In this confusing situation, it was important to check the locations of all taxa concerned, especially the old locations listed by Ehrenberg. This was not that easy, since Mexico has changed a lot in the 150 years since Ehrenberg, especially in the regions of the habitats of this species, which prefers plane, deep lava soils. Coryphantha pycnacantha is very much endangered today by intensified extensive farming, and has become very rare. We managed to verify some plants in Hidalgo near San Mateo (near Zempoala) and also near Atotonilco and Regla and at locations in the state of Mexico near Otumba and south of Cd. Shahogun. However, our search was only successful in pitiful remnants of habitats such as basureros (garbage dumps) or near railroad dams. In several locations plants with heavily bundled upper radial spines ("connivens"), but with otherwise identical features, can be found in addition to "classical" plants as described by Martius.
In addition, our research affirmed that Coryphantha andreae, whose distribution area we studied from Perote VER to the region of Tecomachalco PUE, is indeed identical to Coryphantha pycnacantha.
Interestingly, our check on indicated locations of Coryphantha sulcolanata (Lemaire) Lemaire published in the twentieth century (Sanchez-Mejorada, Helia Bravo, Steven Brack) always gave the same result: Coryphantha pycnacantha and never Coryphantha sulcolanata. The latter must be included in the complex around Coryphantha elephanti-dens.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 1; plant portrait see Plates 37 and 38.
20. Coryphantha tripugionacantha Lau Cact. Suc. Mex .33:20,1988. Type: Mexico: Zacatecas, San Juan Capis-trano, 1000 m, 1983,Lau 1469 (MEXU). Body solitary, globose to slightly depressed, with much wool, 8-9 cm diameter and 7-9 cm high, epidermis bluish-green, later dull dark green, short taproot with lateral fibrous roots, forming stolons. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, triangular at the base, conical, upper surface flattened, lower part bulging, width at the base 14-20 mm, 15 mm high, length of upper surface 12 mm, of lower surface 18 mm, with complete groove on the upper part. Axils in youth white-woolly, later naked. Areoles round, 3 mm diameter, in youth with white wool, later naked. Radial spines 8-9, radiating, curved towards the body, but without touching it, the 3 lower ones up to 12 mm long, the 5-6 upper ones more closely set, shorter, 8 mm long, all subulate, straight, grey-brown, the lower one darker than the upper ones. Central spines 3, none dominant, none porrect, all curved towards the body, the lowest one the longest, 20 mm long, the other two in the upper part of the areole diverging to the sides, up to 18 mm long, all subulate, in new growth black, later becoming grey from below. Flowers funnelform, 6-7 cm diameter, cream-yellow; outer perianth segments light yellow with dark red dorsal midstripe, margins entire, at the base 3 mm wide; inner peri-
Plate 2. Glands and fruits. 1 Axillary glands of C. glassii; 2 glands in the grooves of C. robustispina (photo E. Tiefenbacher); 3,4 glands near the spiniferous areole of C. erecta (left) and C. wohlschlageri (right); 5,6 fruits of C. nickel-siae (left) and C. salinensis (right)
Plate 4. Seedlings with flattened, snow-white small spines of subgenus Neocoryphantha. 1 C. vaupeliana; 2 C. clavata; 3 C. ottonis. Seedlings with needle-like small spines of subgenus Coryphantha: 4 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens; 5 left C. pycnacantha, right C. retusa; 6 C. difficilis; 7 C. delicata; 8 C. hintoniorum
Sonoran Desert Sierra Madre Occidental Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains and plains of the north Great plains of North America Mesa Central Coastal plain of the northern gulf Volcanic belt Sierra Madre del Sur
Precipitation in mm
I I 100-300
I I 1000-2000
Precipitation in mm
I I 100-300
I I 1000-2000
Plate 5. Geographical distribution and climate conditions
Abbreviations used in the maps of distribution (also for Plates 9-13):
AGU = Aguascalientes CHI = Chihuahua COAH = Coahuila DGO = Durango GRO = Guerrero GTO = Guanajuato HGO = Hidalgo JAL = Jalisco MEX = Estado de Mexico MICH = Michoacán MOR = Morelos NL = Nuevo León OAX = Oaxaca PUE = Puebla QRO = Querétaro SLP = San Luis Potosí SON = Sonora TAM = Tamaulipas TLA = Tlaxcala VER = Veracruz ZAC = Zacatecas
Plate 6. Areole types. 1 Ferocactus areole type, 2 Macromeris areole type, 3 Protocoryphantha areole type, 4 Ortegocactus areole type, 5 Protomammillaria areole type, 6 Escobaria areole type, 7 Mammillaria areole type. I-IV Stages of areole development, bl basal leaf, sa spine areole,gr groove,fb flower base, ax axil
Plate 7. Examples of areole types. 1 Macromeris type: C. macromeris ssp. macromeris; 2 Protocoryphantha type: C. robustispina subsp. robustispina (photo L. Moore); 3 Protomammillaria type: C. vaupeliana; 4 Ortegocactus type: C. georgii; 5. Escobaria type: C. elephantidens ssp. elephantidens
Plate 9. Distributional maps (see Plate 5 for abbreviations)
I. Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. Lüthy
I.A. Section Lepidocoryphantha (Moran) Backeberg
■ Coryphantha macromeris subsp. macromeris I I Coryphantha macromeris subsp. runyonii I.B. Section Robustispina Dicht & A. Lüthy
1 Coryphantha poselgeriana
■ Coryphantha robustispina subsp robustispina L . _] Coryphantha robustispina subsp. scheeri
I. Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. Lüthy
I.C. Section Neocoryphantha
I.C.a. Series Echinoideae Dicht & A. Lüthy
Coryphantha wohlschlageri ; j Coryphantha echinoidea
Coryphantha vaupeiiana Coryphantha glanduligera
Plate 10. Distributional maps (see Plate 5 for abbreviations)
I. Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. Lüthy
I.C. Section Neocoryphantha
Coryphantha octacantha Hi Coryphantha erecta r_"J Coryphantha clavata subsp. clavata I I Coryphantha clavata subsp. stipitata
Coryphantha jalpanensis # Coryphantha glassii sfs Coryphantha potosiana
I. Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. Lüthy I.D. Section Ottonis Dicht & A. Lüthy
I I Coryphantha ottonis I I Coryphantha georgii * Coryphantha vogtherriana
II. Subgenus Coryphantha II.A. Section Coryphantha II.A.a. Series Retusae Dicht & A. Lüthy
H Coryphantha elephantidens subsp. elephantidens I I Coryphantha elephantidens subsp. bumamma I I Coryphantha elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii Coryphantha retusa
II. Subgenus Coryphantha II.A. Section Coryphantha II.A.c. Series Salinenses Dicht & A. Lüthy
■ Coryphantha salinensis □ Coryphantha difficilis
I Coryphantha durangensis subsp. durangensis I I Coryphantha durangensis subsp. cuencamensis
■ Coryphantha longicornis
I I Coryphantha pallida subsp. pallida I I Coryphantha pallida subsp. calipensis
II.A.b. Series Pycnacanthae Dicht & A. Lüthy
■ Coryphantha pycnacantha I I Coryphantha tripugionacantha
II. Subgenus Coryphantha II.A. Section Coryphantha II.A.d. Series Coryphantha
□ Coryphantha maiz-tablasensis I Coryphantha sulcata I I Coryphantha hintoniorum subsp. hintoniorum I I Coryphantha hintoniorum subsp. geoffreyi
II. Subgenus Coryphantha II.A. Section Coryphantha II.A.e. Series Corniferae Dicht & A. Lüthy Subseries Corniferae, part 1
I I Coryphantha nickelsiae HI Coryphantha pseudonickelsiae L .'J Coryphantha compacta □ Coryphantha comifera ■ Coryphantha recurvata subsp. recurvata 'j Coryphantha recurvata subsp. canatlanensis
II.A.e. Series Corniferae Dicht & A. Luthy Subseries Corniferae, part 2
HI Coryphantha delicata ■ Coryphantha neglecta
L .2 Coryphantha pseudoechinus subsp. pseudoechinus I I Coryphantha pseudoechinus subsp. laui
L. J Coryphantha delaetiana ■ Coryphantha ramillosa subsp. ramillosa .'.".'.] Coryphantha ramillosa subsp. santarosa □ Coryphantha pulleineana I I Coryphantha werdermannii Coryphantha echinus
Plate 14. Coryphantha macromeris. 1 C. macromeris subsp. macromeris (cultivar). 2 C. macromeris subsp. runyonii (cultivar). 3 C. macromeris subsp. macromeris at km 40 of the road Monterrey-Monclova COAH
Plate 15. Flower colours of Coryphantha poselgeriana. 1-3 The flower colour of C. poselgeriana varies from red to yellowish-white. 3 Flowers of pure yellow near Villa de Ramos SLP. (Photo M. Sotomayor)
Plate 16. Forms of Coryphantha poselgeriana at different locations. 1 Cuatrocienegas COAH. 2 Saltillo COAH. 3 Hipolito COAH. 4 Hipolito COAH. 5 Cuencame DGO
Plate 19. Coryphantha glanduligera. 1 C. glanduligera, San Rafael NL (photo G. Hinton). 2 C. glanduligera (cultivar), Matehuala SLP. 3 C. glanduligera, Sandia NL. 4 The location of C. glanduligera near Sandia NL
Plate 21. Coryphantha octacantha. 1 C. octacantha (cultivar). 2 C. octacantha (cultivar). 3 C. octacantha, Pachuca HGO. 4 C. octacantha, Pachuca HGO. 5 C. octacantha, Vista Hermosa QRO
Plate 23. Coryphantha clavata. 1 C. clavata subsp. clavata (cultivar). 2 C. clavata subsp. stipitata (cultivar). 3 C. clavata subsp. clavata, Cañon de las Calabassas SLP
Plate 24. Coryphantha glassii. 1 C. glassii with the hoe of its discoverer Charles Glass, Xichu GTO. 2 C. glassii with flowers (photo: M. Sotomayor). 3 C. glassii at the type locality, Sanguijuela SLP. 4 C. glassii, Las Magdalenas SLP
Plate 25. Coryphantha erecta. 1 Flowers of C. erecta (cultivar). 2 C. erecta, San Joaquín QRO. 3 C. erecta-group, San Luis de la Paz GTO. 4 C. erecta, San Luis de la Paz GTO. 5 C. erecta near Jalpan QRO
Plate 27. Coryphantha potosiana. 1-4 C. potosiana at the type locality near the road from San Luis Potosí to Aguas-calientes SLP
Plate 28. Coryphantha ottonis. 1 C. ottonis ("bussleri" form), Tlaxco TLX. 2 C. ottonis Otumba MX. 3 C. ottonis (cultivar). 4 C. ottonis (cultivar). 5 C. ottonis ("guerkeana"form), Rancho Olguin ZAC. 6 C. ottonis ("guerkeana"form), La Providencia ZAC
Plate 29. Coryphantha vogtherriana. 1, 3 and 4 C. vogtherriana, Monte Caldera SLP (photos: W.A. FitzMaurice). 2 Location near Monte Caldera, with Betty and W.A. FitzMaurice
Plate 30. Coryphantha georgii. 1 C. georgii, Estación Villar SLP. 2 C. georgii (cultivar). 3 C. georgii (cultivar). 4 C. georgii, Monte Caldera SLP. 5 C. georgii near the road to Xichú GTO
Plate 31. Flower colour of Coryphantha elephantidens. 1-4 The variability of flower colour of C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens from red to yellow
Plate 32. Coryphantha elephantidens. 1 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens, Tepalcingo MOR. 2 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens, Zacatepec MOR. 3 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens (the two in front) in comparison with C. elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii (behind). 4 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens, Las Estacas MOR. 5 C. elephantidens subsp. elephantidens ("garessii" form), Tepetongo ZAC
Plate 33. Coryphantha elephantidens. 1 C. elephantidens subsp. bumamma (cultivar from Felix Krähenbühl). 2 C. elephantidens subsp. bumamma detailed view, Totolapan OAX. 3 Location of C. elephantidens subsp. bumamma near Totolapan OAX with Julian Dicht. 4 C. elephantidens subsp. bumamma group, Totolapan OAX
Plate 34. Coryphantha elephantidens. 1 Type locality of C. elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii near Acultzingo VER. 2 C. elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii with fruits, Acultzingo VER. 3 C. elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii (cultivar). 4 C. elephantidens subsp. greenwoodii, Acultzingo VER
Plate 36. The variability of the spination of Coryphantha retusa at different locations. 1 Chazumba OAX. 2 Acatlan PUE. 3 north of Acatlan PUE. 4 Xuyacatlan PUE. 5 Ocotepec OAX. 6 Tehuitzingo PUE
Plate 37. Coryphantha pycnacantha. 1 C. pycnacantha east of Tecamachalco PUE. 2 C. pycnacantha south of Ciudad Shahogun HGO. 3 A habitat of C. pycnacantha near Zempoala HGO, distroyed by men. 4 C. pycnacantha south of Zempoala HGO. 5 C. pycnacantha with fruits, San Miguel Regla HGO
Plate 41. Coryphantha salinensis. 1,2 Different stages of development of the spination of C. salinensis near Microon-das Pedernales NL. 3 C. salinensis in flower (cultivar). 4 Very old plant of C. salinensis, Candela COAH
Plate 42. Coryphantha salinensis. 1 Type locality of C. salinensis near Salinas Victoria NL (photo: J. Lüthy). 2 Old plant of C. salinensis in flower (cultivar). 3 Young plant of C. salinensis in flower (cultivar). 4 C. salinensis, Las Cruci-tas TAM. 5: Flower of C. salinensis (cultivar)
Plate 43. Coryphantha difficilis. 1 Young plant of C. difficilis with flower (cultivar). 2,3 C. difficilis, La Rosa COAH. 4 C. difficilis in the Sierra Paila COAH. 5 C. difficilis, Hipolito COAH. 6 Old plant of C. difficilis in flower (cultivar)
Plate 44. Coryphantha durangensis. 1 Habitat of C. durangensis subsp. durangensis near Nazas DGO. 2 C. durangen-sis subsp. durangensis with erect central spine, Nazas DGO. 3 C. durangensis subsp. durangensis (cultivar SB 453, Lerdo DGO). 4 C. durangensis subsp. durangensis without central spine, Nazas DGO
Plate 45. Coryphantha durangensis. 1,2 Comparison of C. durangensis subsp. durangensis (left) with C. durangensis subsp. cuencamen-sis (right). 3 C. durangensis subsp. cuenca-mensis at the type locality Cuencame DGO. 4 Habitat at the type locality Cuencame DGO
Plate 46. Coryphantha longicornis. 1,2 C. longicornis ("grandis"form), El Palmito DGO (photos: J. Lüthy). 3 C. longi-cornis, La Bufa de Indé DGO. 4 C. longicornis, Abasolo DGO. 5 C. longicornis with flower (cultivar)
Plate 47. Coryphantha pallida. 1 C. pallida subsp. pallida with flower (cultivar). 2 Habitat with forests of cereus near Zapotitlán de las Salinas PUE. 3, 4 C. pallida subsp. pallida with 2 and with 3 strong central spines near Zapotitlán PUE. 5 C. pallida subsp. pallida "classical" form south of Tehua-can PUE
Plate 47. Coryphantha pallida. 1 C. pallida subsp. pallida with flower (cultivar). 2 Habitat with forests of cereus near Zapotitlán de las Salinas PUE. 3, 4 C. pallida subsp. pallida with 2 and with 3 strong central spines near Zapotitlán PUE. 5 C. pallida subsp. pallida "classical" form south of Tehua-can PUE
Plate 48. Coryphantha pallida. 1-5 The variability of the spination of C. pallida subsp. pallida with or without up to 3 central spines near Azumbilla PUE, together with flowering Mammillaria napina
Plate 49. Coryphantha pallida. 1 C. pallida subsp. pallida at the type locality of C. pseudoradians near Suchixtlahuaca OAX. 2, 3 C. pallida subsp. pallida with and without central spine, Nochixtlan OAX. 4 C. pallida subsp. pallida in flower (cultivar)
Plate 50. Coryphanthapallida. 1 C. pallida subsp. calipensis, Chilac PUE. 2,3 C. pallida subsp. calipensis with flowers (cultivars)
Plate 51. Coryphantha maiz-tablasensis. 1 C. maiz-tablasensis with flowers (cultivar). 2 Habitat of C. maiz-tablasensis north of Rio Verde SLP. 3 northern form of C. maiz-tablasensis (cultivar) near Mate-huala SLP. 4,5 C. maiz-tablasensis in the lagoon of Las Tablas SLP
Plate 52. Coryphantha sulcata. 1 C. sulcata San Alberto COAH. 2,4 C. sulcata in flower (cultivars SB 486, Val Verde County, Texas, USA). 3 C. sulcata ("speciosa" form) Villafrontera COAH. 5 Habitat of C. sulcata in the industrial zone of Villafrontera COAH
Plate 53. Coryphantha hintoniorum. 1-3 C. hintoniorum subsp. hintoniorum at the type locality San Rafael NL (photo 1: G. Hinton). 4 Habitat of C. hintoniorum subsp. hintoniorum in the prairie near San Rafael NL
Plate 54. Coryphantha hintoniorum. 1 C. hintoniorum subsp. geoffreyi (photo: G.Hinton). 2: Geoffrey Hinton (photo: G. Hinton). 3-5 C. hintoniorum subsp. geoffreyi at the type locality San Pedro Sotolar NL, together with Echinocereus knippelianus.
Plate 55. Coryphantha nickelsiae. 1 C. nickelsiae, Huasteca Cañon NL. 2,3 C. nickelsiae with flowers (cultivars). 4 C. nickelsiae, Candela COAH
Plate 56. Coryphantha pseudonickelsiae. 1,2 C. pseudonickelsiae near Inde DGO. 3,4 C. pseudonickelsiae, Abasolo DGO. 5,6 Flowers of C. pseudonickelsiae (cultivars)
Plate 58. Coryphantha cornifera. 1 C. cornifera, Tolantongo HGO. 2 C. cornifera ("schwarziana" form), San Felipe GTO. 3-5 Flowering C. cornifera with different spination (cultivars)
Plate 59. Coryphantha recurvata. 1 C. recurvata subsp. recurvata, Sycamore Canyon, Arizona, USA (photo: J. Lüthy). 2 C. recurvata subsp. recurvata, Moctezuma SON (photo: R. Römer). 3,4 Varying spination of C. recurvata subsp. recurvata near Moctezuma SON (photos: R. Römer). 5 Young plant of C. recurvata subsp. recurvata with flower (cultivar). 6 C. recurvata subsp. recurvata, Nacozari SON. (Photo: R. Römer)
Plate 60. Coryphantha recurvata. 1 Habitat of C. recurvata subsp. canatlanensis west of Ciudad Durango DGO. 2 C. recurvata subsp. canatlanensis west of Ciudad Durango. 3 C. recurvata subsp. canatlanensis with the single, straight central spine (cultivar). 4 C. recurvata subsp. canatlanensis with flower buds around the top, west of Canatlan DGO (photo: C. Glass). 5,6 C. recurvata subsp. canatlanensis at the type locality west of Canatlan DGO
Plate 61. Coryphantha delicata. 1 C. delicata, San Antonio TAM. 2 C. delicata, Palmillas TAM. 3 C. delicata, Entronque Huizache SLP. 4 C. delicata, La Escondida NL. 5 Flowering C. delicata with and without central spine (cultivars). 6: C. delicata, San Francisco SLP
Plate 63. Coryphantha neglecta. 1,2 C. neglecta, Casas Coloradas COAH. 3 C. neglecta at the type locality near El Sago COAH. 4 C. neglecta, El Sacrificio COAH. 5 C. neglecta west of Cuatrocienegas COAH. 6 C. neglecta in flower (cultivar)
Plate 65. Coryphanthapseudoechinus. 1,2 C. pseudoechinus subsp.pseudoechinus with typical red flower (cultivars). 3,4 C. pseudoechinus subsp. laui with typical yellow flower (cultivars)
Plate 66. Coryphantha delaetiana. 1 C. delaetiana, Escalón CHI. 2 C. delaetiana, Ciudad Chihuahua CHI. 3 C. delae-tiana in flower (cultivar). 4 C. delaetiana at the type locality near Parras COAH
Plate 67. Coryphantha ramillosa. 1 C. ramillosa subsp. ramillosa west of Cuatrocienegas COAH. 2 The habitat of C. ramillosa subsp. ramillosa near Cuatrocienegas COAH. 3,4 C. ramillosa subsp. ramillosa with pink flower (cultivars SB 908, Brewster County, Texas, USA)
Plate 68. Coryphantha ramillosa. l C. ramillosa subsp. ramillosa east of Cuatro-cienegas COAH. 2 C. ramillosa subsp. san-tarosa, San Alberto COAH. B C. ramillosa subsp. santarosa, Minas de Barroteràn COAH. 4 C. ramillosa subsp. santarosa with yellow flower (cultivar). S C. ramillosa subsp. santarosa at the type locality near La Babia COAH
Plate 69. Coryphantha pulleineana. 1, 2 C. pulleineana at the type locality near Entronque Huizache SLP. 3,4 C. pulleineana with flowers (cultivars)
Plate 70. Coryphantha werdermannii. 1-4 C. werdermannii west of Cuatrocienegas COAH, from youth form to very old plant. 5 C. werdermannii in flower (cultivar)
Plate 71. Coryphantha echinus. 1,2 C. echinus in the habitat Cuatrocienegas. 3,4 C. echinus, El Paradero CHI (photos: G. Matuszewski). 5,6 Flowering C. echinus SB 391 Pecos County, Texas, USA
Plate 72. Coryphantha gracilis. 1,5 C. gracilis in flower (cultivars). 2 C. gracilis at the type locality Rancho Pelayo CHI. 3-5 The fruit of C. gracilis, turning red. 6 The habitat of C. gracilis at the type locality Rancho Pelayo CHI
anth segments linear-lanceolate with thinner, 2 mm long tip, 3-3.5 cm long and 3 mm wide, whitish-yellow. Filaments red, yellow towards the tips, 10-12 mm long, anthers yellow, stigma green with 9 whitish lobes. Fruit oblong green juicy berry with attached flower remnants, 35 mm long and 10 mm diameter. Seeds light brown, reniform, 1.3 mm long,
I.1 mm wide, testa reticulate. Distribution: only at the type locality = location checked: Mexico: San Juan Capistrano, Zacatecas, growing under small shrubs of Bursera and other xerophyte plants, not plentiful, on humid slopes and on arcillose soil, at 1000 m above sealevel.
Habitat: On plain ground or slight declines in clayish soil.
Incidence: Least concern.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 1;
plant portrait see Plate 39.
II.A.c Series Salinenses Dicht & A. Luthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 15,2001.
Type: Coryphantha salinensis (Poselger) Dicht & A. Luthy
Definition: Tubercles appressed ("pineap-ple"-like), majority of radial spines needlelike, dominating central spine (if present) porrect.
21. Coryphantha kracikii J. J. Halda,
J. Chalupa et P. Kupcak Cactaceae etc. 1 :12,2002 Type: PR no. JJH 4709; leg. H. Swoboda 10.06. 1982.
Body single, globose to short columnar, 9 cm diameter, up to 17 cm high, dull grey-green, top depressed, white-woolly, topped by bundled, interwoven spines, strong, long main root and fibrous roots. Tubercles in 5 and 8, occasionally in 8 and 13 series, broad at the base, conical-cylindrical, rounded, flattened above, obliquely cut, appressed, at the base 24 mm wide, 16 mm high, length of upper surface 12 mm, length of lower surface 16 mm, with fine groove. Axils woolly in youth. Areoles round, 4 mm diameter, white-woolly in youth, completely bald in later years. Radial spines 24-26, lower and lateral 7-9 radiating, strong, thick needle-like, up to 15 mm long, light to horn-coloured with dark tips, upper 12-17 bundled, longer, up to 25 mm, somewhat thinner, white with dark tips, later all turning grey. Central spines 5-8, the longest downward, slightly protruding and curved downwards, up to 25 mm long, on each side 1-2 obliquely protruding, somewhat shorter, all thick, subulate, at first black with light tips, then light brownish with dark tips and turning grey, in the upper part of the areole up to 3 more central spines, hardly protruding, directed upwards with the radial spines, slightly curved, subulate, light with dark tips. Flowers funnelform, 4-8 cm diameter, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, yellow with purple-red, broad mid-stripe, inner perianth segments spathulate, acute, dentate towards the tips, shiny yellow, deep red in the throat, filaments reddish, anthers yolk-yellow, stigma white-yellow, 7-8 yellowish lobes. Fruit juicy berry, olive-coloured above, lighter below, with dried floral remnants attached, 15 mm diameter, 25 mm long. Seeds reniform, brown, shiny, reticulate, 1.8 mm long, 1 mm wide, hilum long and white.
Distribution/Location checked: Mexico: Durango: El Diamante. Only one location known.
Habitat: On hills in limestone gravel, 1400 m above sea level.
Differentiation: With the 5-8 strongly curved, stout central spines this species is reminiscent of C. pycnacantha and C. tripugionacantha, but the centrals are porrect and as regards tubercle form and arrangement (covering above) this species is closest to C. salinensis und C. difficilis. The flower with the red throat is also very similar to the one of C. salinensis. Comments: This wonderful species has been recently discovered in the region of El Diamante DGO and named in honour of the
Czech cactus grower and researcher Karel Kracik, who was the first one to study this species carefully at its location and to document it.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 40.
22. Coryphantha salinensis (Poselger)
Dicht & A. Lüthy Kakt. and. Sukk.49 (11): 253,1998. Basionym: Echinocactus salinensis Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 106,1853. Neotype: Mexico, Nuevo León, Salinas Victoria, 20. 5.1996, Hinton et al. 27113 (herb. Hinton).
Synonym: Coryphantha borwigii Purpus, Gartenflora 1927: 338,1927. Body solitary, globose-cylindrical, 8-15 cm high, 7-9 cm diameter, dark grey-green, apex depressed, white-woolly, bundled and interwoven spines overtowering the apex, roots fibrous. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, oblong conical-cylindrical, roundish, in later years pyramidal, appressed and edges obliquely cut, width at the base 17 mm, length of upper surface 8 mm, of lower surface 18-22 mm, with complete, in youth wooly groove. Axils woolly in youth. Areoles round, 3 mm diameter, woolly in youth. Radial spines 12-20, lower and lateral 5-7 spines stronger, firm, needle-like, straight, radiating, 10-15 mm long, light grey to horn-coloured with dark tips, upper 7-13 bundled, longer, 16-20 mm long, needle-like, straight, whitish with dark tips. Central spines 1-4, the lower one dominant, porrect, curved downwards like a horn, subulate, 15-21 mm, first horn-coloured to brownish, then becoming black from the tip on both sides, on the upper surface initially. 2-3 upper ones slightly protruding, curved to the sides, 2 laterals 15-18 mm long, colour as dominant central spine, the central one, if present, straight upwards, colour as radial spines, up to 21 mm long, all upper central spines thinner. Flowers 5-6 cm diameter, outer perianth segments spathulate, margins entire, dentate near the tip, acuminate, yellow with greenish-brown dorsal midstripe, inner perianth segments of the same shape, but shiny yellow, throat deep red, filaments red, anthers yellow, stigma whitish-yellow, lobes greenish-yellow. Fruit green juicy berry with attached flower remnants, 25 mm long, 10 mm diameter. Seeds brown, reniform, 1.8 mm long, 1 mm wide, testa reticulate. Distribution: Mexico: Coahuila, Nuevo León und Tamaulipas.
Habitat: Alluvial plains and limestone gravel at the foot of the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Orientál.
Locations checked: Mexico: Tamaulipas: Las Crucitas. Coahuila: Candela, Higueras. Nuevo León: Bustamante, Codornices, Salinas Victoria, Sabinas Hidalgo, Rinconada, Monterrey-Monclova km 40 and km 70. Incidence: Least concern. Comments: The basionym Echinocactus salinensis was first described by POSELGER (1853) with the indication "in the plains between Monterrey and Salinas". Subsequently, this name was missing from the literature until A. ZIMMERMAN's dissertation in 1985 where it was mentioned as Coryphantha salinensis comb.nov.ined. It also appeared in Alfred LAU's list of field numbers (1983) as Lau Nr. 1387 Coryphantha salinensis, Las Crucitas, Tamaulipas.
In 1997, we managed to rediscover this species of Poselger at its type locality Salinas Victoria (Coahuila). We compared it with A. Lau's Coryphantha salinensis (L 1387), whose location near Las Crucitas (Tamaulipas) Alfred Lau had shown us personally. It did not show any important differences. Compared to Coryphantha salinensis from the type locality, the plants from Tamaulipas have flowers with a darker red throat and stronger spines, but all other features are within the variability of the type plants.
Coryphantha borwigii Purpus and Coryphantha obscura SB 714 turned out to be synonyms.
For this very variable species several names have, in the past, been used, especially Coryphantha scolymoides (Scheidweiler) A. Berger and Coryphantha daimonoceras (Lemaire) Lemaire. These two taxa must be considered as nomina dubia for the following reasons:
• Coryphantha scolymoides (Schweidweiler) A. Berger
The first description by SCHEIDWEILER (1841) was very rudimentary. No type exists and this species was never illustrated during the nineteenth century. The only features described were "pale green, tubercles ascending like tiles, spines numerous, lower one radiating, flesh-coloured, upper ones bundled, white, blackish at the tips, stiff, one single central spine recurved, black, grey at the base". These details fit several species of the genus Coryphantha, mainly at the juvenile stage. More precise descriptions can be found in FÖRSTER (1846) and also in SALM-DYCK (1850),but they differ in several aspects, so that one wonders whether they were describing the same plant. Another description of Coryphantha scolymoides, which corresponds best to today's Coryphantha ramil-losa Cutak (see BENSON 1982) was published by ENGELMANN (1856) as did Coulter's description (1894). BRITTON & ROSE (1923) made it a synonym of Coryphantha cornifera De Candolle, as did SCHELLE (1926), while K. SCHUMANN (1898) mentioned it as a synonym of Coryphantha radians De Candolle. The situation with regard to Coryphantha scolymoides (Scheidweiler) A. Berger is thus so confusing and this species so badly documented that it seems better to regard this epithet as a historical name only. It is apparent that the descriptions published by FÖRSTER (1846) and by SALMDYCK (1850) may fit the plants growing in Salinas Victoria. However, the name Coryphantha scolymoides (Scheidweiler) A.
Berger cannot be applied to these, since the first description given by Scheidweiler does not fully match any phase of their development: Coryphantha salinensis (Poselger) Dicht & A. Lüthy at the stage of growth where one single central spine exists has uniform radial spines only. Two types of radial spines (lower radiating horn-coloured and upper bundled spines whitish) appear only after the development of a second or even third central spine.
• Coryphantha daimonoceras (Lemaire) Lemaire
LEMAIRE's (1838) illustrative first description as Mammillaria daimonoceras was soon interpreted in a number of different ways: FÖRSTER (1846) regarded it as a synonym of Mammillaria cornifera De Candolle, although two different types of radial spines were described. SALM-DYCK (1850) treated it as being identical to Mammillaria scolymoides Scheidweiler, although its upper central spines were described as "curved forward like a devil's horns",which was in contrast to his own plants which had, as he wrote, "upper central spines appressed to the plant, usually interwoven with the radial spines". LABOURET (1858) also treated Mammillaria daimonoceras Lemaire as a synonym of Mammillaria cornifera De Candolle, while BRITTON & ROSE (1923), probably following K. SCHUMANN (1898), referred to it as a synonym of Coryphantha radians. Finally, the first description of Mammillaria daimonoceras also fits Coryphantha difficilis (Quehl) A. Berger. We can only conclude that a specific interpretation of this taxon is impossible nowadays. The two taxa Coryphantha scolymoides and Coryphantha daimonoceras have therefore been proposed to the committee of sper-matophytes as nomina rejicienda (Dicht, Cact. Syst. Init. 10: 20,2000).
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2;
plant portrait see Plates 41 and 42.
23. Coryphantha difficilis (Quehl) A. Berger Kakteen 271,1929
Basionym: Mammillaria difficilis Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakt. 18: 107,1908. Lectotype: Fig. Monats. Kakt. 18: 107, 1908 (Dicht & A. Luthy, CSI 11: 15,2001). Synonym: Coryphantha densispina Werdermann in Feddes Repert. 30: 57,1932. Body solitary, initially semiglobose, in later years also short-cylindrical, 8 cm diameter, 8 (-14) cm high, dull bluish-green, apex slightly depressed, white-woolly, fibrous roots. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, flattened broad-conical, appressed, tip slightly directed outwards, edges obliquely cut, in later years rhomboid and edged below, width at the base 24 mm, length of upper surface 10 mm, of lower surface 21 mm, upper surface grooved. Axils white-woolly. Areoles round, 3 mm diameter, white-woolly in youth. Radial spines 14-16 (20), lower and lateral 6-9 strongest and shortest, subulate, straight, radiating and horizontally arranged, 8-10 mm long, the upper 7-10 in a bundle, firm, needle-like, straight, 16-18 mm long, in new growth light horn-coloured with dark tips, then becoming brown from the base, later turning grey. Central spines 4 (-6), the three lower ones spreading, porrect, curved downwards, strong, subulate, the upper one slightly curved, protruding, thinner, all 16-20 mm long, in new growth brown, darker towards the tips, later turning grey from the base. Flowers funnel-shaped, 6-8 cm diameter, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, yellow with reddish-brown dorsal mid-stripe, inner perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, dentate towards the tip, shiny yellow, filaments yellowish, anthers yellow, stigma yellowish, 7-8 whitish lobes. Fruit green juicy berry with attached flower remnants, roundish, 18 mm long, 14 mm diameter. Seeds reniform, brown with reticulate testa, 1.5 mm long, 0.9 mm wide. Distribution: Mexico: Coahuila, in and around the Sierra de la Paila.
Habitat: Alluvial plains and slopes of Sierra Paila in limestone gravel. Locations checked: Mexico: Coahuila: Hipolito, La Paila, La Rosa, El Sacrificio, Casas Coloradas, Las Imagines, Las Palomas, Parrial de la Paila, Zona de Minas, Mount Paila, Saltillo, Laguna de Meyràn, San Ildefonso, San José de la Paila, Estacion Marte, Sierra los Alamitos.
Incidence: Least concern. Comments: The plants were discovered in Mexico by Purpus and sent to De Laet. Quehl wrote that this beautiful species had problems adjusting to the European climate and easily rot in culture. He, therefore, named it difficilis (difficult, difficult to treat).
Coryphantha densispina Werdermann in Fedde, Rep. 30:57, 1932 has been allocated to Coryphantha werdermannii by several authors. Hence, the described tubercle form and size correspond to Coryphantha difficilis. The name-giving density of spination is reminiscent of Coryphantha werdermannii, but is also well-known in Coryphantha difficilis from locations at higher sealevels. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 43.
24 a. Coryphantha durangensis
(Runge ex Schumann) Britton & Rose subsp. durangensis
Cactaceae 4: 42,1923.
Basionym: Mammillaria durangensis Runge ex Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakt. 478,1898. Type: Mexico, Durango, near Villa Lerdo on the Rio Nazas, coll. Runge, Mathsson; not designated.
Body sprouting at the base, group-forming, egg-shaped to columnar, up to 7 cm diameter and more than 15 cm high, greyish-green, apex egg-shaped, rounded, with much white wool. Tubercles in 5 and 8, rarely 8 and 13 series, rhomboid, very flat, slightly keeled, appressed like tiles, at the base 12-15 mm wide, length of upper surface 4-6 mm, of lower surface 12-14 mm, completely grooved. Axils much woolly in youth. Areoles round, 1 mm diameter, woolly in youth. Radial spines 9-16, most of them radiating, sometimes some bundled over body apex, horizontal, fine, needle-like, straight, lower and lateral ones 7-10 mm long, upper ones up to double this length and somewhat thinner, all dull white, more or less dark tipped, upper ones nearly black, then all turning grey. Central spine (0)-1, directed upwards, slightly protruding (or rarely single spines up to nearly right-angled to the radials spines), straight, needle-like, stiff, 13-18 mm long, black, then turning grey from the base. Flower funnel-shaped, 3 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, light yellow, outer perianth segments narrow lanceolate, margins entire, yellow with broad purple midstripe, inner perianth segments lanceolate, acute, margins entire, shiny light yellow, filaments whitish-yellow, anthers yellow, stigma and 3-5 lobes whitish-yellow. Fruit light green juicy berry, with attached flower remnants, 12-15 mm long and 5-7 mm wide. Seeds reniform, brown, 1.2 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, testa reticulate with oblong testa cells. Distribution: Mexico: eastern Durango and adjacent Coahuila.
Habitat: Slopes and rocky parts of volcanic hills.
Locations checked: Mexico: Durango: Nazas, Lerdo (location of the first description), El Chocolate, Cuatillos. Coahuila: Viesca, Cruz de Malto.
Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. durangensis ssp. cuenca-mensis (24.b): see comparison table in the appendix.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2; plant portrait see Plates 44 and 45, photo 1.
24 b. Coryphantha durangensis subsp. cuen-
camensis (Bremer) Dicht & A. Luthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 18,2001. Basionym: Coryphantha cuencamensis Bremer, Cact. Succ. J. (US) 52:183,1980.
Type: Mexico, Durango, east of Cuencamé, Route 49, about 15 km from the junction with Route 46,1800 m, 26.3.1979, Bremer Nr.379-4 (ASU).
Body sprouting at the base, group-forming, egg-shaped-globose to cylindrical, up to 10 cm diameter and up to 16 cm high, dull greyish-green, apex flat or slightly vaulted, strongly white-woolly. Tubercles in 13 and 21, more rarely in 8 and 13 series, rhomboid, conical towards the apex, at the base 12-15 mm wide, length of upper surface 10 mm, of lower surface 13-15 mm, completely grooved. Axils white-woolly in youth. Areoles round, white-woolly in youth. Radial spines 14-17, radiating, horizontal, 15-17 mm long, in the upper part of the areole 4-5 longer ones bundled, all needle-like, straight, whitish with black tips. Central spines 1-3, the dominant porrect, at a right angle to the radial spines (never directed upwards), 17 mm long, subulate, stiff, straight or slightly curved downwards, at first dark brown to black, then turning grey from the base. Sometimes 2 additional central spines, shorter, thinner, slightly protruding obliquely upwards, same colour as radial spines. Flower, fruit and seeds as for Coryphantha durangensis subsp. durangensis. Distribution: Type locality only (checked): east of Cuencame, Durango, near the carretera Nr. 49, on flat ground and gentle hills. Habitat: Lower slopes of calcareous hills, on gravelly places places under bushes. Incidence: Vulnerable.
Differentiation: C. durangensis ssp. durangensis (24 a.): see comparison table in the Appendix.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11, map 2; plant portrait see Plate 45, photos 2-4.
25. Coryphantha longicornis Bodeker Monatsschr. DKG 3: 249,1931. Lectotype: Illustration in first description as cited above (Dicht & A. Lüthy, CSI 11: 18, 2001).
Synonym: Coryphantha grandis Bremer, Cact. Succ. J.(US) 50: 124,1978. Body solitary or group-forming by sprouting, broad-globose, then cylindrical, up to 10 cm diameter and more than 20 cm high, dull green, apex slightly depressed, very woolly. Tubercles in 8 and 13 or 13 and 21 series, conical in youth, then flat conical and rhomboid, tip slightly curved, slightly keeled, appressed, at the base 20-22 mm wide, 17 mm high, length of upper surface 8 mm, of lower surface 18-22 mm, with marked, in youth woolly groove. Axils woolly. Areoles round, 2 mm diameter, woolly in youth, soon bald. Radial spines 11-14, upper 3-4 closer to each other, thin subulate, straight or slightly curved, lateral and lower ones 7-9 mm, upper ones up to 14 mm long, whitish-horn-coloured in youth with dark tips, later grey. Central spines 3, the dominant one porrect, curved downward, subulate to thick-subulate, 15-20 mm long, upper 2 slightly protruding and curved to each side, subulate, 10-14 mm long, in youth red-brown, darker towards the tips, then black. Flowers broad funnelform, 4 cm wide, 2 cm long, yellow, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, fimbriate towards the tips, yellow with strong, red midstripe. Inner perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, fimbriate towards the tips, light yellow, filaments light yellow, anthers yellow, stigma and lobes (6) light yellow. Fruit green juicy berry, 9 mm wide, 15 mm long, clavate, with attached flower remnants. Seeds globose-reniform, 1.5 mm long, 1 mm wide, brown, testa reticulate with rounded testacells. Distribution: Mexico: northwestern part of Durango
Habitat: Lava gravel on hills and slopes, often under bushes or oaks
Locations checked: Mexico: Durango: Abasolo, El Palmito, Mina Navidad, Zarcas, Inde. Incidence: Least concern. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 46.
26 a. Coryphantha pallida Britton & Rose subsp. pallida Cactaceae 4: 40,1923.
Type: Mexico, Puebla, near Tehuacan, 1901, J.N. Rose Nr. 5583 (Us). Synonyms: Coryphantha reduncispina Bodeker, Kakteenk. 1933: 153, 1933 (as "reduncuspina"); Coryphantha pseudoradians Bravo, An. Inst. Biol. Mex. 25: 228, 1954; Coryphantha radians var. pseudoradians Bravo, Cact. Suc. Mex. 27: 17,1982; Coryphantha pycnacantha sensu Arias et al., Flora del Valle de Tehuacan-Cuixcatlan 10-12,1997. Body solitary, later also forms groups by sprouting, semiglobose to globose, 7-9 cm diameter, 4-6 cm high, dull olive-green, apex slightly depressed, very white-woolly. Tubercles in 8 and 13 or 13 and 21 series, closely set, flattened conical, slightly bulging, edges obliquely cut, appressed, at the base
14-17 mm wide, 6-8 mm high, length of upper surface 6-9 mm, of lower surface 13-16 mm, completely grooved with white wool. Axils woolly. Areoles round, 2 mm diameter, if central spines present or, without central spines, oval, 3.0 x 1.5 mm, woolly. Radial spines 13-21, about two-thirds of them radiating to both sides and downwards, horizontally arranged, needle-like, straight or slightly curved, transparent, white to yellowish, 11-13 mm long, the rest more closely set and pointing upwards, dirty white with dark tips, longer, up to 16 mm. Central spines 0-3, usually 1 dominant porrect, curved downwards, sometimes also to the side, subulate,
15-17 mm long, 1-2 upper ones straight or slightly upwards and to the sides or curved ahead, thinner, a bit shorter, all dark brown to black, then becoming grey from the base. Sometimes the porrect one and/or one or both of the two upper ones are missing. Flowers 4 cm long, 7 cm diameter, outer perianth segments linear lanceolate, acute, outside red with yellow margins, inner perianth segments narrow lanceolate, acute, margins entire, dentate towards the tip, 35 mm long, 6 mm wide, yellow, filaments deep red, anthers yolk-yellow, stigma yellow with 7-9 whitish lobes. Fruit green juicy berry with attached flower remnants, 25 mm long, 9 mm wide. Seeds reniform, brown, 2.3 mm long, 1 mm wide. Distribution: Mexico: Puebla and Oaxaca. Habitat: Limestone gravel, alluvial soil on foothills and ridges.
Locations checked: Mexico: Puebla: Tepeji de Rodriguez, Tecamachalco, Cañada Morelos, Tehuacan, Copan, Azumbilla, Zapotitlán de las Salinas, San Lorenzo, Salitrillo. Oaxaca: Tamazulapan, Tejupan, Coixtlahuaca, Teposcolula, Nochixtlán, Buenavista, Mol-caxac, San Pedro Tetitlán. Incidence: Least concern. Comments: It is quite surprising that such a widespread and common species like C. pall-ida had not been collected and described before the beginning of the twentieth century, mainly in view of the fact that all other Coryphantha species of this part of Mexico had been described nearly 100 years earlier. In fact, there is a description of a Coryphantha loricata (MARTIUS) Lemaire of 1837 which, in all characters, fits C. pallida completely and is considered to belong to the series Aulacothelae, the Coryphanthas without glands. However, the origin of this plant was indicated with "Mexico" only and there is no type existing. Because the description of C. loricata could as well fit some of the forms of Coryphantha sulcata (Engelmann) Britton & Rose or Coryphantha salinensis (Poselger) Dicht & A. Lüthy, it is impossible today to say which one of these three species was meant and C. loricata has to be classified as a historical name without any nomenclatural meaning nowadays.
Another old name which might fit C. pall-ida is,as CRAIG (1945) claimed, Mammillaria incurva SCHEIDWEILER of 1839. However, the origin of M.incurva is indicated as Guanajuato and it had red nectary glands.
Therefore, the official history of this species starts in 1923 when BRITTON &
ROSE first described Coryphantha pallida from a plant collected near Tehuacan PUE in 1901 by J.N. Rose. According to these authors, C.G. Pringle had collected the same plant too, and distributed it under the name Mammil-laria pycnacantha. To prove the difference between these two species, BRITTON & ROSE published a picture of their C. pallida together with the drawing of the original publication of Martius of M. pycnacantha. However, in the same book, in the appendix to the description of C. pycnacantha, they mentioned a plant which Dr. Rose had received from Dr. Conzatti from Oaxaca in 1920, which was more or less identical to their description of C. pallida and due to this fact, the identity of C. pycnacantha got mixed up with that of C. pallida, a confusion that still continues.
BODEKER (1933) was the first one to detect Britton & Rose's error when he received the same plants from Oaxaca from Halbinger. He noticed that these plants were not C. pycnacantha, but he did not realise they were identical to C. pallida and re-described these plants in 1933 as Coryphantha reduncuspina, herewith creating a younger synonym of C. pallida.
In fact, northwest of Oaxaca, we could detect plants which are identical to Bodeker's description, but we classify them as C. pall-ida.
S. ARIAS Montes, S. GAMA Lopez and L.U. GUZMAN Cruz from UNAM continued the old confusion with C. pycnacantha in their publication "Flora del Valle de Tehuacan-Cuicatlan" (1997). They too were misled by the wrong indication of the type locality in the first description of C. pycnacantha and the contradictionary indications of Britton & Rose. They published a drawing of C. pycnacantha which is identical to C. reduncuspina Bodecker. To differentiate between C. pallida and C. pycnacantha, they unfortunately used the shape of the tubercles, a character wich is identical for all forms of C. pall-ida. When we visited their indicated locations in Oaxaca for C. pycnacantha, we found nothing else but forms of C. pallida.
Between Tejupan und Suchixtlahuaca OAX, on volcanic soils in oak forests, Helia BRAVO detected a population of plants often in clusters, usually without central spines which she first described in 1954 as Coryphantha pseudoradians. In 1982 she included this species as a variety of Coryphantha radians (Lem.) Lem. From Helia Bravo's indicated type locality it is only a few kilometers toTeju-pan where C. pallida grows with its normal number of central spines from 0-3 and as this link and the otherwise identical features of C. pseudoradians and C. pallida prove, it is impossible to differentiate between these taxons.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11, map 2; plant portrait see Plates 47, 48 and 49.
26 b. Coryphantha pallida subsp. calipensis (Bravo ex Arias et al.) Dicht & A. Luthy J. Mamm. Soc. 40 (4): 50,2000. Basionym: Coryphantha calipensis Bravo ex Arias et al., Cact. Succ. Mex. 37: 71,1992. Type: Mexico, Puebla, Calipan, S of Tehuacan, 1960, Bravo s.n. (MEXU 60655). Synonyms: Coryphantha calipensis Bravo, Cact. Succ. Mex. 9: 79, 1964, nom. inval. (Art. 37.1); Coryphantha pycnacantha var. calipensis Arias et al., Flora del Valle de Tehuacan -Cuixcatlan 12-13,1997. Body group-forming by sprouting, globose to cylindrical, 6-9 cm diameter, apex rounded with abundant white wool. Tubercles loosely set in 5 and 8 series, flattened conical, bulging, rhomboid at the base, appressed to body, very large, at the base 25-30 mm wide, 20 mm high, length of upper surface 13-15 mm, of lower surface 25-35 mm, with deep woolly groove. Axils white woolly. Areoles round, 2 mm diameter, woolly in youth. Radial spines 10-16, 7-8 of them radiating, horizontally arranged, straight to slightly curved, needle-like, transparent, white to yellowish, then grey, 10-12
mm long, the other ones in the upper part of the areole more densely set, dirty white with dark tips, longer, up to 18 mm. Central spines 1-3, one dominant porrect, curved down-wards,subulate, 15 mm long, usually 1-2 additional centrals straight or slightly to both sides upwards, slightly protruding, straight or a bit curved to the side or the front, thinner, slightly shorter, all dark brown to black with lighter base, later becoming grey from the base. Flower, fruits and seeds: as for Coryphantha pallida ssp. pallida.
Distribution: Mexico: Puebla and Oaxaca. Habitat: Limestone gravel, alluvial soil on foothills and ridges.
Locations checked: Mexico: Puebla: Zinacan-tepec, Coxcatlan, San José Tilapa, San Gabriel Chilac. Oaxaca: Teotitlàn del Camino, Cuicatlàn, San Juan Tonaltepec. Comments: The main differences between ssp. calipensis and ssp. pallida are the larger tubercles, the slightly fewer and shorter radial spines and its form of growth with larger and more cylindrical bodies and its strong clustering habit. In its distribution area in the valley of the Rio Salado between Chilac PUE and San Juan Batista OAX, its characteristics are very stable and identical. The distribution area of ssp. calipensis is east of ssp. pallida, without any interference between the two forms.
In her first description of Coryphantha calipensis, BRAVO (1964) forgot to designate one of her herbarium specimens deposited in MEXU as the holotype. Allan D. ZIMMERMAN (1985) noticed this fact and therefore, regarded the taxon as a nomen nudum and identical to C. pallida. S. ARIAS Montes, S. GAMA Lopez and L.U. GUZMAN Cruz (1992) from UNAM completed Helia Bravo's description of C. calipensis by designating herbarium specimens of the author, deposited at MEXU, as the holotype and a paratype. Later, in their publication "Flora del Valle de Tehua-can-Cuicatlan" (1997) they combined C. calipensis as a variety with what they called C.
pycnacantha. This erroneous combination had already been proposed by BRAVO (1991) in "Las Cactáceas de Mexico". Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 11,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 50.
II.A.d Series Coryphantha Type: Coryphantha sulcata (Engelmann) Britton & Rose (type of the genus). Definition: tubercles upright, majority of radial spines needle-like, dominating central spine (if present) porrect.
27. Coryphantha maiz-tablasensis
Backeberg Blatt. Sukk.-Kunde 1:5,1949 Type: not designated.
Body sprouting, forming large groups, flat-globose, 5-7 cm diameter, 3 cm high, 75% of the plant underground, merging into a long taproot (up to 50 cm length), apex depressed, white-woolly, epidermis dull dark-green. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, conical, somewhat flattened above, somewhat bulging below, upright, at the base 14 mm wide, 11 mm high, length of upper surface 9 mm, of lower surface 14 mm, with a fine groove above. Sometimes glands are present immediately behind the spiniferous areole. Axils woolly in youth. Areoles less than 1 mm diameter, white-woolly in youth. Radial spines 4-7, irregularly radiating, horizontal, straight, stiff needlelike, 7-10 mm long, upper 1-3 in new growth brown-black, then turning grey from the base, the rest grey-white, some with dark tips. Central spine absent. Flowers funnelform, 3.5 cm long, 4 cm diameter, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, reddish-green with yellow-green margin, inner perianth segments lanceolate, acute, margin dentate towards the tip, cream-white, filaments white, anthers yolk-yellow, stigma white, lobes white. Fruit green juicy berry, 24 mm long, 10 mm diameter, with attached flower remnants. Seeds reniform, brown, 1.8 mm long, 0.9 mm wide, testa reticulate.
Distribution: Mexico: in the lagoon plain around Las Tablas in the state of San Luis Potosí, in a region which is used more and more for farming which leads to the destruction of many plant locations. Some isolated locations can be found north of the type locality.
Another, more remote location, has been detected by Charles Glass south of Matehuala near El Retorno, this is about 200 km north of the type locality. The plants there tend to propagate by underground stolons, but are otherwise very similar to the type plants. This location has practically been destroyed by road construction.
Habitat: Dry lagoon in gypsum soil with grass.
Locations checked: Mexico: San Luis Potosí: Las Tablas, Los Adobes, Rio Verde,Angostura, San Bartolo, El Retorno. Incidence: Vulnerable.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 12,map 1; plant portrait see Plate 51.
28. Coryphantha sulcata (Engelmann) Britton & Rose Cactaceae 4: 48,1923
Basionym: Mammillaria sulcata Engelmann, Bost. J. Nat. Hist. 5: 246,1845 [non Pfeiffer ex Förster, Handb. Cact. 255,1846, nom.nud.] Type: USA, Texas, Austin County, sandstone rocks near industry, July 1844, Lindheimer (MO) (Hunt & Benson, Cact. Succ. J. (US) 48: 72,1976).
Synonyms: Mammillaria strobiliformis Muehlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 16: 19, 1848 [non Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour. N. Mex. 14, 1848]; Mammillaria calcarata Engelmann, Bost. J. Nat. Hist. 6: 195, 1850; Coryphantha calcarata (Engelmann) Le-maire, Cactées 35, 1868; Cactus calcaratus (Engelmann) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 259, 1891; Cactus scolymoides (Scheidweiler) Kuntze var. sulcatus Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 116, 1898; Mammillaria radians De Candolle var sulcata Schumann, Gesamtb.
Kakt. 496, 1898; Cactus sulcatus Small, Fl. SE U.S. 812, 1903; Coryphantha radians Br. & R. var. sulcata Yto, Cacti 115,1952; Coryphantha roederiana Bodeker, Monatsschr. DKG 1: 153, 1929; Coryphantha speciosa Bodeker, Monatsschr. DKG 2: 23, 1930; Coryphantha obscura Bodeker, Monatsschr. DKG 2: 25, 1930.
Body group-forming, globose to egg-shaped, up to 12 cm high and 10 cm diameter, dark green,
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