Cultivation of Cacti

Arthrocereus

Esculturas Para Jardin

The Brazilian genus Arthrocereus comprises four species, some of which are in cultivation and fairly well known. Like many groups of the tribe Trichocereeae, however, not enough is known about the natural variation of the cacti in the field. There was some confusion as to the first use of the name Arthrocereus but this has been clarified by Nigel Taylor 1992 , who proposed conservation of the name with a new type, A. glaziovii syn. Cereus glaziovii , with the original type, C. mi-crosphaericus,...

Pereskia sacharosa Grisebach 1879

Rhodocactus sacharosa Grisebach Backeberg 1966 Pereskia moorei Britton amp Rose 1919 Pereskia saipinensis C rdenas 1964, Rhodocactus saipinensis C rdenas Backeberg 1966 Pereskia sparsiflora F. Ritter 1980 Plants treelike or shrubby, 5-7 m 16-23 ft tall, 2-4 m 6.613 ft tall. Twigs often zigzag. Leaves extremely variable in shape and size, mostly obovate, often folded along the midrib, 3-12 cm 1.2-4.7 in long, 2-7 cm 0.8-2.8 in broad, with petioles, venation pinnate, midribs prominent below,...

Azreyole Dreamer

Thin Walled Cell Stem

The cactus stem and its associated features vary greatly, adding to the diversity of form of cacti. These differences have been used by researchers in distinguishing species and other taxa of cacti. Unfortunately for the purposes of classification, these are vegetative structures, usually more subject to environmental modification than floral structures. Nonetheless, the variation patterns of stem features, including the surface, tubercles, ribs, leaves, areoles, and spines, are important in...

Echinopsis silvestrii Spegazzini 1905

Plants usually solitary, sometimes branching to form small clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, 5-10 cm (2-3.9 in) high, 4-8 cm (1.6-3.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 12-14. Areoles round, whitish. Central spine one, erect. Radial spines 5-9, flattened against the stem surface. Flowers white, not fragrant, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Distribution between Tucum n and Salta, northwestern Argentina. Echinopsis silvestrii is poorly known. Echinopsis skottsbergii (Backeberg) H. Friedrich & G. D....

Harrisia simpsonii Small 1920

Harrisia Taetra

QUEEN OFTHE NIGHT, SIMPSON'S PRICKLY APPLE Cereus gracilis var. simpsonii Small L. D. Benson 1969 Plants erect, spreading, or reclining, to 6 m 20 ft high. Stems unbranched or more or less branched. Ribs 8-10. Spines 7-14, gray, 1-2.5 cm 0.4-1 in long. Flowers 12-17 cm 4.7-6.7 in long floral tubes with soft white hairs. Fruits depressed globose, orange-red, 4-6 cm 1.6-2.4 in in diameter. Distribution southern coastal hummocks of the Keys and mainland of Florida. Harrisia portoricensis,...

Cereus roseiflorus Spegazzini 1925

Plants treelike with several branches, to 5 m (16 ft) high. Stems more or less erect, green. Ribs 6, notched, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) high. Areoles 2-2.5 cm (0.8-1 in) apart. Spines usually 3, expanded basally, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Flowers pink to rose, to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. Fruits ovoid, violet-red, to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. Distribution Argentina. Cereus roseiflorus is poorly known. Cereus saddianus (Rizzini & A. Mattos) P. J. Braun 1988 Monvillea saddiana Rizzini & A. Mattos 1985 Plants...

Cereus mirabella N P Taylor 1991

Cereus Tacuaralensis

Ritter 1979, Monvillea minensis F. Ritter R. Kies-ling 1994 Plants shrubby, spreading and much branched. Stems blue-green, becoming gray-green, 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in in diameter. Ribs 3-5, wavy, sometimes nearly absent. Areoles round, with short to long white or brown wool. Spines 3-6, yellow with reddish brown bases, straight, needle-like, diverging, to 2.5 cm 1 in long. Flowers white. Fruits to 3.5 cm 1.4 in long. Distribution Minas G rais, Brazil. Cereus mortensenii Croizat...

Mammillaria compressa A P de Candolle 1828

Mammillaria conopea Scheidweiler 1838 Mammillaria esseriana Boedeker 1928 Mammillaria tolimensis R. T. Craig 1945 Mammillaria bernalensis Reppenhagen 1989 Mammillaria centralifera Reppenhagen 1989, M. compressa subsp. centralifera Reppenhagen D. R. Hunt 1997 Plants solitary at first, later forming massive clumps to 1 m 3.3 ft wide. Stems club shaped to cylindrical, bluish gray-green, to 20 cm 7.9 in high, 5-10 cm 2-3.9 in in diameter. Tubercles close set, firm, bluntly angled, keeled, with...

Armatocereus brevispinus J E Madsen 1989

Armatocereus

Plants treelike, much branched, to 10 m 33 ft high with well-defined trunks to 2 m 6.6 ft high and to 50 cm 20 in in diameter. Stem segments spreading, dark green with grayish tint, tapering at both ends, 40-80 cm 16-31 in long, 7-12 cm 2.8-4.7 in in diameter. Ribs 4-6, separated by deep sinuses, 2-4 cm 0.8-1.6 in high. Spines 6-9, inconspicuous, light brown, becoming gray with age, spreading, 2-7 mm to 0.3 in long. Flowers borne horizontally, narrowly funnelform, white, 8 cm 3.1 in long, 6 cm...

Stephanocereus

Stephanocereus type, Cereus leucostele S. leucostele was described by Alwin Berger in 1926. Curt Backeberg 19581962,4 2549 , Pierre Braun 1988 , and others accepted it as a genus with a single species. Earlier, however, Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose 1919-1923, 2 60 had noted that another unusual cactus probably is related to C. leucostele, a plant subsequently described as C. luetzelburgii by Friedrich Vaupel. Nigel Taylor and Daniela Zappi 1989 later observed the same similarity. Taylor...

Sclerocactus parviflorus Clover Jotter 1941

Sclerocactus Parviflorus

BLESSING DEVIL'S-CLAW CACTUS, DEVIL'S-CLAW CACTUS, EAGLE-CLAW CACTUS Echinocactus parviflorus (Clover & Jotter) L. D. Benson 1950, Ferocac-tus parviflorus (Clover & Jotter) N. P. Taylor 1979, Pediocactus parviflorus (Clover & Jotter) Halda 1998 Sclerocactus havasupaiensis Clover 1942, S. parviflorus subsp. havasupaiensis (Clover) Hochstatter 1995, Pediocactus parviflorus subsp. havasupaiensis (Clover) Halda 1998 Sclerocactus intermedius Peebles 1949, S. parviflorus subsp. intermedins...

Maihueniopsis atacamensis Philippi f Ritter 1980

Puna Bonnieae

Opuntia atacamensis Philippi 1860, Pseudotephrocactus atacamensis Philippi Fric 1933, Tephrocactus atacamensis Philippi Backeberg 1935 Plants forming dense, raised, fairly large cushions to 30 cm 12 in high, 60-80 cm 24-31 in wide. Stem segments ovoid to conical, to 2.5 cm 1 in long. Areoles as many as 30 and extending well down the segments, very close set, with glochids, the upper half with spines. Central spines 1-2, erect, straight, rounded to somewhat flattened, yellow to darkish red,...

Cacti as Medicine

A remarkable number of cacti are used by indigenous people of the New World for healing. Illness, injury, death, and the spirit world are intimately interrelated to many of these people, as seen in their belief that peyote and the San Pedro cactus are divine medicine. Peyote, for example, is not only a means of communication with the spirit world, it is also used as an analgesic, anti-rheumatic, and general tonic Nicholson and Arzeni 1993,187 . Other cacti, however, simply seem to provide some...

Oreocereus hempelianus Gurke D R Hunt 1987

Oreocereus Hempelianus

Echinopsis hempelianus Gurke 1906, Arequipa hempeliana Gurke Oehme 1940 Echinocactus rettigii Quehl 1919, Arequipa rettigii Quehl Oehme 1940, Oreocereus rettigii Quehl F. Buxbaum 1973 Arequipa weingartiana Backeberg 1936 Arequipa erectocylindrica Rauh amp Backeberg 1957 Arequipa soehrensii Backeberg 1959, not validly published Arequipa spinosissima F. Ritter 1964 Arequipa australis F. Ritter 1980, Oreocereus australis F. Ritter A. E. Hoffmann 1989 Plants branching basally, densely covered by...

Matucana comacephala f Ritter 1958

Plants usually solitary, globose to cylindrical, green to gray-green, to 75 cm 30 in high and 12 cm 4.7 in in diameter. Ribs 22-30, tuberculate. Spines dense, covering the plants, white to pale yellow, bristle-like, forming erect tufts apically. Central spines 5-10, 10-40 mm 0.4-1.6 in long. Radial spines 15-20,10-50 mm 0.4-2 in long. Flowers somewhat oblique, pink to sometimes orange-red, 5-7 cm 2-2.8 in long, 3-4 cm 1.2-1.6 in in diameter. Fruits oval, green, to 2 cm 0.8 in long and 0.5 cm...

Opuntia auberi Pfeiffer 1840

Opuntia Auberi

LENGUA DE VACA, NOPAL DE LENG ITA Nopalea auberi Pfeiffer Salm-Dyck 1850 Plants treelike, 3-8 m 9.8-26 ft or more high with branches produced from the trunks at right angles trunks cylindrical, spineless, with brownish glochids. Stem segments wide, bulky, blue-green to gray-green, to 30 cm 12 in long. Spines 2-3, sometimes absent, white with dark tips. Flowers dark rose, to 9 cm 3.5 in long. Fruits not known. Distribution Mexico and Cuba. Opuntia aurantiaca Gilles exLindley 1833 Cactus...

Corryocactus charazanensis Crdenas 1957

Merlion Changi

Plants branching basally, 1-2 m 3.3-6.6 ft high. Stems columnar, tapering toward the tips, fresh green, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in in diameter. Ribs 4-5, low, with somewhat notched margins. Spines about 11, not differentiated as centrals and radi-als, spreading, the shortest ones to 0.5 cm, the longest ones 2.5 cm 1 in and awl shaped. Flowers pinkish salmon, to 6 cm 2.4 in long. Fruits globose, 3-5 cm 1.2-2 in in diameter, with long thin spines. Distribution La Paz, Bolivia, at an elevation of 3000 m 9800...

Echinopsis subdenudata Crdenas 1956

Easter Cactus Damaged Branches

Plants solitary, globose, gray-green, depressed apically, 5-8 cm 2-3.1 in high, 7-12 cm 2.8-4.7 in in diameter. Ribs 10-12, very acute, slightly notched. Areoles small, cream col ored, transversely elliptical, to 1.5 cm 0.6 in apart. Spines grayish brown, often hidden by areolar wool. Central spine one, directed upward, to 2 mm long. Radial spines 3-7, swollen basally, to 1.5 mm long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, narrow funnelform, slightly curved, white to light pink, 17-20 cm 6.7-7.9 in...

Echinopsis klingleriana Crdenas 1965

Plants solitary, globose, light green, 12-14 cm 4.7-5.5 in high, to 13 cm 5.1 in in diameter. Ribs 13, acute, notched. Areoles round, prominent, gray, 2.5-3 cm 1-1.2 in apart. Central spine sometimes one, usually absent. Radial spines 5-6, thin, awl shaped, whitish to yellowish, 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in long. Flowers borne laterally, funnelform, white, to 12 cm 4.7 in long. Fruits elliptical, 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in long. Distribution Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Echinopsis knuthiana Backeberg H. Friedrich amp G....

Index of Scientific Names

Accepted names are in boldface, synonyms are not. Infraspecific ranks, subspecies versus variety, for example, are given only for accepted names. andreaeanum, see Eriosyce andreaeana aurantiacum, see Echinopsis thionantha brevispinum, see Echinopsis thionantha catamarcense, see Echinopsis thionantha chionanthum, see Echinopsis thionantha ferrarii, 105 glaucum, see Echinopsisglaucina griseum, see Echinopsis thionana klimpelianum, 106 peitscherianum, see A klimpelianum spitiiflorum, 106...

Bergerocactus

Forming spectacular masses of golden stems, Bergerocactus is one of the most impressive cacti in the coastal chaparral region of southern California and northern Baja California. Specimens were first collected in California by John Leconte and Charles Parry. The material was sent to George Engelmann in St. Louis, who described it as Cereus emoryi. Engelmann commented on the prickly flowers, which suggested that it might be related to Echinocereus, but then went on to say that the seed and the...

Ferocactus haematacanthus Salm Dyck Bravo ex

Hamatacanthus

Knuth 1935 Echinocactus electracanthus var. haematacanthus Salm-Dyck 1850, E. haematacanthus Salm-Dyck Monville ex F. A. C. Weber 1896, Bisnaga haematacantha Salm-Dyck Doweld 1999 Plants solitary, globose to cylindrical, green, glaucous when young, 30-120 cm 12-47 in high, 26-36 cm 10-14 in in diameter. Ribs 13-27 with confluent areoles when mature. Spines blood-red. Central spines 4,4-8 cm 1.6-3.1 in long. Ferocactus gracilis subsp. coloratus Radial spines 6-7,2.5-3.5 cm...

Distribution of Cacti

With the exception of Rhipsalis baccifera, cacti are strictly New World natives. Cactaceae occur from 56 15' north latitude near the Peace River in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada (Moss 1959, 339 Parfitt 1991, 72, 74) to 50 south latitude in the Argentine portion of Patagonia (Russell and Felker 1987). Interestingly, members of the subfamily Opuntioideae are found at both latitudinal extremes, Opuntia fragilis in the north and Maihueniopsis darwinii in the south. Maihuenia patagonica and...

Air Circulation and Ventilation

Air is the source of gases that cacti and other plants use to thrive and grow. It is at night that cacti, with their crassu-lacean acid metabolism, take in carbon dioxide through the stomata in their stems, storing it for use in photosynthesis during the day. Yet it is at night that a greenhouse may be shut tight, and air circulation or ventilation may be needed. Air circulation is simply the movement of air within a plant growing area. Any sort of fan will circulate air. Ventilation introduces...

Leptocereusprostratus Britton Rose 1920

Dragon Fruit Stem And Branch Segment

Plants shrubby, less than 1 m (3.3 ft) high, with several prostrate to creeping branches. Roots not tuberous. Stems with terminal segments 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) in diameter. Ribs 7, barely notched, with distinctly raised areoles. Spines 15-20, persistent, needle-like, yellow, becoming gray with age, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers bright yellow, less than 2 cm (0.8 in) long pericarpels and floral tubes with dense yellow spines. Fruits to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter, with dense yellow spines....

Melocactus curvispinus Pfeiffer 1837

Melocactus Conoideus

Melocactus obtusipetalus Lemaire 1838, Cactus obtusipetalus Lemaire Britton amp Rose 1922 Melocactus delessertianus Lemaire 1839 Melocactus caesius H. L. Wendland 1840, Cactus caesius H. L. Wendland Britton amp Rose 1922, M. curvispinus subsp.caesius H. L. Wendland N.P.Taylor 1991 Melocactus humilis Suringar 1889 Melocactus lobelil Suringar 1896 Melocactus ruestii K. Schumann. 1896 Melocactus Salvador Muri I lo 1897, Cactus sa rador Murillo Britton amp Rose 1922 Cactus maxonii Rose 1907,...

Melocactus deinacanthus Buining Brederoo 1973

Melocactus Deinacanthus

WONDERFULLY BRISTLED TURK'S-HEAD CACTUS Plants globose to elongate, becoming fairly large, 15-35 cm 5.9-14 in high, 12-25 cm 4.7-9.8 in in diameter. Ribs 10-12, acute. Central spines 4-7, reddish brown, to 53 mm 2.1 in long. Radial spines 11-14, somewhat curved, to 80 mm 3.1 in long. Cephalia to 25 cm 9.8 in high and 9 cm 3.5 in in diameter, with exposed bristles at the tips. Flowers pinkish magenta, to 26 mm 1 in long and 12 mm 0.5 in in diameter. Fruits club shaped, completely white, 12-22 mm...

Melocactus oreas Miquel 1840

Cactus oreas (Miquel) Britton & Rose 1922 Melocactus cremnophilus Buining & Brederoo 1972, M. oreas subsp. cremnophilus (Buining & Brederoo) P. J. Braun 1988 Melocactus rubrisaetosus Buining, Brederoo & Theunissen 1977, M. oreas subsp. rubrisaetosus (Buining, Brederoo & Theunissen) P. J. Braun 1988 Plants depressed globose to elongate, medium to dark green, 8.5-35 cm (3.3-14 in) high, 10-18 cm (3.9-7.1 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-16, round in cross section but with acute edges....

XMyrtgerocactus lindsayi Moran 1962

Plants more or less erect, few-branched from the base and occasionally from above, 2-3 m 6.6-9.8 ft high. Stems erect or curving outward and upward, 3-6 cm 1.2-2.4 in in diameter. Ribs 11-13, rounded to somewhat triangular, undulate. Spines 24-32 or more with age, yellowish brown, becoming gray with age. Central spines about 4, 10-30 mm 0.4-1.2 in long. Radial spines 4-8 mm to 0.3 in long. Flowers open during the day, arising laterally from the previous year's areoles, bell shaped, yellow,...

Thrips Damage To Cactus

Trying to eradicate every single insect from cultivated cacti is not only an impossible task that destroys the fun of growing plants, it would also indiscriminately kill benign or even beneficial insects along with those that truly are pests. Also, good cultivation practices make cacti less attractive to six- and eight-legged pests. Pests are more trouble to weak, unthrifty plants. Successful growers satisfy themselves with control rather than cure. Pest control must become pest management....

Conservation of Cacti

Echinocactus Grusonii Habitat

Many cacti are adversely affected by human activities, through habitat destruction and collecting from the wild, for example. In some cases entire populations have been destroyed and lost, and in others the number of plants has been drastically reduced. Examples of such losses are numerous throughout Latin America and the United States. One of the most widely cultivated and appreciated barrel cacti is the golden barrel cactus. Unfortunately, the natural habitat of Echinocactus grusonii has been...

San Pedro Cactus

The South American columnar cactus Echinopsis pachanoi, though unlike peyote in appearance, has a similar history and use by Native Americans in Peru. Extending far back into antiquity, the temple of Chavin de Huantar, located high in the central Andes of Peru, contains a remarkable stone carving that represents one of the first images of a cactus. It is of a godlike figure combining the characteristics of an eagle and a serpent, who holds in his hand a piece of columnar cactus, almost...

Echinopsis cerdana Crdenas 1959

Echinopsis Cactus Sunny Cultivar Plant

Plants solitary, globose, gray-green, 8-10 cm 3.1-3.9 in high, 10-20 cm 3.9-7.9 in in diameter. Ribs 11-16, acute, notched. Areoles white, 2.5-3 cm 1-1.2 in apart. Spines all stout, awl shaped, gray with brownish tips. Central spine one, 3-6 cm 1.2-2.4 in long. Radial spines 8-12,1-3 cm 0.41.2 in long. Flowers open at night, funnelform, white, to 14 cm 5.5 in long. Distribution Potos , Bolivia. Echinopsis chalaensis Rauh 8c Backeberg H. Friedrich 8c G. D. Rowley 1974 Trichocereus chalaensis...

Cumulopuntia ignescens Vaupel F Ritter 1980

Opuntia ignescens Vaupel 1913, Tephrocactus ignescens Vaupel Backeberg 1936 Plants forming dense cushions that are sometimes raised. Stem segments stout, broadly ovoid, tapered, somewhat pointed, prominently tuberculate apically, to 8 cm 3.1 in long. Areoles about 15, absent from lower portion of segments, only those at the tips with spines. Spines as many as 20, erect, close set, some strong, others thinner, reddish brown, to 8 cm 3.1 in . Flowers red to orange-yellow, to 3.5 cm 1.4 in long...

Espostoopsis

Espostoopsis (type, Cereus dybowskii E. dybowskii) was described in 1968 by Franz Buxbaum, who believed that the single species differs sufficientiy from either Austrocephalo-cereus ( Micranthocereus) or Cephalocereus, into which it had been placed by other researchers. Friedrich Ritter, apparently unaware of Buxbaum's new genus, later in the same year described Gerocephalus to include C. dybowskii. The name Espostoopsis is derived from the Greek opsis, resemblance, thus Espostoa-like. Buxbaum...

Pygmaeocereus

The International Cactaceae Systematics Group has struggled over the problem of whether Pygmaeocereus should be accepted as distinct or placed in Haageocereus. At least until further research is done, it has been decided to keep the genus separate (Hunt 1999a). Pygmaeocereus (type, P. byle-sianus) was described by Harry Johnson and Curt Backeberg in 1957, the name having first been used by Johnson in his 1955 catalog, in which he listed a Pygmaeocereus akersii ( P. bylesianus7). The name is...

Escontria Rose 1906

Subfamily Cactoideae, tribe Pachycereeae. Escontria chiotilla (F. A. C. Weber) Rose 1906 Cereus chiotilla F. A. C. Weber 1897, Myrtillocactus chiotilla (F. A. C. Weber) P. V. Heath 1992 Plants arboreal, becoming much branched, 4-7 m (13-23 ft) high, often with fairly flat tops, forming distinct trunks. Stems cylindrical, bright green, 8-12 cm (3.1-4.7 in) in diameter. Ribs usually 7-8, more or less triangular in cross section with straight margins. Areoles distinctive, closely positioned,...

Stenocereus

Stenocereus Laevigatus Flower

Stenocereus contains some of the most interesting columnar cacti, ranging from the spectacular organ pipe cactus, S. thur-beri, to the remarkable creeping devil, S. eruca. A distinguishing feature of Stenocereus is that the spines dehisce from the fruits. Strangely, many of the larger columnar cacti have been poorly studied, and published illustrations of them are few despite the fact that they are among the most prominent cacti. Stenocereus was published by Alwin Berger in 1905 as a subgenus...

Uebelmannia buiningii Donald 1968

Plants short cylindrical, greenish to reddish brown with a rough surface from wax, to 8 cm 3.1 in in diameter. Ribs 18, straight, 15 mm 0.6 in apart, divided into downward- pointing tubercles about 5 mm apart. Areoles with sparse wool. Spines reddish brown, becoming white with age. Central spines 4, forming a cross. Radial spines 2-4, shorter than the centrals, straight, to 5 mm long. Flowers yellow, to 2.7 cm 1.1 in long and 2 cm 0.8 in in diameter. Fruits ovoid, yellow, to 4 mm in diameter....

Neobuxbaumia

Neobuxbaumia Mezcalaensis

Like many other columnar cacti, Neobuxbaumia is less well known than the size of the plants would suggest and is uncommon in cultivation. Franz Buxbaum 1958,1961 struggled with the relationships of the plants in the tribe Pachy-cereeae, concluding that Backebergia Pachycereus mili-taris , Cephalocereus, and Neobuxbaumia are a distinct evolutionary lineage. In fact, the species he included in Neobuxbaumia had formerly been in either Cephalocereus or Pachycereus. However, the work of Arthur...

Rauhocereus

Rauhocereus

In 1957 Curt Backeberg described Rauhocereus, honoring Werner Rauh, professor of botany at the University of Heidelberg and a major contributor to our knowledge of succulent plants. The cactus has been brought into cultivation and it is handsomely columnar, producing large white flowers at night in summer. Research has shown that Rauhocereus is closely related to Browningia Gordon Rowley placed it in that genus in 1982. Arthur Gibson 1992 , however, in his extensive analysis of the group of...

Samaipaticereus

The Bolivian town of Samaipata is located about 150 km 93 miles south of the city of Santa Cruz. The region around it is characterized by thorn shrub vegetation and dry forest, the home of several interesting cacti. One of the most prominent is a tall, columnar, slightly branched cactus that often rises above the rest of the plants. Surprisingly, it was not described until 1952. Anibal Corro saw a cactus near Samaipata that was clearly different from the other large columnar cactus of the...

Opuntia amyclaea Tenore 1826

Loros Antillanos

Stem segments oblong to elliptical, glaucous dark green, thick, 30-40 cm 12-16 in long. Leaves sharp pointed, red, to 4 mm long. Areoles small with one or two short bristles. Glochids brownish, falling away. Spines 1-4, rigid, diverging, almost perpendicular, whitish, usually less than 3 cm 1.2 in long. Flowers yellow. Fruits not juicy. Distribution Mexico. Opuntia amyclaea apparently has been cultivated since pre-Hispanic times, so its natural distribution is unclear. Some...

Neoraimondia

Neoraimondia Arequipensis

One of the most striking cacti to be seen along the coast of Peru is Neoraimondia arequipensis. Likewise, the other species of the genus, N. herzogiana, is an even larger, more dominant plant in central Bolivia. The nomenclatural history of N. arequipensis is somewhat complicated. The plant was described by Karl Schumann in 1903 as Pilocereus macrostibas. Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose, describing the genus Neoraimondia, chose P. macrostibas as the type, but Curt Backeberg 1958-1962,2 874...

Literature Cited

Prehistoric psychotropic drug use in northeastern Mexico andTrans-PecosTexas. Economic Botany30 94-96. Agurell, S., J. G. Bruhn, J. Lundstrom, and U. Svensson. 1971. Cactaceae alkaloids. X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus species and some other cacti. Uoydia 34 183-187. Anderson, E. F. 1960. A revision of Ariocarpus Cactaceae . I. The status of the proposed genus Roseocactus. American Journal of Botany 47 582-589. Anderson, E. F. 1962. A revision of Ariocarpus...

Parodia nothorauschii D R Hunt 1997

Parodia Compressa

Notocactus rauschliVliet 1969, not Parodia rauschii Backebergex D. R. Hunt 1997 see P. aureicentra Notocactus spinibarbis F. Ritter 1979 Plants solitary, globose to short cylindrical, blue-green, to 21 cm 8.3 in high and 16 cm 6.3 in in diameter, with dense wool and spines covering the stem tips. Ribs 20-28, forming humps with chinlike protrusions. Areoles woolly at first, later naked. Central spines as many as 4, sometimes difficult to distinguish from radials, tending to point downward, black...

Rhipsalis occidentalis Barthlott Rauh 1987

Rhipsalis Goebeliana

Plants epiphytic, much branched, pendent shrubs to 1 m (3.3 ft) long. Stem segments flat, notched and toothed marginally, narrowly wedge shaped basally, dark green, to 12 cm (4.7 in) long and 6.5 cm (2.6 in) wide. Areoles without bristles or wool. Flowers borne laterally, solitary, white, 9 mm (0.4 in) long, 10 mm (0.4 in) wide. Fruits oblong, white. Distribution northern Peru, Ecuador, and Suriname. Rhipsalis oliv fera N. P. Taylor & Zappi 1997 Plants epiphytic or lithophytic, semierect to...

Selenicereus rubineus Kimnach 1993

Stems sprawling to climbing, to 3 m 9.8 ft or more long, profusely branching. Stems smooth, light green, white dotted, 1-2 cm 0.4-0.8 in in diameter. Ribs 4-5, slightly rounded marginally, 4-5 mm high. Areoles 4-4.5 cm 1.6-1.8 in apart, with spines and white curly wool. Spine usually one, awl shaped, sharp, to 2 mm long. Flowers white to cream, 18-19 cm 7.1-7.5 in long, to 18 cm 7.1 in in diameter pericarpels with broad scales, spines, and cream-colored wool. Distribution Oaxaca, Mexico....

Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus F A C Weber Britton

Cleistocactus Tarijensis

A. C. Weber 1894 Plants shrubby, branching basally with arching to creeping stems, to 1 m 3.3 ft high. Stems 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in in diameter. Ribs 12-14, low. Central spines 4-6, yellowish or brown, 15-35 mm 0.6-1.4 in long. Radial spines 10-14, needle-like, to 10 mm 0.4 in long. Flowers straight, slightly constricted above the pericarpels, yellow to emerald green, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in long perianth parts not spreading styles slightly exserted. Fruits globose, to 1.5...

Miqueliopuntia

Opuntioid cacti have long been a focus of research because of their wide distribution and large number of species. Only in more recent years have investigations begun to clarify the boundaries of genera. The large genus Opuntia, long accepted by most researchers, has been broken into discrete, fairly well defined groups. Many had previously accepted these groups as subgenera of Opuntia, but studies by Steven Dickie and Robert Wallace (2001), Wallace and Dickie (2001), James Iliff (2001), and...

Echinocereus laui G Frank 1978

Plants branching basally to form clumps of as many as 20 heads with spines obscuring the stems. Stems cylindrical, to 10 cm 3.9 in long and 4 cm 1.6 in in diameter. Ribs 14-16, low, finely tuberculate. Central spines 4, reddish brown, erect or divergent, to 30 mm 1.2 in long. Radial spines 18-21, bristle-like, white, 5-10 mm 0.2-0.4 in long. Flowers borne near the stem tips, narrow funnelform, pink, 3-6.2 cm 1.22.4 in long, 4-7.2 cm 1.6-2.8 in in diameter. Fruits round, brownish green, with...

Echinocereus rayonesensis N P Taylor 1988

Fitch Hedehog Cacti

Plants with many stems, branching at ground level. Stems erect, cylindrical, 12-28 cm 4.7-11 in high, 2.5-4.5 cm 11.8 in in diameter, obscured by heavy spination. Ribs 10-15, tuberculate. Spines glassy white to yellowish, hairlike or slender. Central spines 5-9, pointing downward, 3-5 cm 1.2-2 in long. Radial spines 15-25, sometimes more, 0.7-15 cm 0.3-0.6 in long. Flowers borne on the sides of the stems, broadly funnelform, purplish magenta with white throats, 2.5-6 cm 1-2.4 in long, 2.8-6 cm...

Pachycereus

Pachycereus Grandis

One feels nearly overwhelmed by the giant cardon of Baja California it and the striking cirio (Fouquieria columnaris) are conspicuous elements of one of the most interesting desert floras in the world. The cardon, Pachycereus pringlei, is one of the most impressive species of Pachycereus, and Reid Moran (1998) has written a noteworthy article on the plant. Likewise, the magnificent cactus forests of southern Mexico contain members of the genus Pachycereus as well, including the massive P....

Espostoa hylaea F Ritter 1964

Espostoa Hylaea

Plants shrubby, branching basally and to midway. Stems erect, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in in diameter. Ribs 21-28,4 mm high. Areoles elongate, 3-4 mm apart, with wool to 1 cm 0.4 in long. Central spine barely distinguishable, sometimes one to 1 cm 0.4 in long. Radial spines 30-40, yellow to reddish brown, to 0.5 cm long. Lateral cephalia light brown. Flowers whitish, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in long, 4-6 cm 1.6-2.4 in in diameter. Distribution Bagna province, Amazonas, Peru. Espostoa lanata Kunth Britton amp Rose 1920...

Gymnocalycium horstii Buining 1970

Gymnocalycium With Short Spines

Plants solitary at first, forming clusters later. Stems globose, bright green, to 20 cm 7.9 in high and in diameter. Ribs 5-6, wide, rounded, somewhat acute, deeply furrowed. Gymnocalycium gibbosum, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon Gymnocalycium gibbosum, photograph by Jean-Marie Solichon Plants usually solitary, globose to short cylindrical, dark blue-green, 12-15 cm 4.7-5.9 in high, 10-12 cm 3.9-4.7 Spines usually 5, yellowish white, one pointing downward, others to the sides, straight to...

Selenicereus innesii Kimnach 1982

Plants climbing to sprawling, intricately branched, lithophytic. Stems smooth, shiny green, white dotted, 1.2 cm (0.5 in) in diameter. Ribs 6, obtuse, with prominent tubercles. Areoles borne on tubercles, with white wool and spines. Spines bulbous basally, 1-2 mm long. Central spines 1-2, awl shaped, yellowish brown. Radial spines 3-7, needle-like, thin, whitish. Flowers sometimes unisexual, pinkish white or cream, 4-4.5 cm (1.6-1.8 in) long pericarpels with abundant hairs and spines floral...

Mammillaria hahniana Werdermann 1929

Neomammillaria mendeliana Bravo 1931, Mammillaria mendeliana (Bravo) Backeberg 1931, M. hahniana subsp. mendeliana (Bravo) D. R.Hunt 1997 Mammillaria woodsii R. T. Craig 1943, M. hahniana subsp. woodsii (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997 Mammillaria bravoae R. T. Craig 1945, M. hahniana subsp.bravoae (R.T.Craig) D.R.Hunt 1997 Plants usually forming clumps. Stems globose, light green, to 9 cm (3.5 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles numerous, small, triangular conical, with latex, axils...

Opuntia sangunea Proctor 1982

Opuntia Sanguinea

Plants shrubby with many ascending to erect branches, forming dense thickets 2-3 m 6.6-9.8 ft high. Stem segments broadly lance shaped to elliptical, rounded apically, tapering basally, not easily detached, 14-19 cm 5.5-7.5 in long, 5.5-8 cm 2.2-3.1 in wide. Areoles 2-2.5 cm 0.8-1 in apart. Glochids yellow, 3-4.5 mm long. Spines 1-2, unequal, brownish, bent downward, 8-35 mm 0.3-1.4 in long. Flowers blood-red, 3-5 cm 1.2-2 in in diameter. Distribution St. Thomas and Jamaica. age, 3-8 cm 1.2-3.1...

Selenicereus brevispinus Britton Rose 1920

Selenicereus Hamatus

Stems stout, light green, 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in in diameter, tipped with white hairs. Ribs 8-10, undulating, with knobby tubercles bearing the areoles. Areoles bearing spines and brisdes. Spines 10-12, conical, stiff, 1-2 mm long, the inner ones thicker and often bent. Flowers white within, yellowish without, to 25 cm 9.8 in long pericarpels with long white hairs. Fruits not known. Distribution Cuba. Selenicereus chontalensis Alexander Kimnach 1991 Nyctocereus...

Indian Fig Cactus

Indian Fig Cactus Photos

So important has Opuntia been as a source of food for the peoples of North America that the origins of its use are lost in ancient mythology. One species more than any other, now known as the Indian fig cactus, O. ficus-indica, has had a great effect on the indigenous people of the New World as well as on those in Europe after its introduction there in the sixteenth century. Bravo-Hollis (1978, 6-11) discusses the use of Opuntia by Native Americans in Mexico prior to their conquest by the...

Gymnocalycium mihanovichii Fric ex Giirke Britton

Echinocactus mihanovichii Fric ex Giirke 1905 Plants solitary, broadly globose, gray-green, often with reddish tint, 3-5 cm 1.2-2 in high and in diameter. Ribs usually 8, acute, slightly notched. Spines 5-6, weak, flexible, slightly curved, grayish yellow, 0.8-1 cm 0.3-0.4 in long. Flowers yellowish green to light olive green, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in long. Fruits spindle shaped. Distribution Paraguay. Gymnocalycium mihanovichii is an extremely variable species and is also popular in horticulture....

Pilosocereus

Pilosocereus Tillianus

It is fortunate when a hitherto poorly understood group of cacti is the object of a major research project. Such is the case with Pilosocereus, a genus of columnar cacti found from Mexico into South America. Daniela Zappi 1994 undertook such a study for her doctoral degree at the University of Sao Paulo, which involved fieldwork and studies of vegetative and seed morphology, and reproductive biology. The name Pilosocereus is relatively recent, having been proposed by Ronald Byles and Gordon...

Blossfeldia

Blossfeldia, the smallest of all cacti, occurs fairly widely in Argentina and Bolivia. It has long interested researchers, for it has both morphological and ecological features found in few other cacti. Blossfeldia grows in rock crevices, usually attaining a size of about 12 mm 0.5 in wide. The tiny white flowers open during the day during summer and apparently are capable of self-pollination. The hairy, arillate seeds, which are unique within the family, are clearly adapted for dispersal by...

Distinctive Features of Cacti

Peyote San Luis Potosi

The sight was incredible As far as one could see there were mounds of cacti, many more than 1 m 3.3 ft in diameter. I walked into the population of Copiapoa malletiana and counted more than 100 heads in many of the mounds. This was surely one of the most dense and spectacular aggregations of cacti anywhere, and it was an unforgettable experience. I thought back to just a few days earlier when my companions and I were in another part of the coastal fog desert of northern Chile, where we had...

Other Uses of Cacti

Stetsonia Coryne

The indigenous people of the arid regions in the New World have been highly creative in devising uses from limited natural resources, especially in times of drought. Cacti are abundant in such areas, so it is not surprising that they have been and continue to be used by people inhabiting these regions. Pachycereus marginatus cactus fence in Mexico Candle Making. For making candles, tallow is mixed with the juice of Opuntia megacantha in Mexico Meyer and McLaughlin 1981,109 . Drinking Water....

The Cactus Classification of the International Cactaceae Systematics Group

In 1984 a new approach to cactus classification was begun. Prior to that, each cactus classification, with the exception of that of Britton and Rose, was basically the work of an individual. Stimulated by the reports of exciting new research at the congresses of the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study IOS and by the commitments of Barthlott and Hunt to produce treatments of cacti for the planned reference works, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants and The European Garden...

Echinopsis spinibarbis Otto A E Hoffmann 1989

Cereus spinibarbis Otto 1837, Echinocereus spinibarbis (Otto) K. Schumann 1895, Eulychnia spinibarbis (Otto) Britton & Rose 1920, Trichocereus spinibarbis (Otto) F. Ritter 1965 Plants shrubby, branching basally. Stems cylindrical, semi-erect, dull green. Ribs 8-15. Areoles close set. Spines stiff, straight, gray with dark tips. Central spines 4-8, stouter than radials, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Radial spines 8-18. Flowers borne near the stem tips, opening widely, white, 8-11 cm (3.1-4.3 in)...

Eulychnia acida Philippi 1864

Plants usually treelike, sometimes shrubby, much branched, 1.5-4 m (4.9-13 ft) high, usually with distinct trunks. Stems usually erect but sometimes nearly prostrate, gray-green, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) in diameter. Ribs 10-16, low, wide. Spines needle-like, maroon when young, becoming gray with age. Central spines 1-2, erect, 10-20 cm (3.9-7.9 in) long. Radial spines about 12, more or less directed outward. Flowers borne near the stem tips, white with reddish mid-veins, 5-7 cm (2-2.8 in) long....

Eulychnia breviflora Philippi i860

Eulychnia Acida

Cereus longispinus Salm-Dyck 1845, Eulychnia longispina (SalmDyck) F. Ritter 1965 Eulychnia procumbens Backeberg 1963, not validly published Eulychnia aricensis F. Ritter 1964 Eulychnia saint-pieana F. Ritter 1964 Eulychnia barquitensis F. Ritter 1980 Plants treelike, 3-7 m (9.8-23 ft) high, much branched from below, often with well-developed short trunks. Stems nearly erect, 8-11 cm (3.1-4.3 in) in diameter, gray or dark green. Ribs 10-17, somewhat tuberculate, sometimes furrowed between...

Eulychnia castanea Philippi 1864

Cactusexpert

Schumann 1903, Philippicereus casta-neus Philippi Backeberg 1942 Plants shrubby, to 1 m 3.3 ft high, forming large, dense clumps to 20 m 66 ft wide. Stems cylindrical, green, 1-2 m 3.3-6.6 ft long, 6-8 cm 2.4-3.1 in in diameter. Ribs 8-13. Areoles covered with dark gray felt. Spines yellow to brown, Eulychnia breviflora, photograph by Urs Eggli Eulychnia breviflora, photograph by Urs Eggli Eulychnia castanea, photograph by Urs Eggli Eulychnia castanea, photograph by...

Eulychnia ritteri Cullmann 1958

Plants treelike to shrubby, freely branching basally, to 3 m (9.8 ft) high. Stems green, 6-8 cm (2.4-3.1 in) in diameter. Areoles nearly confluent, broad, with tufted long white wool. Spines brown to black. Central spines 1-4, stout, pointing downward, 3-6 cm (1.2-2.4 in) long. Radial spines as many as 12, thin, 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 in) long. Flowers white to pinkish, to 6-7.5 cm (2.4-3 in) long and 1.5 cm (0.6 in) in diameter floral tubes and pericarpels with white wool and green scales. Fruits...

Gymnocalycium

Among the most popular cacti for hobbyists and certainly exciting to see in the field is Gymnocalycium, a large genus of globose cacti from east of the Andes in South America. Gymnocalycium type, Echinocactus denudatus G. denuda-tum was described by Ludwig Pfeiffer in 1844 for three species, the name derived from the Greek gymnos, naked, and calyx, bud, referring to the smooth flower bud. The great popularity of the cacti has led to a large number of names and several publications. Gerhart...

Echinocereus enneacanihus Engelmann 1848

Alicoche, banana cactus, cob cactus, green strawberry hedgehog cactus, pitaya, prostrate hedgehog cactus, purple pitaya, strawberry cactus, strawberry hedgehog cactus Cereus dubius Engelmann 1856, Echinocereus dubius (Engelmann) Rumpler 1885, E. enneacanthus var. dubius (Engelmann) L. D. Benson 1969 Echinocereus uspenskii F. Haage 1897 Echinocereus merkeri Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898 Echinocereus sarissophorus Britton & Rose 1922 Echinocereus enneacanthus f. brevispinus W. 0. Moore 1967, E....

Mammillaria albicoma Boedeker 1929

Mammillaria Albicoma

Plants branching basally, often forming flat mounds with spines obscuring the stems. Stems flattened globose to short cylindrical, to 5 cm (2 in) high, 3-5 cm (1.2-2 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical to cylindrical, spirally arranged, bright green, truncate apically, without latex, axils with felt and bristles. Central spines 3-4, sometimes absent, straight, white with reddish brown tips, 4-5 mm long. Radial spines 30-40, hairlike, white, 8-10 mm (0.3-0.4 in) long. Flowers wide fun-nelform,...

Echinocereus triglochidiatus Engelmann 1848

Echinocereus Inermis

BLACK-SPINE CLARET-CUP CACTUS, CLARET-CUP CACTUS, KING'S CROWN CACTUS, ROBUST CLARET-CUP HEDGEHOG, ROSE'S CLARET-CUP CACTUS, ROSE'S HEDGEHOG, SPINELESS HEDGEHOG, WHITE-SPINED CLARET-CUP HEDGEHOG Cereusgonacanthus Engelmann & Bigelow 1856, gonacanthus (Engelmann & Bigelow) Lemaire 1868, triglochidiatus var. gonacanthus Boissevain 1940 Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. inermis G. D. Rowley 1973 Plants nearly always much branched, often forming mounds more than 1 m (3.3 ft) wide with as many...

Echinomastus mariposensis Hester 1945

Echinomastas Mariposensis

Lloyd's mariposa cactus, mariposa cactus Neoiloydia mariposensis Hester L. D. Benson 1969, Sclerocactus mariposensis Hester N. P. Taylor 1987, Pediocactus mariposensis Hester Halda 1998 Plants solitary, globose to slightly cylindrical, blue-green, 610 cm 2.4-3.9 in high, 4-6 cm 1.6-2.4 in in diameter, densely covered by spines. Ribs absent. Tubercles narrowly pointed, to 5 mm long. Central spines 2-4, whitish, often becoming dark with age, lower one turning downward, 15-20 mm 0.6-0.8 in long....

Coryphantha elephantidens Lemaire Lemaire 1868

Mammillaria elephantidens Lemaire 1838 Mammillaria recurvispina de Vriese 1839, Coryphantha recurvispina (deVriese) L. Bremer 1976 Mammillaria bumamma Ehrenberg 1849, Coryphantha bumamma (Ehrenberg) Britton & Rose 1923 Coryphantha greenwoodii Bravo 1970 Coryphantha garessii L. Bremer 1980 Plants solitary or forming large clumps. Stems depressed globose, glossy dark green, woolly apically, to 14 cm (5.5 in) high, 8-20 cm (3.1-7.9in) in diameter. Tubercles very large, thick, stout, more or...

Cipocereus laniflorus N p Taylor Zappi 1997

Cereus With Black Spines

Plants shrubby with several erect branches arising from near ground level. Stems columnar, olive green, often with bluish wax when young. Ribs 5-7, triangular in section. Areoles light brown to black, becoming contiguous, with long white hairs. Spines opaque, dark brown. Central spines 7-9, erect, 1.5-3 cm (0.6-1.2 in) long. Radial spines 10-14, flattened against the stem surface, to 1 cm (0.4 in) long. Fertile zone not clearly differentiated. Flowers white to pale creamy yellow, woolly, spiny,...

Stenocactus

Pictures And Names Cactus

It is surprising that the small group of Mexican cacti known as Stenocactus is so poorly understood there has even been controversy regarding the correct name of the genus. Stenocactus has long been popular with hobbyists and is relatively easy to propagate. The problem of the correct name stems from the publication in 1841 of the name Echinofossulocactus by George Lawrence, who included 26 species, none designated as type and now considered to belong to at least five genera. Karl Schumann...

Mila Caespitosa

Mila, a relatively small cactus, occurs widely in Peru and displays considerable variation throughout its range. Consequently, 13 species have been described for Mila (type, M. caespitosa), the name of the genus coined by Nathaniel Britton and Joseph Rose in 1922 as an anagram of Lima. I have seen the plant in many areas of both coastal and montane central Peru, and indeed, it does show variation from one region to another. The range of variation is continuous, however, making it virtually...

Pereskia zinniiflora A P de Candolle 1828

P. de Candolle) F. M. Knuth 1935 Pereskia cubensis Britton & Rose 1912, Rhodocactus cubensis (Britton & Rose) F.M. Knuth 1935 Plants treelike, 4-8 m (13-26 ft) tall with diffuse branching, or shrubs trunks to 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter, brown, smooth or fissured. Leaves narrowly elliptic or ovate, broad Pereskia sacharosa, also illustrated on page 24 Pereskia sacharosa, also illustrated on page 24 Pereskia stenantha, photograph by Beat Leuenberger est near the...

Pereskia grandifolia Haworth 1819

Imagenes Begonias

Guamacho morado, ora pro nobis, quiabent0, rose cactus, sab0nete Cactus grandifolius Haworth Link 1822, Rhodocactus grandifolius Haworth F. M. Knuth 1935 Pereskia tampicana F. A. C. Weber 1898, Rhodocactus tampicanus F. A. C. Weber Backeberg 1958 Pereskia grandifolia var. violacea Leuenberger 1986, P. grandifolia subsp. violacea Leuenberger N. P. Taylor amp Zappi 1997 Plants shrubby or small treelike, 2-5 m 6.6-16 ft high with stems erect to arching trunks to 20 cm 7.9 in in diameter, grayish...

Ferocactus cylindraceus Engelmann Orcutt 1926

Ferocactus Emoryi Subs Covillei

BIZNAGA, CALIFORNIA BARREL CACTUS, CLIFF BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS BARREL CACTUS, COMPASS CACTUS, DESERT BARREL CACTUS, GOLDEN-SPINED BARREL CACTUS, LE CONTE BARREL CACTUS, SPINY BARREL CACTUS Echinocactus viridescens var. cylindraceus Engelmann 1852, E. cylindraceus Engelmann Engelmann 1856 Echinocactus acanthodes Lemaire 1839, rejected name seeTaylor 1979b Ferocactus acanthodes Lemaire Britton amp Rose 1922, rejected name Echinocactus lecontei Engelmann 1856, Ferocactus lecontei Engelmann...

Cumulopuntia

Cumulopuntia is one of several genera that have now been separated from Opuntia. Closely related to another South American genus, Maihueniopsis, Cumulopuntia is distinct because of its somewhat different growth pattern, specialized fruits that lack pulp within, and characteristic seed structure. Cumulopuntia (type, O. ignescens C. ignescens) was described by Friedrich Ritter in 1980, the name derived from the Latin cumulo, pile or heap up, referring to the compact mounds or cushions formed by...

Cylindropuntia anteojoensis Pinkava E F Anderson 2000

Cylindropuntia Bigelovii

Plants low, intricately branched, shrubby, 30-100 cm 12-39 in high. Stem segments 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in long, with rhombic tubercles. Areoles elongate, extending upward between adjacent tubercles. Glochids white, 1-2 mm long. Principal spine one, borne on uppermost areoles, erect, black, 2.5-7 cm 1-2.8 in long. Secondary spines to 4 mm long. Flowers yellow. Fruits dry, 1.5-2.5 cm 0.6-1 in long, 1-1.2 cm 0.4-0.5 in in diameter, maturing as burs with many spines. Distribution Chihuahuan Desert of...

Rhipsalis cereuscula Haworth 1830

Rhipsalis Elliptica

Hariota cereuscula Haworth Kuntze 1891, Erythrorhipsalis cereuscula Haworth Volgin 1981 Hariota sagllonis Lemaire 1838, Rhipsalis saglionis Lemaire Otto 1843 Rhipsalis brachiata W. J. Hooker 1843 Rhipsalispenduliflora N. E. Brown 1877 Rhipsalis simmleri Beauverd 1907 Plants shrubby to bushy, to 60 cm 24 in long, much branched, usually pendent, growth determinate, with composite areoles. Stem segments strongly dimorphic long shoots cylindrical, almost round in cross section, 10-30 cm 3.9-12 in...

Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer 1837

Opuntia Lasiacantha

Plants shrubby or treelike with erect branches usually arising basally, 0.5-4 m 1.6-13 ft high. Stem segments obovate to elliptical, green, glabrous, without podaria, 18-30 cm 7.1-12 in long, 12.5-17 cm 4.9-6.7 in wide. Areoles small, 2-3 cm 0.8-1.2 in apart. Glochids clear yellow, 2-4 mm long. Spines 1-3, weakly awl shaped to needle-like, erect to bent backward, Opuntia laevis Opuntia lasiacantha Opuntia laevis Opuntia lasiacantha straight, whitish or yellow, becoming gray with age. Flowers...

Echinopsis derenbergii Fric 1927

Trichocereus Randallii

Ribs acute. Areoles round, to 1.5 cm 0.6 in apart. Central spine one, slightly curving, darkbrown, to 1.5 cm 0.6 in long. Radial spines 5-20. Flowers and fruits undescribed. Distribution Paraguay. Almost nothing is known of Echinopsis derenbergii Echinopsis deserticola Werdermann H. Friedrich 8c G. D. Cereus deserticola Werdermann 1929, Trichocereus deserticola Looser 1929 Trichocereus fulviianus F. Ritter 1962, Echinopsis fulvilana F. Ritter H. Friedrich amp G.D....

Coryphantha reduncispina Boedeker 1933

Coryphantha Scheeri

Plants solitary, globose to slightly elongated, to 10 cm 3.9 in in diameter, densely covered by spines. Tubercles conical, to 10 mm 0.4 in long, axils somewhat woolly, without glands. Central spines 2-3, awl shaped, horny, slightly curved downward, gray to yellowish, with dark tips, 15-25 mm 0.6-1 in long. Radial spines 15-20, needle-like, rigid, horizontal, white or yellowish, 10-12 mm 0.4-0.5 in long. Flowers pure yellow, 4-5 cm 1.6-2 in in diameter. Distribution Oaxaca, Mexico. Coryphantha...

Mammillaria boelderliana Wohlschlager 1988

Mammillaria Jalisco

Stems flattened globose, blue-green, 1-3 cm 0.4-1.2 in high, 2.5-5.5 cm 1-2.2 in in diameter. Roots long, thick. Tubercles widely separated, conical, axils naked. Spines 4-5, needle-like, yellowish brown, 4-7 mm to 0.3 in long. Flowers funnelform, whitish with pinkish midveins, 18-20 mm 0.7-0.8 in long, 20-24 mm 0.8-0.9 in in diameter. Fruits pear shaped, red, 7-10 mm 0.3-0.4 in long. Seeds dark brown or black. Distribution Zacatecas, Mexico. Mammillaria...

Mammillaria senilis Salm Dyck 1850

Cochemiea senilis (Salm-Dyck) Orcutt 1922, Mamillopsis senilis (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose 1923 Mammillaria senilis var. diguetii F. A. C. Weber 1904, Mamillopsis diguetii (F. A. C. Weber) Britton & Rose 1923, Mammillaria diguetii (F. A. C. Weber) D. R. Hunt 1971 Plants forming clusters. Stems globose to cylindrical, to 15 cm (5.9 in) high and 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. Tubercles conical, obtuse, without latex, axils with wool and bristles. Central spines 4-6, white with yellow tips,...

Growth Forms

Biznaga Tehuacan Puebla

Cacti live for many years, in a variety of habitats, and have a wide range of shapes from simple to branched, from globose to columnar, and some are essentially subterranean. Considerable effort has been made by botanists and horticulturists to describe the variety of forms. Innes and Glass (1991,8-11) described the habits of cacti simply as globular, climbing, pendent, leaflike, columnar, or clustering. Hunt (1989a, 204) listed 13 different cactus growth forms (1) with felted areoles in the...

Cereus hildmannianus K Schumann 1890

Cactusperuvianus Linnaeus 1753, Cereus peruvlanus Linnaeus P. Miller 1768, misapplied see under C. repandus Cereus alacriportanus Pfeiffer 1837, Piptanthocereus alacripor- tanus Pfeiffer F. Ritter 1979 Cereusxanthocarpus K. Schumann 1903, Piptanthocereus xanthocar-pus K. Schumann F. Ritter 1979, C. hildmannianus subsp .xantho-carpus K. Schumann P. J. Braun amp Esteves 1995 Cereus milesimus E. C. Rost 1932 Piptanthocereus bageanus F. Ritter 1979 Piptanthocereus neonesioticus F. Ritter 1979,...

Pereskia bahiensis Gurke 1908

Pereskia Bleo

Espinha de santo antonio, fl0r de cera, quiabento Plants treelike or shrubby, 1-6 m 3.3-20 ft tall trunks to 30 cm 12 in in diameter, erect to arching, grayish brown, fissured. Leaves variable, elliptic to obovate, 5-12 cm 2-4.7 in long, 2-7 cm 0.8-2.8 in broad, flat or sometimes folding upward along the midribs, often recurving, petioles not distinct, venation pinnate, lateral veins fairly inconspicuous. Spines 0-6 on twigs, in fascicles or spreading, 2-5 cm 0.8-2 in long. Spines as many as 45...

Hylocereus microcladus Backeberg 1942

Stems relatively short, three- to five-angled, green, to 15 cm 5.9 in long and 3 cm 1.2 in in diameter. Spines few to several, small, bristle-like, soon deciduous. Flowers not known. Distribution Colombia to northern Peru. Hylocereus microcladus is poorly known. Hylocereus minutiflorus Britton amp Rose 1913 Cereus minutiflorus Britton amp Rose Vaupel 1913, Wilmattea minuti-flora Britton amp Rose Britton amp Rose 1920 Plants climbing, sprawling, or pendent...

Mammillaria geminispina Haworth 1824

Mammillaria Geminispina

P. de Candolle 1828 Mammillaria leucocentra Berg 1840, M. geminispina subsp. leuco- centra Berg D. R. Hunt 1997 Mammillaria albata Reppenhagen 1987 Plants forming large clumps that appear white. Stems short cylindrical, light green, to 18 cm 7.1 in high and 8 cm 3.1 in in diameter. Tubercles rounded, with latex, axils with white wool and 10-20 long white bristles. Central spines 2- 6, erect, straight to slightly curved, pure white or white with dark tips, to 40 mm 1.6 in...

Mammillaria marksiana Krainz 1948

Khathaza Plant

Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps. Stems flattened globose, light or yellowish green, 6-15 cm (2.4-5.9 in) high, 5-12 cm (2-4.7 in) in diameter. Tubercles pyramidal, weakly four-sided, axils woolly, sometimes densely so in the flowering zones. Spines difficult to distinguish as centrals and radi-als, variable in number, 4-21, thin, needle-like, golden yellow to brown, 5-8 mm (0.2-0.3 in) long. Flowers bright greenish yellow, to 15 mm (0.6 in) long and in diameter. Fruits club...

Mammillaria polyedra Martius 1832

Mammillaria Polythele

Plants solitary at first, later forming clumps. Stems globose to short cylindrical, deep green, to 30 cm 12 in high, 10-12 cm 3.9-4.7 in in diameter. Tubercles pyramidal, six- or seven-sided, with latex, axils with wool and bristles. Central spines absent. Radial spines 4-6, straight, brownish yellow with purplish tips, 6-25 mm 0.2-1 in long, upper ones longest and strongest. Flowers pink, to 25 mm 1 in long. Fruits wide, club shaped, red. Seeds brown. Distribution Oaxaca, Mexico. Mammillaria...

Coryphantha ramillosa Cutak 1942

Big bend cory-cactus, bunched cory-cactus Plants usually solitary but sometimes branching to form clusters. Stems spherical to broadly obovoid, often with flattened tips, dark gray-green, 6-9 cm 2.4-3.5 in high, 6-10 cm 2.4-3.9 in in diameter. Tubercles conical, ascending, to 20 mm 0.8 in long, glands usually absent. Central spines 4, erect or spreading, straight to slightly curved, sometimes shaggy or twisted, whitish, 17-43 mm 0.7-1.7 in long. Radial spines 9-20, whitish, usually straight,...

Stenocactus multicostatus Hildmann ex K Schumann

Stenocactus Multicostatus

Echinocactus multicostatus Hildmann ex K. Schumann 1898, Echinofossulocactus multicostatus Hildmann ex K. Schumann Britton amp Rose 1922 Echinofossulocactus lloydii Britton amp Rose 1922, Stenocactus lloydii Britton amp Rose A. Berger 1929 Echinofossulocactuszacatecasensis Britton amp Rose 1922, Stenocactus zacatecasensis Britton amp Rose A. Berger 1929 Echinofossulocactus erectocentrus Backeberg 1961, not validly published Plants usually solitary, depressed globose to somewhat cylindrical,...