Backeberg) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Cleistocactus croceiflorus F. Ritter 1979, C. baumannii subsp. crocei-

florus (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Cleistocactus chacoanus F. Ritter 1980, C. baumannii subsp. chaco-anus(E Ritter) P.J. Braun & Esteves 1995

Cleistocactus horstii P.J. Braun 1982, C. baumannii subsp. horstii (P.J. Braun)N.P.Taylor 1998

Plants shrubby, branching basally with several stems. Stems fairly stiff, erect or arching, to 2 m (6.6 ft) or more long, 2.53.5 cm (1-1.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-16. Areoles close set. Central spine one, yellowish or dark brown, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Radial spines 8—20, yellowish brown, to 1.8 cm (0.7 in) long. Flowers sharply curving upward, then narrowly S shaped above the pericarpels, yellow to orange-red to red, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter; perianth parts oblique; stamens red; stamens and style exserted. Fruits globose, red with white pulp, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Uruguay.

Six subspecies of Cleistocactus baumannii are recognized. Subspecies baumannii has 15-20 radial spines and red flowers; it occurs widely in northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Subspecies anguinus has 10-11 radial spines and orange-red flowers; it occurs in Paraguay. Subspecies chacoanus has 12-15 radial spines and strongly bilaterally symmetrical flowers, usually red; it occurs in the Gran Chaco region of Bolivia. Subspecies croceiflorus has 8-12 radial spines and yellow flowers; it occurs in the area of Puerto Casado, Alto Paraguay department, Paraguay. Subspecies horstii has 11-15 radial spines and strongly bilaterally symmetrical flowers, orange-red; it occurs in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Subspecies santacruzensis has only about 10 radial spines and red flowers; it occurs in the vicinity of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Cacti Paraguay

Cleistocactus buchtienii

Cleistocactus Acanthurus

Cleistocactus acanthurus subsp. acanthurus

Wendlandiorum

Cleistocactus baumannii

Cleistocactus buchtienii

Cleistocactus brookeae Cárdenas 1952 Cleistocactus wendlandiorum Backeberg 1955

Plants shrubby, rarely branching, with stems sprawling or semierect. Stems greenish, to 50 cm (20 in) long, 3-4.5 cm (1.2-1.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 22-25. Areoles close set. Spines 25-40, not differentiated as centrals and radials, grayish white or slightly yellowish, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers curving sharply upward, somewhat expanded above the pericarpels, then S shaped and slightly flattened laterally, red or orange, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 0.8 cm (0.3 in) in diameter; perianth parts oblique; stamens and style slightly exser-ted. Fruits purple, 8-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Cleistocactus buchtienii Backeberg 1935 Cleistocactus sucrensis Cárdenas 1952 Cleistocactus angosturensis Cárdenas 1956 Cleistocactus ayopayanus Cárdenas 1956 Cleistocactus ressinianus Cárdenas 1956

Plants shrubby with several stiff, erect branches arising basally, to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high. Stems to 5 cm (2 in) in diame-

Cieistocactus brookeae, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

Cleistocactus chotaensis 155

ter. Ribs about 18, low, with distinct notches. Spines barely differentiated, needle-like, reddish brown. Central spines 4, spreading, to 35 mm (1.4 in) long. Radial spines 8-15, slender, spreading, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Flowers barely open, wine red to bluish pink, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. Distribution: Bolivia.

Cleistocactus candelilla Cárdenas 1952 Cleistocactus candelilla var. pojoetisis Cárdenas 1952, C. pojoetisls

(Cárdenas) Backeberg 1959 Cleistocactus ianthinus Cárdenas 1956 Cleistocactus vallegrandensis Cárdenas 1961

Plants shrubby, branching basally with erect to sprawling stems, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Stems to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-12 with distinct transverse furrows. Central spines 3-4, slightly flattened, yellowish brown, 10-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long. Radial spines 13-15, yellowish brown above, whitish below, to 5 mm long. Flowers straight to slightly curved, purple with white margins, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long; pericarpels with red scales, without hairs. Fruits pale salmon colored, to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter. Distribution: southeastern Bolivia.

Cleistocactus chotaensis F. A. C. Weber ex Roland-Gosselin 1904

Loxanthocereus trujilloensis F. Ritter 1981

Plants sprawling, somewhat procumbent, to 2 m (6.6 ft) high. Stems gray-green, 3.5-4.5 cm (1.4-1.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-13, tuberculate. Spines straight, brown with dark tips. Central spines 3-8, awl shaped, 1.5-6 cm (0.6-2.4 in)

Cleistocactus candelilla

Jean Marie Solichon

Cieistocactus brookeae, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon

Cleistocactus

156 Cleistocactus chotaensis long. Radial spines 8-12, thick, needle-like, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers orange, to 5 cm (2 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter; pericarpel scales with black hairs. Distribution: Rio Chota, La Libertad, Peru. There is serious question whether Cleistocactus chotaensis still exists in the wild.

Cleistocactus clavispinus (Rauh 8c Backeberg) Ostolaza 1998

Loxanthocereus clavispinus Rauh & Backeberg 1957 ?Loxanthocereus ferrugineus Rauh & Backeberg 1957 ? Loxanthocereus deserticola F. Ritter 1981

Plants shrubby, branching basally and with several erect branches, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high. Roots thick. Stems 20-80 cm (7.9-31 in) long, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 1420. Areoles crowded. Central spines 2-3, stiff, light gray with dark tips, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Radial spines to 30, stout, brown, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Flowers strongly curved, red, to 8 cm (3.1 in) long. Distribution: Nazca Valley, Peru.

Cleistocactus xcrassiserpens Rauh & Backeberg 1957, as a species

Loxanthocereus crassiserpens (Rauh & Backeberg) Backeberg 1962

Cleistocactus xcrassiserpens has been determined to be a naturally occurring hybrid, C. icosagonus X C. serpens. Distribution: northern Peru.

Cleistocactus dependens Cárdenas 1952 Seticieistocactus dependens (Cárdenas) Backeberg 1966

Plants shrubby with many sprawling or pendent branches. Stems segmented, dull green, slightly tapering, 3-3.5 cm

Cleistocactus dependens

(1.2-1.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-12, rounded, with distinct transverse furrows. Areoles 11-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) apart. Central spines 3-4, spreading, gray with black tips, one pointing downward, 10-15 mm (0.4-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 8-13, fine, needle-like, spreading, reddish gray, 2-3 mm long. Flowers straight, radially symmetrical, light green to whitish, 4-4.5 cm (1.6-1.8 in) long, to 0.7 cm (0.3 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, deep reddish magenta, to 1.4 cm (0.6 in) in diameter. Distribution: Florida province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Continue reading here: Cleistocactus ferrarii Kiesling 1984

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