Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 13,2001 Type: Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire. Definition: Areoles Ortegocactus type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) with abrupt change to full length areolar grooves after a Mammil-laria-like stage, flowering from areoles characteristic of either stage of development. Cortex mucilaginous.
14. Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire Cactées 34,1868
Basionym: Mammillaria ottonis Pfeiffer,Allg. Gartenz. 6: 274,1838. Type: not designated.
Synonyms: Aulacothele ottonis (Pfeiffer) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Echinocactus ottonianus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21:102, 1853; Cactus ottonis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261,1891; Mammillaria asterias Cels ex SalmDyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849: 129, 1850; Coryphantha asterias (Cels) Bödeker ex Berger, Kakteen 274,1929; Mammillaria buss-leri Mundt, Monatsschr. Kakt.11: 47, 1902; Coryphantha bussleri (Mundt) Scheinvar, Phytologia 49: 3,1981; Mammillaria golziana Haage, Monatsschr. Kakt. 19: 101,1909; Mammillaria guerkeana Bödeker, Monatsschr. Kakt.24: 53, 1914; Coryphantha guerkeana (Bödeker) Britton & Rose, Cact. 4: 29,1923. Body solitary, globose to short cylindrical, about 10-12 cm high and 8 cm diameter, dark grey-green, apex depressed, white wool present. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, rounded, broad conical, 18 mm wide, 10 mm high, 10 mm long, groove complete, but sometimes even in adult floriferous plants not on all tubercles, woolly. Axils woolly, with red glands. Areoles round, 3 mm diameter, white-
woolly in youth. Radial spines 8-12, radiating, appressed to irregularly protruding, straight, needle-like, the upper ones somewhat thinner, 9-11 mm long, yellowish-white, tip brown, later grey. Central spines 1-3, rarely 4, arranged approximately in cruciform, the lower dominant, straight, porrect, subulate, 1 mm thick, sometimes at the tip curved downwards,nearly hooked, 15-18 mm long, 2-3 upper ones pointing upwards, slightly protruding, thinner, straight, 10-12 mm long, all yellowish-brown, later grey. Flower 5 cm diameter, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, obtuse, with acute tips, on the outside dull brown-red with white margins, inside whitish, with dull brown-red midstripe; inner perianth segments broad lanceolate,with notched tips, pure white. Filaments yellow, anthers saffron-yellow, stigma lobes 10, cylindrical, erect, yellow. Fruit green juicy berry, small, roundish, 15 mm long,
10 mm wide. Seeds brown, reniform, 1.6 mm long, 0.8 mm wide.
Distribution: Mexico: Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo, Queretaro, Guanajuato, Zacatecas and Durango.
Habitat: Pastures on flat lava soil, sometimes protected between bushes.
Locations checked: Mexico: Tlaxcala: 6 and
11 km west of Tlaxco. Mexico: east of Otumba. Guanajuato: Agustin Gonzales, Xoconoxtle. Zacatecas: El Salto, Monte Escobedo, Rancho Olguin, 48 km north of Cd. Zacatecas, Refugio de los Pozos. Durango: km 5 west of Cd. Durango.
Incidence: Least concern. Comments: This species shows a wide range of distribution from Puebla to Durango. It also grows near the capital Mexico City and had therefore been collected and first described very early. Southeast of the distribution area (Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo) forms with sparser spination and 1-2 central spines only can be found. These have been described as Coryphantha asterias and Coryphantha bussleri. However, the tran sition to the forms at the centre of distribution (Querétaro, Guanajuato) is continuous and results in more and more heavily spined forms in the northwest (Zacatecas). The latter have been described as Coryphantha guerkeana in Zacatecas and Durango.
The main characteristics of all these taxa, growth form, tubercle size and form, number of radial spines, flowers, fruits and seeds are all identical, as are the extrafloral nectary glands and the Ortegocactus areole type, the latter having been mentioned indirectly in the first description of Mammillaria asterias Cels ("without grooves"). Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 28.
Werdermann & Bodeker Monatsschr. DKG 4: 32,1932. Lectotype: Illustration (Fig. 1) in first description as cited above (Dicht & A. Lüthy, CSI 11: 13,2001)
Body usually solitary, later branching and forming groups of up to 30 cm diameter or more, with 15 or more heads. Body greyish-green, sometimes bluish, apex somewhat depressed with little wool, depressed-globose, 6-7 cm diameter, 4-5 cm height, in later years also up to 8 cm high, about one quarter of the body is hidden in the soil and grades into a tuberous root. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, 10-14 mm high, up to 20 mm wide and 10-14 mm long, usually pyramidal, rounded in youth, then flatter, rhomboid, with flat surface parallel to the ground, the lower part somewhat bulging, all edges obliquely cut. Complete groove in old plants only, in pre-adult stage no grooves or only short grooves, but plants floriferous before appearance of the grooves, sometimes with a yellow gland at the groove end near the spiniferous areole. Axils with white wool, later naked, some with red glands. Areoles in youth with white felt, 2-3 mm diameter, slightly angled and descending. Radial spines 5-7, straight or slightly curved to the side, somewhat curved to the body, radiating, upper ones somewhat closer to each other, 5-10 (-15) mm long, stiff, firm, needle-like, in youth whitish-horn-coloured to brown, later greyish-white, often with brown tips. Central spine 1, on older plants only, 5-20 mm long, stronger than the radial spines, directed downwards, straight to slightly downward curved, rarely hooked, thickened at the base, brown, soon greyish-white. Flowers up to 4 cm diameter, 3.5 cm long, with much wool at the flower-base, 24-34 perianth segments, up to 3 cm long, 2.5-4 mm wide, broad lanceolate, margins entire. Outer perianth-segments with a strong, dark red midstripe (up to 80% of the width). Inner perianth segments white, occasionally yellowish-white, sometimes with a faint pink-coloured midstripe and often with reddish tips. Stigma lobes 5-8, light yellow, anthers dark yellow, ovary small and oval. Fruit green juicy berry, very small, 8 mm long, 5 mm diameter, with much white wool at the base and attached flower remnants. Seeds: reniform, 1.2 x 0.8 mm, light brown, testa reticulate.
Distribution: Mexico: San Luis Potosí, near the city of San Luis Potosí. Habitat: Loamy grasslands with rolling horse pastures crossed by red ditches formed by erosion, anthills often present. Associated cactus: Mammillaria heyderi. Locations checked: Monte de Caldera, about 20 km northeast of the city of San Luis Potosí, Ventura, Fatima and San Antonio del Guia. Incidence: Critically endangered by erosion and agriculture.
Herbarium specimen: WAF 2401, Monte de Caldera SLP, deposited in the herbarium G.B. Hinton under the number G.B. Hinton et al.27033.
Differentiation: C. maiz-tablasensis (27.): has no glands, no central spines, rounder tubercles.
Comments: After the first description of this species, it remained widely unknown and apparently non-existent. In the whole cactus literature, only a summary of the first description in BACKEBERG (1961) and in BRAVO (1991) can be found.
It was only in the early 1990s that W.A. and Betty FitzMaurice first found plants near Monte de Caldera, about 20 km northeast of the city of San Luis Potosí, of which A. Zimmerman and also Charles Glass supposed that it might well be Coryphantha vogtherri-ana, whose origin was indicated by Bodeker as being " in the vicinity of the city of San Luis Potosí in somewhat loamy soil at about 2000 m above sea level ". Our studies at the locality confirmed this supposition. In turgid plants we could verify the presence of the red nectary glands and the mucilaginous cortex, all typical of many gland-bearing Coryphan-thas. The illustrations with the first description had irritated us before, because they show two plants which were probably damaged during transportation.
This species reminds us of the glandless Coryphantha maiz-tablasensis Backeberg. In the first description, BACKEBERG (1949) mentioned a similarity to Coryphantha vogth-erriana. However, it has a central spine and somewhat more edged, flattened tubercles. Concerning the tubercle groove, this species shows a particular phenomenon which is known in Ortegocactus and, within the genus Coryphantha, only for Coryphantha ottonis and Coryphantha georgii: even at flowering age the relatively large tubercles may occur without grooves or possess very short grooves only. The appearance of complete grooves usually occurs only in very old plants. This peculiarity was already mentioned by Werdermann and Bodeker in their first description.
Since the first description, there has been only one correct illustration of this species in literature, namely in PRESTON-MAFHAM (1991).
In cactus literature there is an older first description to be found which fits most aspects of the plants from Monte de Caldera:
Coryphantha cornuta (Hildmann ex SCHUMANN 1898) BERGER (1929). Unfortunately, there is no illustration of this species anywhere in the whole literature, although it has since be mentioned by most authors (BRITTON & ROSE 1923, SCHELLE 1926, BORG 1937, BACKEBERG 1961, BRAVO-HOLLIS 1991). Nevertheless, Coryphantha cornuta is described without nectary glands and the name-giving central spine is "curved downwards like a horn". This spine form is rarely true for Coryphantha vogtherriana which usually has a straight or only slightly curved downward-pointing central spine. The discrepancy between these two characteristics precludes a neotypification of Coryphantha cornuta by the plants from Monte de Caldera. We think that Coryphantha cornuta corresponds to an extreme form of Coryphantha cornifera as it grows near Tolantongo in Hidalgo.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 29.
16. Coryphantha georgii Bodeker Monatsschr. DKG 3: 163,1931. Lectotype: Illustration in first description as cited above (Dicht & A. Luthy, CSI 11: 13, 2001).
Synonyms: Coryphantha villarensis Backeberg, Feddes Repert. 51: 64, 1942; Coryphantha grata Bremer, Cact. Succ. J. (US) 53: 276, 1981.
Body usually solitary, sometimes branching, globose to large clavate, about 13 cm high and 13 cm diameter, shiny dark leaf-green. Apex somewhat depressed, more or less white-woolly,topped by the central spines,which are nearly vertical here. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, conical, oblique, rounded, edges cut, on the lower surface roundish, bulging, width at the base 16-26 mm, 12-15 mm high, length of the upper surface 12-18 mm, groove complete with orange gland near the areole. Axils in youth woolly, then naked, with orange-red gland. Areoles round,4 mm diameter,in youth white-woolly, soon completely naked. Radial spines 8-11, lower ones and the ones on both sides regularly arranged, horizontal, 17 mm long, needle-like, straight, dull grey to horn-coloured, upper ones closer to each other, and bundled into two layers, same length and form like the lower radials, but in young growth usually brown, then becoming grey with dark tips. Central spines 1 (-4), dominating one porrect, directed slightly downwards, straight to slightly downward curved, up to 28 mm long, robust, needle like, brown, later grey. Sometimes 1-3 additional central spines in the upper part of the areole, slightly spreading, needle like, straight, colour same as dominant spine, but half as long. Flowers numerous from the woolly top, about 40 mm long and 40 mm in diameter. Outer perianth segments linear, acute and tipped, 4 mm wide, carmine with yellowish-white margin, the lower ones green with reddish tip. Inner perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, 8 mm wide,whitish-yellow,with a thin carmine mid-stripe dorsally, inside shiny. Filaments yellowish-white, anthers dark yellow, style 20 mm long, green-white below, with 5-7 greenish stigma lobes. Fruit green, juicy fruit, nearly round, 15 mm long, 10 mm wide with attached flower remnants. Seeds reniform, 2.1 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, brown, testa reticulate. Distribution: Mexico: San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato and Tamaulipas.
Habitat: Lava soil on plains and slopes and in oak-forests.
Locations checked: Mexico: San Luis Potosí: Monte de Caldera, Estacion Villar, Rancho Hernandez, Realejos, Armadillo Infante, San Antonio de las Martinez, San José. Guanajuato: km 26 Cañada Morenos-Xichú, Cañada Morenos. Tamaulipas: west of Tula. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. octacantha (8.) and C. clavata (10.): see comparison table in the Appendix.
Comments: The first description is of a more globose form, as is usually found in sun-ex posed locations. The more clavate forms, which were described by BACKEBERG in 1942 as Coryphantha villarensis, grow throughout the whole range of distribution, mainly in the shade, especially under bushes. An examination of this species at two locations, particularly near Villar SLP, the type locality of Coryphantha villarensis, and near Alvárez, the type locality of Coryphantha georgii did not show any differences except for the growth form due to the micro-location. Our experiences in cultivation confirmed the identity of Coryphantha georgii and Coryphantha vil-larensis.
Youth form: Only 6 horizontally radiating radials, upper radials and central spines often with a sudden change of colour from brown to a chalky-white tip.
Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 2; plant portrait see Plate 29.
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