Ferocactus gracilis H E Gates 1933

BIZNAGA C0L0RADA, FIRE BARREL CACTUS Ferocactus coloratus H. E. Gates 1933, F. gracilis var. coloratus (H. E. Gates) G. E. Lindsay 1955, F. gracilis subsp. coloratus (H. E. Gates) N.P Taylor 1998 Ferocactus viscainensis H. E. Gates 1933, F. peninsulae var. viscainen- sis (H. E. Gates) G. E. Lindsay 1955 Ferocactus gatesil G. E. Lindsay 1955, F. gracilis svbsp.gatesii (G.E.Lindsay) N.P. Taylor 1998 Plants solitary, globose to cylindrical, deep green, to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high and 30 cm (12 in) in...

Sclerocactus wrightiae L D Benson 1966

Benson) Arp 1972, Ferocactus wrightiae (L. D. Benson) l l. P. Taylor 1979 Plants solitary, pale green, depressed globose, 1-8 cm (0.43.1 in) high, 4-8 cm (1.6-3.1 in) in diameter. Taproots much branched. Ribs 13-16, forming distinct tubercles. Central spines 4, whitish, 5-44 mm (0.2-1.7 in) long, lower one hooked, upper one flat or angled. Radial spines 5-14, whitish, 6-17 mm (0.2-0.7 in) long. Flowers funnelform, scented, white to cream or pink, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in)...

Ariocarpus scaphirostris Boedeker 1930

Nuevo le n living rock cactus, orejas de conejo, orejitas Ariocarpus scaphirostris var. swobodae Halda, Hor cek & Panarotto 1998 Plants small with only the tubercles rising above ground level, dark green to brown, 4-9 cm (1.6-3.5 in) in diameter. Tubercles divergent, more or less triangular in cross section, more than twice on long as wide, somewhat pointed. Areoles absent at or near the tips. Flowers magenta, 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits rarely seen. Distribution flaky limestone soil...

Coryphantha pseudoradians Bravo 1954

Stems globose to somewhat obovate, glaucous gray-green, 8-10 cm (3.1-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles somewhat separated, obovoid, rhomboid basally, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long, axils woolly at first, later naked. Central spines usually absent, rarely 1-2, similar to the radials. Radial spines 13-15, slender, yellowish to brownish, somewhat curved backward, horizontal, some radiating, a few directed upward, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 3 cm (1.2 in)...

Neolloydia

Neobuxbaumia tetetzo, also illustrated on page 17 Neolloydia is one of several genera that were less well defined by Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose (1919-1923,4 14-18) in The Cactaceae. The name honors Francis E. Lloyd, a botanist who contributed to Britton and Rose's study of cacti, prefixed neo, new, because Lloydia had previously been used for a lily. Several of the species that Britton and Rose placed in Neolloydia had been included in Mammillaria by Karl Schumann (1897-1898). Within a...

Thelocactus hexaedrophorus Lemaire Britton Rose 1922

Echinocactus hexaedrophorus Lemaire 1839 Echinocactus fossulatus Scheidweiler 1841, E. hexaedrophorus var. fossulatus (Scheidweiler) Salm-DyckexLabouret 1853, Thelocactus fossulatus (Scheidweiler) Britton & Rose 1923 Thelocactus hexaedrophorus var. majorQuehl 1894, T. hexaedrophorus var. major(Quehl) A. Berger 1929 Echinocactus droegeanus Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898, Thelocactus hexaedrophorus var. droegeanus (Hildmann ex K. Schumann) A. Berger 1929 Echinocactus labouretianus K. Schumann...

Echinocereus coccineus Engelmann 1848

Arizona hedgehog, california hedgehog, cream-flowered hedgehog, golden rainbow hedgehog, mexican claret-cup cactus, white-spined claret-cup cactus Mammillaria aggregata Engelmann ex B. D. Jackson 1848, Cereus aggregata (Engelmann ex B. D. Jackson) J. M. Coulter 1896, Echinocereus aggregatus (Engelmann ex B. D. Jackson) Rydberg 1906, Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. cinerascens, also illustrated on page 22 Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. cinerascens, also illustrated on page 22 Echinocereus...

Opuntia rastrera F A C Weber 1898

Plants shrubby, low growing and creeping along the ground. Stem segments round to obovate, forming long chains, to 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. Glochids yellow. Spines several, whitish with dark bases, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers yellow. Fruits obovoid, purple. Distribution San Luis Potos , Mexico. Opuntia rastrera is poorly known.

Echinocereus enneacanihus Engelmann 1848

Alicoche, banana cactus, cob cactus, green strawberry hedgehog cactus, pitaya, prostrate hedgehog cactus, purple pitaya, strawberry cactus, strawberry hedgehog cactus Cereus dubius Engelmann 1856, Echinocereus dubius (Engelmann) Rumpler 1885, E. enneacanthus var. dubius (Engelmann) L. D. Benson 1969 Echinocereus uspenskii F. Haage 1897 Echinocereus merkeri Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898 Echinocereus sarissophorus Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocereus enneacanthus f. brevispinus W. 0. Moore 1967, E....

Matucana

Several groups of globose cacti occur in the Peruvian Andes, and Matucana is one of the most spectacular, often bearing red, hummingbird-pollinated flowers. I have had the good fortune of observing them in their habitat but have discovered that, like many other cacti, the species are extremely variable and have been confusing taxonomically. Fortunately, Matucana has been the subject of a thorough study by Rob Bregman (1996) of the University of Amsterdam. His research has not solved all the...

Eulychnia acida Philippi 1864

Plants usually treelike, sometimes shrubby, much branched, 1.5-4 m (4.9-13 ft) high, usually with distinct trunks. Stems usually erect but sometimes nearly prostrate, gray-green, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-16, low, wide. Spines needle-like, maroon when young, becoming gray with age. Central spines 1-2, erect, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) long. Radial spines about 12, more or less directed outward. Flowers borne near the stem tips, white with reddish mid-veins, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long....

Coryphantha poselgerana a Dietrich Britton Rose

Dietrich 1851 Mammillaria valida J. A. Purpus 1911, not validly published Coryphantha valida (J. A. Purpus) L. Bremer 1977 Plants solitary, globose to ovoid cylindrical, pale blue-gray to blue-green, 10-17 cm (3.9-6.7 in) high, 8-15 cm (3.1-5.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles hemispheric to broadly conical, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long, axils naked, sometimes with red glands. Central spine one, straight, very rigid, usually erect, whitish to blackish, 20-50 mm (0.8-2 in)...

Tephrocactus

Tephrocactus is one of several genera that have been pulled from the large, polyphyletic genus Opuntia, the decision to do so based on studies by Roberto Kiesling (1984), Steven Dickie and Robert Wallace (2001), Wallace and Dickie (2001), James Iliff (2001), and Wolfgang Stuppy (2001). Charles Lemaire described Tephrocactus (type, O. diademata T. articulatus) in 1868, the name derived from the Greek tephra, ashes, referring to the dull, ash-colored stems of some species. Tephrocactus is...

Echinocereus dasyacanthus Engelmann 1848

Golden rainbow hedgehog cactus, texas rainbow cactus, texas rainbow hedgehog, yellow-flowered pitaya Cereus dasyacanthus (Engelmann) Engelmann 1859 Cereus ctenoides Engelmann 1859, Echinocereus ctenoides (Engelmann) Riimpler 1886, E. pectinatus subsp. ctenoides (Engelmann) G.Frank 1991 Echinocereus hildmannii Arendt 1892 Echinocereus steereae Clover 1938 Echinocereus dasyacanthus var. rectlspinus Trocha & Fethke 1991, E. dasyacanthus subsp. rectlspinus (Trocha & Fethke) Blum et al. 1998...

Echinocactusplatyacanthus Link Otto 1827

Biznaga de dulce, biznaga gigante, giant barrel cactus, giant viznaga, large barrel cactus Echinocactus karwinskii Zuccarini 1837 Echinocactus ingensZuccarini ex Pfeiffer 1837 Echinocactus helophorus Lemaire 1839 Echinocactus visnaga W. J. Hooker 1851 Echinocactus grandis Rose 1906 Echinocactus palmeri Rose 1909 Plants subglobose, globose, broadly columnar, to barrel shaped, green to yellowish green, sometimes glaucous, often very massive, 0.5-2.5 m (20-98 in) high, 40-80 cm (16-31 in) in...

Rebuta pseudodemnuta Backeberg 1933

Red-gold crown cactus, scarlet crown cactus Aylostera pseudodeminuta (Backeberg) Backeberg 1935 Rebut a kupperiana Boedeker 1932, Aylostera kupperiana (Boedeker) Backeberg 1935 Rebut a buininglana Rausch 1972 Rebut a albiareolata F. Ritter 1977 Rebut a minutissima F. Ritter 1977 Rebut a nogalesensis F. Ritter 1977 Rebut a robustlspina F. Ritter 1977 Rebut a sanguinea F. Ritter 1977 Rebut a nitida F. Ritter 1978 Rebut a wahliana Rausch 1985 Plants solitary, deep green, globose to short...

Echinocereusferreirianus h e Gates 1953

Hedgehog cactus, lindsay's cactus, lindsay's hedgehog cactus Echinocereus lindsayi i. Meyran 1975, E. ferreirianus var. lindsayi (J. Meyran) N. P. Taylor 1985, E. ferreirianus subsp. lindsayi (J. Meyran) N.P.Taylor 1997 Plants solitary to branched, sometimes forming clumps with several stems. Stems globose to cylindrical, green to gray-green, with the spines nearly obscuring the stems, to 40 cm (16 in) high, 4-10 cm (1.6-3.9 in) in diameter. Central spines 4-7, round, often curved, red,...

Weberocereus trichophorus H Johnson 8c Kimnach 1963

Plants climbing to pendent epiphytes, branching laterally and irregularly. Roots copious, aerial. Stems rounded on older portions, the younger faintly five-angled, stout, green, 8-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) in diameter, with low ridges formed by inconspicuous tubercles. Areoles with spines and curly hairs. Spines 10-20, stiff, relatively strong, yellow, 3-12 mm (to 0.5 in) long hairlike spines 30-40, 5-20 mm (0.2-0.8 in) long. Flowers borne singly, bell shaped to funnelform, with pungent odor, pink to...

Mammillaria marksiana Krainz 1948

Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps. Stems flattened globose, light or yellowish green, 6-15 cm (2.4-5.9 in) high, 5-12 cm (2-4.7 in) in diameter. Tubercles pyramidal, weakly four-sided, axils woolly, sometimes densely so in the flowering zones. Spines difficult to distinguish as centrals and radi-als, variable in number, 4-21, thin, needle-like, golden yellow to brown, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers bright greenish yellow, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits club...

Echinocereus polyacanthus Engelmann 1848

Giant claret-cup cactus, salmon-flowered hedgehog, spiny hedgehog Echinopsis valida var. densa Regel 1852, Echinocereus polyacanthus var. densus (Regel) N. P. Taylor 1984 Cereus leeanus W. J. Hooker 1849, Echinocereus leeanus (W. J. Hooker) Lemaire 1885 Cereus acifer Otto ex Salm-Dyck 1859, Echinocereus acifer (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) F. Haage 1859, E. polyacanthus subsp. acifer (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) N. P. Taylor 1997 Cereusphoeniceus var. pacificus Engelmann 1886, Echinocereus pacificus (Engelmann)...

Melocactus glaucescens Buining 8c Brederoo 1972

WOOLLY WAXY-STEMMED TURK'S-CAP CACTUS Plants depressed globose to pyramidal, intensely light glaucous bluish green at first, later light gray-green, 13-18 cm (5.1-7.1 in) high, 14-24 cm (5.5-9.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-15, very broad near bases. Spines brown overlaid with gray, with blackish tips. Central spines absent or 1-2, ascending and curved upward, 11-20 mm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 5-8, straight to curved, 11-25 mm (0.4-1 in) long. Cephalia to 10 cm (3.9 in) high, 6-7.5 cm (2.4-3...

Preface

For the more than 40 years that I have studied cacti, I have felt a need for such a book as The Cactus Family. I envisioned a large-format, extensively illustrated book written in a scientifically accurate but readable style, a book that would be useful to those interested in succulent plants, to students, taxonomists specializing in the family Cactaceae, ethnobotanists, conservationists, indeed to anyone who might wish to know more about these unusual plants of the New World. The Cactus Family...

Mammillaria pilispina J a Purpus 1912

Purpus) Britton & Rose 1923, Chilita pilispina (J. A. Purpus) Buxbaum 1954 Mammillaria sanluisensis Shurly 1949, Chilita sanluisensis (Shurly) Buxbaum 1954 Mammillaria subtilis Backeberg 1950 Mammillaria rayonensis Reppenhagen 1991 Plants forming clumps. Stems semiglobose, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, without latex, axils with wool and a few hairlike bristles. Central spines 7, erect, straight, with 6 subradial spines at the top and on the...

Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths 1908

Opuntia Fuliginosa

Plants treelike, to 4 m (13 ft) high with distinct, woody trunks. Stem segments rounded to obovate, glossy yellowish green, thin, variable in size, commonly 15-20 cm (5.9-7.9 in) long. Leaves awl shaped, to 12 mm (0.5 in) long. Areoles elliptical, gray, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) apart. Glochids yellowish to darker, variable, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Spines 2-8, translucent, bone colored to brownish to gray, lower ones curved, middle ones often flattened and twisted, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers...

Rebuta simoniana Rausch 1984

Stems globose, bright green, to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Ribs 13, spiraling, forming tubercles. Areoles round to oval, whitish to brown. Central spines 1-4, stout, whitish with brown tips, to 7 mm (0.3 in) long. Radial spines 11-13, glassy white, fragile, to 5 mm long. Flowers pure orange, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits globose, olive green, to 6 mm (0.2 in) in diameter. Distribution south of Cinti, Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Rebut a spegazziniana Backeberg 1933...

Mammillaria thornberi Orcutt 1902

CLUSTERED FISHHOOK CACTUS, CLUSTERED PINCUSHION, Chilita thornberi (Orcutt) Orcutt 1926 Mammillaria fasciculata Britton & Rose 1923, misapplied, not Engelmann ex B. D. Jackson 1895 (see Echinocereus fasciculatus) Ebnerella fasciculata (Britton & Rose) Buxbaum 1951, Chilita fasciculata (Britton & Rose) Buxbaum 1954 Mammillaria yaquensis R. T. Craig 1945, Ebnerella yaquensis (R. T. Craig) Buxbaum 1951, Chilita yaquensis (R. T. Craig) Buxbaum 1954, M. thornberi subsp.yaquensis (R. T....

Schlumbergera truncata Haworth Moran 1953

Epiphyllum truncatum Haworth 1819, Cactus truncatus (Haworth) Link 1822, Cereus truncatus (Haworth) Sweet 1826, Zygocactus truncatus (Haworth) K. Schumann 1890 Epiphyllum altensteinil Pfeiffer 1837, Zygocactus altensteinii (Pfeiffer) K. Schumann 1890 Epiphyllum ruckeri Paxton 1845 Epiphyllum bridgesii Lemaire 1861 Epiphyllum delicatum N. E. Brown 1902, Zygocactus delicatum (N. E. Brown) Britton & Rose 1913 Plants epiphytic, sometimes lithophytic, much branched. Stem segments truncate, glossy...

Cleistocactus pungens f Ritter 1964

Plants shrubby, spreading, 1-1.5 m (3.3-4.9 ft) high. Stems 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, wavy. Areoles close set, brown, then gray. Spines dark reddish brown, later gray, straight, needle-like, stiff, erect. Central spines usually 2-5, 20-50 mm (0.8-2 in) long. Radial spines 8-12, 2-12 mm (to 0.5 in) long. Flowers purple, to 7.5 cm (3 in) long and 0.5 cm in diameter. Fruits globose, red, to 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Distribution Ayacucho and Apurimac, Peru. Cleistocactus...

Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire 1839

Card n, cenizo, chave 0, nopal card n, nopal hart n, tuna cardona Plants shrubby to treelike, 2-4 m (6.6-13 ft) high with main stems to 80 cm (31 in) high and 30-40 cm (12-16 in) in diameter. Stem segments obovate to somewhat round, glabrous, green, 18-30 cm (7.1-12 in) long, 14-18 cm (5.5-7.1 in) wide. Areoles with one or two long, deciduous, dark hairs 1-2 mm long. Glochids yellowish red. Spines 3-7, awl-like, erect, lower ones flattened against the segments, whitish gray, becoming dark with...

Foreword

Cacti have a very special fascination all their own. Like the brilliantly colored hummingbirds, the Cactaceae are creatures of the New World. Miniature spiny dwarf cacti less than an inch in diameter are hidden in the arid regions of North and South America the majestic columns of the giant saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea, dominate the deserts of Arizona. Yet all these cacti, given time, offer the surprising paradox of brilliant flowers, their delicacy a striking contrast to the strong spines that...

Opuntia puberula Pfeiffer 1837

Nopal de culebra, nopal de tortuga Opuntia maxoni J. G. Ortega 1929 Opuntia heliae Matuda 1955 Opuntia scheinvariana Paniagua 1980, not validly published Plants shrubby, low growing. Stem segments mostly ovate, green, pubescent, thick, 7.5-12.5 cm (3-4.9 in) long, 5-7.5 cm (2-3 in) wide. Leaves tipped reddish, falling away early, to 4 mm long. Areoles with reddish spots, somewhat far apart. Glochids short. Spines 2-4, white, diverging, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) long...

Gymnocalycium erinaceum J G Lambert 1985

Plants solitary, flattened globose to globose, gray-green to brownish green, glaucous, to 5 cm (2 in) high and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter. Ribs 12. Spines dark brown at first, later grayish white, with dark tips and bases. Central spines 1-2, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 7-9, straight, one pointing downward, others in pairs pointed to sides, 6-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers funnelform, white, to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) long and 4.8 cm (1.9 in) in diameter. Fruits spindle shaped, bluish, to...

Armatocereus

Armatocereus is probably related to the several other columnar, mainly treelike cacti of South America such as Brown-ingia, Neoraimondia, and Stetsonia. It may also be the closest relative of Jasminocereus from the Gal pagos Islands. Two publications have shed some light on the taxonomy of Armatocereus. Jens Madsen (1989) dealt with those species found in Ecuador, and David Hunt (1991 d) helped clarify a confusing situation with regard to the nomenclature of several species. The genus was...

Stephanocereus luetzelburgii Vaupel n p Taylor Eggli

Cereus luetzelburgii Vaupel 1923-1924, Pilocereus luetzelburgii (Vaupel) Werdermann 1933, Cephalocereus luetzelburgii (Vaupel) Borg 1951, Pilosocereus luetzelburgii (Vaupel) Byles & G. D. Rowley 1957, Pseudopilocereus luetzelburgii (Vaupel) Buxbaum 1968, Coleo-cephalocereus luetzelburgii (Vaupel) Buxbaum 1972 Plants erect, usually unbranched, 1-1.5 m (3.3-4.9 ft) high. Stems dark green, globose, becoming elongate ovoid, later bottle shaped and forming necks 60-80 cm (24-31 in) long. Ribs...

Echinocereus bonkerae Thornber Bonker 1932

Echinocereus fendleri var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) L. D. Benson 1944, fasciculatus var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) L. D. Benson 1969, E. fasciculatus subsp. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) N. P. Taylor 1997 Plants occurring in loose clumps of 5-15 stems. Stems cylindrical to elongate, green, 12-20 cm (4.7-7.9 in) long, 4-7.5 cm (1.6-3 in) in diameter, with spines not obscuring the stems. Ribs 11-16, not distinctly tuberculate. Central spine one, erect, rigid, stout, white or pale...

Carnegiea

The spectacular stands of the giant saguaro in many parts of Arizona have been the subject of countless photographs and essays. I thoroughly enjoy looking out my window at the Desert Botanical Garden and seeing several handsome sa-guaros. Indeed, Carnegiea is one of the most popular cacti, not only in greenhouse collections but also in desert landscaping and outdoor gardens. The cactus has also been extensively studied with regard to ecology, growth dynamics, and reproduction. George Engelmann...

Oreocereus doelzianus Backeberg Borg 1937

Morawetzia doelziana Backeberg 1936, Borzicactus doelzianus (Backeberg) Kimnach 1960 Morawetzia sericata F. Ritter 1981 Plants bushy, freely branching basally. Stems cylindrical, olive green, to 1 m (3.3 ft) high, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-11, somewhat constricted between areoles. Areoles gray felted. Spines yellow to dark brown. Central spines 4, forming a cross, stout, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Radial spines 10-20, to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. Terminal cephalia with long white woolly...

Opuntia rufida Engelmann 1857

Bund prickly pear Opuntia lubrica Griffiths 1910 Opuntia herfeldtii Kupper 1930 Plants shrubby with several branches, 1-1.5 m (3.3-4.9 ft) high, rarely with trunks. Stem segments round, blue-green to gray-green, 7.5-20 cm (3-7.9 in) long and wide, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) thick. Leaves conical, to 4.5 mm long. Areoles round, 0.5-2 cm (0.2-0.8 in) apart. Glochids conspicuous, easily detached, reddish or reddish brown. Spines absent. Flowers pale yellow, becoming orange with age, 6-7.5 cm (2.4-3 in)...

Echinopsis pseudomamillosa Crdenas 1959

Plants solitary, globose to broadly globose, to 8 cm (3.1 in) high and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs about 18, notched, forming distinct tubercles. Areoles elliptical, cream colored, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) apart. Spines 7-10, pectinate, very unequal, 4-7 pointing laterally, 2 pointing upward, one pointing downward, needle-like, gray with brown tips, 0.5-4 cm (0.21.6 in) long. Flowers borne laterally near the stem tips, open at night, funnelform, white, to 18 cm (7.1 in) long and 8 cm (3.1 in) in...

Mammillaria mainiae k Brandegee 1900

COUNTERCLOCKWISE PINCUSHION, HORNED-TOAD CACTUS Chilita mainiae (K. Brandegee) Orcutt 1926, Ebnerella mainiae (K. Brandegee) Buxbaum 1951 Plants solitary to branching freely basally. Stems globose to ovoid, bright green, sometimes reddish in axils, 6-7 cm (2.42.8 in) high, 10-12 cm (3.9-4.7 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, becoming conical, somewhat incurved, without latex, axils naked. Central spines 1-2, hooked, stout, brown or yellow, with dark tips, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Radial...

Echinocereus boycethompsonii Orcutt 1926

Echinocereus fascicuiatus vat. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) L. D. Benson 1969, E. fascicuiatus subsp. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) N. P. Taylor 1997 Plants occurring in loose clumps of 3-12 stems. Stems cylindrical to elongate, green, 10-25 cm (3.9-9.8 in) long, 4-7.5 cm (1.6-3 in) in diameter, with spines not obscuring the stems. Ribs 12-18, sometimes more, not distinctly tuber-culate. Central spines 3, slender, deflexed, flexible, light colored, yellow, or straw colored, with dark or light brown...

Copiapoa mollicula F Ritter 1963

Plants sometimes solitary but usually forming clusters. Taproots large. Stems connected to taproots by necks, stems depressed globose, rarely rising above ground level, gray to brown to reddish, 3-6.5 cm (1.2-2.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-16, present only as low spiraling tubercles, with grooves running from the areoles to the base. Central spine 0-1, black, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines 1-10, sometimes absent, to 5 mm long. Flowers yellow, 1.5-2.2 cm (0.6-0.9 in) long. Fruits very...

Echinocereus bristolii W X Marshall 1938

Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps of as many as 30 stems. Stems cylindrical, tapered toward the tips, light green, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Ribs 1519, low, acute, somewhat tuberculate. Spines whitish with dark tips. Central spines usually 3, lower ones longest, to 10 mm (0.4 in). Radial spines 22-24, lying against the surface, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, funnelform, pink, 3.8-8.5 cm (1.5-3.3 in) long, 5.5-10.5 cm (2.2-4.2 in)...

Opuntia mieckleyi K Schumann 1903

Plants shrubby, low growing with erect stems. Stem segments narrowly oblong, dark green, 15-25 cm (5.9-9.8 in) long, 46 cm (1.6-2.4 in) wide. Areoles dark. Spines 1-2, often absent, dark. Flowers orange to brick red, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Distribution Paraguay. Little is known of Opuntia mieckleyi. Opuntia monacantha (Willdenow) Haworth 1819 Cactus monacantte Willdenow 1813 Opuntia arechavaletae Spegazzini 1905 Opuntia vulgaris of various authors, misapplied, not P. Miller 1768 see...

Pterocactus megliolii R Kiesling 1971

Plants with very woolly areoles and tubers to 15 cm (5.9 in) long, producing cream-colored underground stems. Stem segments rarely jointed, cylindrical, brownish green, 3-10 Pterocactusfischeri, photograph by Urs Eggli Pterocactusfischeri, photograph by Urs Eggli Pterocactus hickenii, photograph by Urs Eggli Pterocactus hickenii, photograph by Urs Eggli cm (1.2-3.9 in) long, 0.5-1 cm (0.2-0.4 in) in diameter. Glochids few or absent. Central spines 4-5, light to dark brown. Radial spines 10-20,...

Pterocactus reticulatus R Kiesling 1971

Roots tuberous, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Stem segments unbranched, globose to pear shaped, grayish purple to brown to olive green, with conspicuous rhomboid tubercles, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter. Glochids few, inconspicuous. Central spine one, sometimes absent, erect, to 5 mm long. Radial spines 6, pectinate, whitish to brownish, 2-5 mm long. Flowers borne terminally, pearly white with light pink tint, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) in diameter....

Cephalocereus

The columnar cacti of Mexico have confounded botanists for years, and their nomenclature is confusing with numerous names. Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose (1919-1923, 2 25-60) listed 48 species of Cephalocereus, from throughout the Western Hemisphere. The first major attempt to determine the more natural affinities of the columnar cacti was that of Franz Buxbaum (1958), who described the tribe Pa-chycereeae and placed in it Carnegiea, Cephalocereus, Le-maireocereus, Mitrocereus, Neobuxbaumia,...

Rebuta Stenbach Werdermann 1931

Sulcorebutia steinbachii (Werdermann) Backeberg 1951, Weingartia steinbachii (Werdermann) F. H. Brandt 1977 Aylostera kruegeri C rdenas 1957, Rebut a krueger ( C rdenas) Backeberg 1959, Sulcorebutia kruegeri (C rdenas) F. Ritter 1961, Weingartia kruegeri (C rdenas) F. H. Brandt 1977, R. steinbachii subsp. kruegeri (C rdenas) D. R. Hunt 1997 Rebut a tiraquens s C rdenas 1957, Sulcorebutia tiraquensis (C rdenas) F. Ritter 1961, Weingartia tiraquensis (C rdenas) F. H. Brandt 1977 S. steinbachii...

Copiapoa haseltoniana Backeberg 1956

Copiapoa cinerea subsp. haseltonia (Backeberg) N. P.Taylor 1997 Copiapoa gigantea Backeberg 1936, C. cinerea subsp. gigantea (Backeberg) Slaba 1997 Copiapoa eremophila F. Ritter 1980 Copiapoa tenebrosa F. Ritter 1980 Plants commonly forming large clumps, branching both basally and laterally, to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) high and 2 m (6.6 ft) wide. Stems globose to cylindrical, gray-green to gray, 12-25 cm (4.7-9.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 20-37, notched, becoming flattened. Areoles large, orangish. Central...

Mammillaria longimamma A P de Candolle 1828

FINGER CACTUS, NIPPLE CACTUS, PINEAPPLE CACTUS Dolichothele longimamma (A. P. de Candolle) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria uberiformis Zuccarini ex Pfeiffer 1837, Dolichothele uberi-formis (Zuccarini ex Pfeiffer) Britton & Rose 1923, M. longimamma subsp. uberiformis (Zuccarini ex Pfeiffer) Krainz 1974 Plants usually solitary but later branching basally to form small clumps. Roots somewhat tuberous. Stems globose, glossy green, 8-15 cm (3.1-5.9 in) high and in diameter. Tubercles long,...

Echinocereus spinigemmatus A B Lau 1984

Plants commonly branching to form loose clumps of 7-10 stems. Stems cylindrical, gradually tapering toward the tips, green, to 30 cm (12 in) high, 4-7 cm (1.6-2.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-14, somewhat tuberculate. Central spines 2-4, not readily distinguishable from the radials, yellowish, erect, 5-40 mm (0.2-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 10-13, slender, yellowish, 3-23 mm (to 0.9 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, funnelform, pinkish lilac to pale violet, 4-5 cm (1.6-2 in) long, 5-6 cm...

Echinopsis kladiwaiana Rausch 1972

Stems cylindrical, fresh green, to 20 cm (7.9 in) high and 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-13, straight, notched. Areoles white. Spines flexible, brown with lighter colored bases. Central spines 1-3, erect, to 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Radial spines 12-14, radiating, to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, narrow funnelform, white, to 22 cm (8.7 in) long and 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter. Fruits globose to bulbous, brownish rose, to 3 cm (1.2 in) in...

Escobara guadalupensis S Brack K D Heil 1986

Plants mostly solitary, sometimes many-stemmed. Stems globose to somewhat elongate, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) high, 4-10 cm (1.6-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, to 10 mm (0.4 in) long with the groove running the entire length of the upper surface. Central spines 17, white with brown tips, thick, 8-14 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Radial spines 36, white, slender and sometimes bristle-like, 7-12 mm (0.3-0.5 in) long. Flowers pale yellow, cream, or pink, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long. Fruits green, 1.5 cm...

XHaagespostoa

Two groups of Peruvian cacti long baffled researchers, resulting in both taxonomic and nomenclatural confusion. The first group, originally described by John Akers in 1948 as Peruvocereus albisetatus, was transferred by Curt Backeberg to Haageocereus. The second group is represented by Bing hamia climaxantha, described by Erich Werdermann in 1937 and transferred to Neobinghamia by Backeberg, who described that genus in 1950 and subsequently included N. multiareolata and N. villigera in it. The...

Coryphantha longicornis Boedeker 1931

Plants usually solitary, globose to short cylindrical, pale gray-green, 9-30 cm (3.5-12 in) high, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) in diameter, covered by spines, with woolly stem tips. Tubercles very firm, more or less erect, conical. Central spines 3, rigid, white to brown, often with blackish tips, 13-25 mm (0.5-1 in) long, lower one strongly curved and descending, upper ones shorter. Radial spines 12, translucent white, 6-13 mm (0.2-0.5 in) long. Flowers yellow, 4-6.5 cm (1.6-2.6 in) long, 4-7.5 cm...

Escontria

Southern Mexico is the home of several interesting cereoid cacti. Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose (1919-1923,2 6566) reported that the plant now named Escontria was first collected by Dr. A. Weber, who was associated with the French army in Mexico in the mid-nineteenth century. They further commented that Weber sent material to George Engelmann, who did nothing with it. The plant material subsequently reached Europe and was described in 1897 as Cereus chiotilla by Fr d ric Weber in Karl...

Escontria Rose 1906

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Pachycereeae. Escontria chiotilla (F. A. C. Weber) Rose 1906 Cereus chiotilla F. A. C. Weber 1897, Myrtillocactus chiotilla (F. A. C. Weber) P. V. Heath 1992 Plants arboreal, becoming much branched, 4-7 m (13-23 ft) high, often with fairly flat tops, forming distinct trunks. Stems cylindrical, bright green, 8-12 cm (3.1-4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 7-8, more or less triangular in cross section with straight margins. Areoles distinctive, closely positioned,...

Eulychnia

Espostoopsis dybowskii, photograph by Urs Eggli Espostoopsis dybowskii, photograph by Urs Eggli Eulychnia is a small genus of mostly candelabra-like cacti restricted to the coastal deserts of Chile and Peru. Eulychnia breviflora attains remarkable size in this coastal fog zone, often forming extensive forests. The age of these giants is unknown, but it is likely they are quite old. Rudolph Philippi described Eulychnia (type, E. breviflora) in 1860 with one species. The name is from the Greek...

Coryphantha calipensis Bravo 1964

Stems globose to somewhat cylindrical, gray-green to olive green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) high, 5-8 cm (2-3.1 in) in diameter. Tubercles to 30 mm (1.2 in) long and wide basally, conical apically, pyramidal basally, axils woolly. Central spine one, occasionally 3-4, slightly curved, brownish to blackish, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Radial spines 10-16, needle-like, straight, whitish, 10-15 mm (0.40.6 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long and in diameter. Fruits...

Gymnocalycium deeszianum Dlz 1943

Plants solitary, depressed globose to elongate globose, light olive green, becoming deep green with age, to 6.5 cm (2.6 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-8 with distinct, pointed, chinlike protrusions. Spines about 7, pale yellow, flattened against the stem surface or slightly spreading, curving, to 2.5 cm ( 1 in) long. Flowers creamy white with pink tint, to 5 cm (2 in) long. Distribution Argentina. Gymnocalycium delaetii (K. Schumann) Hosseus 1926 Echinocactus delaetii K. Schumann 1901 Plants solitary,...

Pygmaeocereus

The International Cactaceae Systematics Group has struggled over the problem of whether Pygmaeocereus should be accepted as distinct or placed in Haageocereus. At least until further research is done, it has been decided to keep the genus separate (Hunt 1999a). Pygmaeocereus (type, P. byle-sianus) was described by Harry Johnson and Curt Backeberg in 1957, the name having first been used by Johnson in his 1955 catalog, in which he listed a Pygmaeocereus akersii ( P. bylesianus7). The name is...

Echinopsis coronata Crdenas 1957

Plants solitary, globose, depressed apically, gray-green, 10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in) high, 12-17 cm (4.7-6.7 in) in diameter. Ribs about 13, notched, hatchet shaped. Areoles prominent, depressed in the notches, 2.5-3 cm (1-1.2 in) apart. Spines awl shaped, gray. Central spine one, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 8-10, spreading, sometimes flattened against the stem surface, 0.5-2 cm (0.2-0.8 in) long. Flowers long fun-nelform, white, 18-19 cm (7.1-7.5 in) long. Fruits globose, tuberculate,...

Coryphantha elephantidens Lemaire Lemaire 1868

Mammillaria elephantidens Lemaire 1838 Mammillaria recurvispina de Vriese 1839, Coryphantha recurvispina (deVriese) L. Bremer 1976 Mammillaria bumamma Ehrenberg 1849, Coryphantha bumamma (Ehrenberg) Britton & Rose 1923 Coryphantha greenwoodii Bravo 1970 Coryphantha garessii L. Bremer 1980 Plants solitary or forming large clumps. Stems depressed globose, glossy dark green, woolly apically, to 14 cm (5.5 in) high, 8-20 cm (3.1-7.9in) in diameter. Tubercles very large, thick, stout, more or...

Escobara albicolumnaria Hester 1941

Silver-lace cob cactus, white column Mammillaria albicolumnaria (Hester) Weniger 1970, Coryphantha albicolumnaria (Hester) D. A. Zimmerman 1972 Plants solitary with occasional branching, short oblong to cylindrical, to 25 cm (9.8 in) high, 4-6.5 cm (1.6-2.6 in) in diameter. Tubercles rigid, 4-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long, grooved on the entire upper surface. Central spines 11-15, white, 1218 mm (0.5-0.7 in) long, 2-4 slightly larger than the others. Radial spines 25-30, spreading, some bristle-like,...

Melocactus praerupticola Areces 2000

Plants solitary, depressed globose, slightly wider than high, often asymmetrical, dark green, 5.5-11 cm (2.2-4.3 in) high, 8-10.5 cm (3.1-4.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-11, broadly obtuse, slightly undulate. Spines horn yellow to brown or dull pinkish, not markedly stout. Central spines 2-3, curved slightly upward, 14-30 mm (0.6-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 9-10, curved slightly upward, 20-25 mm (0.8-1 in) long. Cephalia rather small, 1.3-3.2 cm (0.5-1.3 in) high, 3-4.5 cm (1.2-1.8 in) in...

Yungasocereus

Martin C rdenas, who described the genus Samaipaticereus with one species in 1952, described a second in 1957, S. inquisivensis. He reported that it occurred in Inquisivi province, La Paz, Bolivia, a considerable distance from the habitat the first species, S. corroanus. Later, Friedrich Ritter found the second species nearby in Yungas province and believed it to be quite different from S. corroanus, so in 1980 he described Yungasocereus (type, S. inquisivensis Y. inquisivensis) for it. The...

Mammillaria heidiae Krainz 1975

Roots fibrous. Stems globose, to 3 cm (1.2 in) high and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in diameter. Tubercles cylindrical, without latex, axils with one to five thin, white bristles to 10 mm (0.4 in) long. Central spines 02, hooked or straight, reddish brown, yellow basally, somewhat flexible, to 12 mm (0.5 in) long. Radial spines 16-24, straight, bristle-like, flexible, thin, glassy white, to 11 mm (0.4 in) long. Flowers yellowish green, to 30 mm (1.2 in) long and in...

Pterocactus

Most of the smaller genera of the subfamily Opuntioideae have received little attention from researchers and are often rare in cultivation. Such is not the case with Pterocactus, however, at least with respect to research. Roberto Kiesling (1982) published a comprehensive study of the genus, his research clarifying the taxonomy of the species and the relationship of Pterocactus to other cacti. A question remained, however, about the type species of the genus. Nigel Taylor Pseudorhipsalis...

Melocactus matanzanus Len 1934

Dwarfturk's-cap cactus, turk's-cap cactus Melocactus actinacanthus Areces 1976 Plants globose, pale green, 7-9 cm (2.8-3.5 in) high, 8-9 cm (3.1-3.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 8-9 or more. Spines brownish white or gray. Central spine one, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Radial spines 7-8,12-20 mm (0.5-0.8 in) long. Cephalia to 9 cm (3.5 in) high, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) in diameter, densely covered with reddish brown bristles. Flowers opening about noon, pink, to 20 mm (0.8 in) long. Fruits pink to lilac-pink,...

Opuntia macrocentra Engelmann 1857

BLACK-SPINED PRICKLY PEAR, BLUNT-SPINED PRICKLY PEAR, LONG-SPINED PRICKLY PEAR, MARTIN'S BLUNT-SPINED PRICKLY PEAR, PURPLE PRICKLY PEAR, REDDISH PURPLE PRICKLY PEAR Opuntia violacea Engelmann 1848, not validly published 0. violacea Engelmann ex B. D. Jackson 1898 Opuntia macrocentra var. minor M. Anthony 1956 Opuntia violacea var. castetteri L. D. Benson 1969 Opuntia violacea var. macrocentra L. D. Benson 1969 Plants spreading shrubs, 0.6-1 m (24-39 in) high, rarely with distinct trunks. Stem...

Mammillaria halbingeri Boedeker 1933

Plants solitary, later forming clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, light green, to 10 cm (3.9 in) high and 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical to ovoid, without latex, axils with wool. Central spines 2, sometimes one, slightly curved, needle-like, glassy white to yellowish white, with brown tips, to 9 mm (0.4 in) long. Radial spines 21-28, thin, needle-like, glassy white, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers funnelform, sulfur yellow with pale pink margins, to 12 mm (0.5 in) in...

Echinocereus scopulorum Britton Rose 1922

Stems cylindrical, 10-40 cm (3.9-16 in) high, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter, obscured by spines. Ribs 13-15. Central spines 3-10, erect, shorter than the radials. Radial spines about 20, flattened next to the stem, whitish with darker tips, 8-14 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, funnelform, fragrant, pale pink to magenta, with white throats, 7-8.5 cm (2.8-3.3 in) long, to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Fruits not known. Distribution along the coast of Sonora...

Pterocactus araucanus A Castellanos 1964

Plants producing several stems with spines not covering them. Stem segments globose to pear shaped, arising one above the other, gray-brown, 3-4 cm (1.2-1.6 in) long, 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 in) in diameter. Glochids absent. Spines about 8, pectinate, yellowish with darker tips, to 3 mm long. Flowers reddish brown, opaque, to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter. Fruits borne apically, globose, 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Distribution plains of Neuquen, Argentina. Pterocactus australis (f. a. c. Weber) Backeberg...

Eulychnia breviflora Philippi i860

Cereus longispinus Salm-Dyck 1845, Eulychnia longispina (SalmDyck) F. Ritter 1965 Eulychnia procumbens Backeberg 1963, not validly published Eulychnia aricensis F. Ritter 1964 Eulychnia saint-pieana F. Ritter 1964 Eulychnia barquitensis F. Ritter 1980 Plants treelike, 3-7 m (9.8-23 ft) high, much branched from below, often with well-developed short trunks. Stems nearly erect, 8-11 cm (3.1-4.3 in) in diameter, gray or dark green. Ribs 10-17, somewhat tuberculate, sometimes furrowed between...

Espostoa

The tribe Trichocereeae contains some of the most interesting columnar cacti of South America, and Espostoa certainly is among the most beautiful. I have marveled at the white stems and lateral cephalia of these cacti, growing in harsh, dry deserts. The group has not been well studied, and researchers have described several different genera to contain what are now believed to be members of Espostoa. Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose described Espostoa (type, Cactus lanatus E. lanata) with a...

Cleistocactus peculiar is

(Rauh & Backeberg) Ostolaza 1998 Loxanthocereus peculiaris Rauh & Backeberg 1957, Haageocereus peculiaris (Rauh & Backeberg) F. Ritter 1958 Loxanthocereus brevispinus Rauh & Backeberg 1958 Loxanthocereus cantaensis Rauh & Backeberg 1958 Cleistocactus brevispinus F. Ritter 1981 Plants shrubby, sparsely branched, to 2 m (6.6 ft) high. Stems gray-green, 1.7-2.2 cm (0.7-0.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-13, very blunt. Spines needle-like, straight, rigid, reddish brown. Central spines...

Gymnocalycium rosae h Till 1995

Plants usually solitary, flattened globose with slightly depressed stem tips, dark olive green, partly sunken into the ground, 4.2-6.8 cm (1.7-2.7 in) high, 5.5-8 cm (2.2-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 7-8, straight, wide, forming distinct protuberances. Areoles oval to round, with yellowish white wool. Spines 5-7, yellow with red or brown bases, thin, spreading, 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in) long. Flowers funnelform, white, to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 5.2 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits ellipsoidal, to 25 mm (1...

Opuntia subsphaerocarpa Spegazzini 1925

Plants shrubby to nearly treelike, densely branched. Stem segments oval to somewhat elongate, glossy dark green, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) wide. Spines 1-2, often absent, whitish, 1.5-2.5 cm (0.6-1 in) long. Flowers yellow, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. Fruits globose, red. Distribution Misiones, Argentina. Opuntia sulfurea G. Don 1830 Platyopuntia sulfurea (G. Don) F. Ritter 1980 Opuntia vulpina F. A. C. Weber 1898 Opuntia brunnescens Britton & Rose 1919 Platyopuntia...

Opuntia rileyi G Ortega 1929

Plants treelike, 2-3 m (6.6-9.8 ft) high with distinct spiny trunks. Stem segments narrowly obovate, pubescent, 13-32 cm (5.1-13 in) long, 9-13 cm (3.5-5.1 in) wide. Areoles whitish, small. Glochids yellow, becoming gray with age. Spine usually one, whitish, pointing downward and nearly parallel with the surface of the segment. Flowers yellow, to 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter. Fruits not known. Distribution along the coast in Sinaloa, Mexico.

Opuntia nejapensis Bravo 1972

Plants treelike with distinct trunks. Stem segments obovate, large, thick, somewhat wavy, yellowish green, 30-35 cm (1214 in) long, 20-25 cm (7.9-9.8 in) wide. Areoles few, elliptical, large, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) apart. Spines usually 3, awl shaped, very thick, long, white with yellowish tips, directed downward, 2-8 cm (0.8-3.1 in) long, upper one longest. Flowers yellow. Fruits fig shaped, 7-8 cm (2.8-3.1 in) long, to 5 cm (2 in) in diameter, with large tubercles, without gloc-hids or spines....

Opuntia eichlamii Rose 1911

Plants treelike with mostly erect branches, 5-6 m (16-20 ft) high. Stem segments round to obovate, usually glaucous, 1520 cm (5.9-7.9 in) long. Leaves small, falling away early. Areoles small, 3-3.5 cm (1.2-1.4 in) apart. Glochids brown. Spines 4-6, unequal, rose colored, becoming gray with age, spreading, some flattened, to 2 cm (0.8 in) long. Flowers carmine, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long. Fruits tuberculate, not edible, to 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Distribution Guatemala. Plants shrubby, low growing, to...

Opuntia atropes Rose 1908

Plants treelike, much branched, 1-3 m (3.3-9.8 ft) high with short black trunks. Stem segments oblong to obovate, deep green, pubescent, sometimes glossy, 20-30 cm (7.9-12 in) long. Leaves borne at right angles to the stems, acuminate, pubescent, with reddish tips, 4-5 mm long. Areoles round, reddish yellow. Glochids numerous, yellow, long. Spines whitish or yellowish, becoming lighter with age, somewhat angled, arising nearly at right angles to the stems, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Flowers...

Coryphantha unicornis Boedeker 1928

Plants often solitary but sometimes forming clumps. Roots thick. Stems globose, shiny pale blue-green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, rounded apically, not crowded, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long, axils and spine clusters often with red glands. Central spine one, erect, straight or slightly curved, dark reddish brown, 18-20 mm (0.7-0.8 in) long. Radial spines 7-8, yellow to brownish gray, with dark tips, straight, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long. Flowers rose colored. Fruits green with...

Mammillaria sempervivi A P de Candolle 1828

Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps and not rising much above ground level. Taproots large. Stems flattened globose to depressed globose, dull gray-green, 7-10 cm (2.83.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles pyramidal, firm, with latex, axils woolly. Central spines 2-3, short, stout, reddish brown to black, becoming gray with age, to 4 mm long. Radial spines usually on young stems only, 2-6, white, bristle-like, to 3 mm long. Flowers funnelform, barely rising above the tubercles, dingy white...

Opuntia guilanchi Griffiths 1908

Opuntia White Tower

Plants shrubby, erect and with open branching, 1.5-2 m (4.96.6 ft) high. Stem segments obovate, dark green, slightly pubescent, 14-24 cm (5.5-9.4 in) long, to 16 cm (6.3 in) wide. Areoles small, dark yellow. Glochids yellow, less than 2 mm long. Spines 2-3 at first, later 4-5, whitish at first, later darker, erect, slightly flattened, often twisted, 5-35 mm (0.2-1.4 in) long. Flowers not known. Fruits subglobose, yellowish to reddish, pubescent. Distribution Zacatecas, Mexico. Opuntia helleri...

Mammillaria mystax Martius 1832

Craig 1945 Mammillaria atroflorens Backeberg 1962, not validly published Mammillaria erythra Reppenhagen 1987 Plants solitary. Stems globose to cylindrical, dark gray-green, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high, 7-10 cm (2.8-3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles firm, pyramidal, four- to six-angled, keeled, with latex, axils with bristles. Central spines 3-4, sometimes one, variable in number and color, stout, twisted, interwoven, purplish with dark brown tips, one or more centrally...

Mammillaria hahniana Werdermann 1929

Neomammillaria mendeliana Bravo 1931, Mammillaria mendeliana (Bravo) Backeberg 1931, M. hahniana subsp. mendeliana (Bravo) D. R.Hunt 1997 Mammillaria woodsii R. T. Craig 1943, M. hahniana subsp. woodsii (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997 Mammillaria bravoae R. T. Craig 1945, M. hahniana subsp.bravoae (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997 Plants usually forming clumps. Stems globose, light green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles numerous, small, triangular conical, with latex, axils...

Coleocephalocereus fluminertsis Miquel Backeberg 1941

Cereus fluminensis Miquel 1838, Cephalocereus fluminensis (Miquel) Britton & Rose 1920, Austrocephalocereus fluminensis (Miquel) Buxbaum 1968 Leocereus paulensis Spegazzini 1925 Coleocephalocereus decumbens F. Ritter 1968, C. fluminensis subsp. decumbens (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor & Zappi 1997 Coleocephalocereus paulensis F. Ritter 1968, C. fluminensis var. paulensis (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun 1991, C. fluminensis subsp. paulensis (F. Ritter) P. J. Braun & Esteves 1995 Coleocephalocereus...

Uebelmannia

Uebelmannia was described in 1967 by Albert Buining, honoring a Swiss nurseryman, Werner Uebelmann, who had introduced many interesting South American cacti into cultivation through his financial support. Buining designated Parodia gummifera ( U. gummifera) as the type of the genus, the plant coming from Brazil but not seeming to belong in Parodia, the genus into which Curt Backeberg and Otto Voll had placed it when they described the species in 1950. Uebelmannia has usually been placed in the...

Rebutafabrisii Rausch 1977

Stems globose, to 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Ribs forming spirals of distinct tubercles. Areoles nearly round, white to yellow. Spines numerous, white to yellow, 4-8 mm (to 0.3 in) long. Flowers red, to 2.5 cm (1 in) long and in diameter. Fruits not known. Distribution northern Argentina. Rebut a fidaiana (Backeberg) D. R. Hunt 1987 Echinocactus fidaianus Backeberg 1933, Spegazzinia fidaiana (Backeberg) Backeberg 1933, Weingartia fidaiana (Backeberg) Werdermann 1937,...

Copiapoa

Among the most impressive cacti in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile is Copiapoa, varying in size from some of the smallest cacti to massive clumps consisting of hundreds of stems. Rudoph Philippi, a German botanist who traveled widely in Chile in the mid-nineteenth century, described three new cacti, placing them in Echinocactus. The American botanist Joseph Rose traveled to Chile in 1914, where he observed and collected some of the interesting globose cacti in the Atacama Desert. By that...

Cleistocactus micropetalus f Ritter 1980

Plants shrubby, branching basally and somewhat spreading, 1.5-3 m (4.9-9.8 ft) high. Stems gray-green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 16-18, wavy. Areoles close set. Spines golden yellow, straight. Central spine one, sometimes more, stout, needle-like, 20-40 mm (0.8-1.6 in) long. Radial spines 5-6,5-15 mm (0.2-0.6 in) long. Flowers often produced in large numbers near the stem tips, open at night, radially symmetrical, green, to 2.2 cm (0.9 in) long. Fruits globose,yellow to reddish...

Acanthocalycium

Curt Backeberg described Acanthocalycium (type, Echino-cactus spiniflorum A. spiniflorum) for nine species from Argentina, most previously included in Echinopsis. The name Acanthocalycium is derived from the Greek akantha, prickly, and kalyx, thus referring to the spiny buds. Most botanists, including the International Cactaceae Systematics Group, have been unsure whether to accept Acanthocalycium or include its species in the broadly defined genus Echinopsis. Ini tially, Acanthocalycium was...

Rebuta

One of the most popular of the small South American cacti is Rebut a, easily grown and producing lovely flowers. This popularity, however, has resulted in a large number of described species, most of which cannot be accepted when extensive field studies and other analyses are done. Rebut a (type, R. minuscula) was described as a genus with a single species by Karl Schumann in 1895, honoring Monsieur P. Rebut, a wine grower and cactus dealer who lived in Chazay d'Azergues, France. Schumann...

Opuntia hondurensis Standley 1940

Plants treelike, to 9 m (30 ft) high with distinct trunks to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. Stem segments ovate to elongate obovate, pale green, 13-22 cm (5.1-8.7 in) long, to 7 cm (2.8 in) wide. Spines about 12, unequal, thin, slightly flattened, spreading, reddish brown, 2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) long. Flowers and fruits undescribed. Distribution Honduras. Plants shrubby, much branched, prostrate and straggling. Stem segments oval, green to coppery green, glaucous, shiny, to 10 cm (3.9 in) wide....

Echinopsis minuana Spegazzini 1905

Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching basally. Stems cylindrical, 50-80 cm (20-31 in) high, 14-15 cm (5.5-5.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 12, straight, slightly wavy. Spines straight, dark to light brown. Central spine one, stout, swollen basally, 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 4-7,2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long. Flowers white, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Fruits subglo-bose, greenish red, to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) long. Distribution eastern Argentina. Echinopsis mirabilis Spegazzini 1905 Setiechinopsis...

Echinomastus erectocentrus j m Coulter Britton Rose 1922

Acuna cactus, needle-spine pineapple cactus, pineapple cactus, purple-spined viznagita, red pineapple cactus Echinocactus erectocentrus J. M. Coulter 1896, Neolloydia erectocen-tra (J. M. Coulter) l. d. Benson 1969, Sclerocactus erectocentrus (J. M. Coulter) N. P. Taylor 1987, Pediocactus erectocentrus (J. M. Coulter) Halda 1998 Echinocactus krausli Hildmann 1896, Echinomastus krausii (Hild- mann) Borg 1937 Echinomastus acunensis W. T. Marshall 1953, E. erectocentrus var. acunensis (W. T....

Acknowledgments

Research for The Cactus Family has extended over the more than four decades that I have studied cacti, so it would be difficult to acknowledge all those from whom I have received assistance. First, however, I thank the administration and staff of the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona, for their support and encouragement, because this book would not have been possible without the time, facilities, and plants the garden provided. Financial support for my cactus research has come from...

Mammillaria senilis Salm Dyck 1850

Cochemiea senilis (Salm-Dyck) Orcutt 1922, Mamillopsis senilis (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria senilis var. diguetii F. A. C. Weber 1904, Mamillopsis diguetii (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose 1923, Mammillaria diguetii (F. A. C. Weber) D. R. Hunt 1971 Plants forming clusters. Stems globose to cylindrical, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, obtuse, without latex, axils with wool and bristles. Central spines 4-6, white with yellow tips,...

Echinopsis mataranensis crdenas 1970

Plants solitary, globose, depressed apically, glaucous, 12-13 cm (4.7-5.1 in) high, 18-20 cm (7.1-7.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 11-25, acute, notched, tuberculate. Areoles oblique, light brown, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) apart. Spines 11-13, not differentiated as centrals and radials, somewhat pectinate, spreading or flattened against the stem surface, curved, gray, swollen basally, 1-5 cm (0.4-2 in) long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, 16-18 cm (6.3-7.1 in) long, to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter...