IC Section Neocoryphantha

Type: Coryphantha clavata (Scheidweiler) Backeberg

Definition: Areoles Protomammillaria type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) with abrupt transition from a completely grooveless sterile condition to areoles having fully fledged fertile areolar grooves, flowering only after the development of grooves.

I.C.a Series Echinoideae Dicht & A. Lüthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 10,2001. Type: Coryphantha echinoidea (Quehl) Britton & Rose.

Definition: Areoles modified Protomammillaria type (ZIMMERMAN 1985) with abrupt transition from a completely grooveless sterile condition with pre-axillary meristematic activity (glands) to areoles having fully fledged fertile areolar grooves. Flowers appearing between the pre-axillary gland and the axil. Cortex watery.

4. Coryphantha wohlschlageri Holzeis Kakt. and. Sukkulenten 41(3): 50,1990 Type: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, San Francisco, M. Wohlschlager WM 223, (WU, holo.). Body solitary, 10-11 cm high, 6 cm wide, reversed egg-shaped to short-cylindrical, dark olive-green. Tuberous root, up to 7 cm long and 3.5 cm thick, with conspicuously tapering part of often only 5 mm diameter between the root and the above-ground plant body. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, conical to conical-cylindrical, 18-20 mm high, at the base 7-12 mm wide, upper surface 8 mm, lower surface 12-14 mm long, on the upper surface with a complete tubercle groove with red, white-woolly enveloped glands in the third of the groove nearest the axil. Axils in youth woolly. Areoles round, 2-3 mm diameter, in youth white-woolly, in later years completely naked. Radial spines on young plants 7-10, radiating, straight, needle-like, 4-11 mm long, whitish with dark tips. In adult plants up to 20, straight, needle-like radial spines, 3 of them directed downwards, 2 to each side, the other ones towards the apex in a bundle, all whitish with dark tips. Central spines on young plants 1 only, but later 5-7, the dominant spine porrect, the others slightly curved onto the body, the longest downward, up to 25 mm long, the others up to 18 mm long, all thin subulate, flattened, horn-coloured with brown tips. Flower fun-nelform, 4 cm long, 5-6 cm diameter, peri-

carpel globose-cylindrical, 5 x 6 mm, light green on the outside, white inside, nectar chamber thick-walled (2.5-3 mm), outer perianth segments lanceolate, 3 mm wide, 8-13 mm long, greenish-yellow with olive-brown midstripe, inner perianth segments light yellow, lanceolate, dentate towards the tip, acute, 4 mm wide, 20-22 mm long, filaments salmon, anthers dark yellow, style 21 mm long, white-yellow, 7-8 white-yellow stigma lobes. Fruit juicy berry with attached flower remnants, upper part olive-coloured, lighter below, about 10 mm wide, 20 mm long. Seeds reniform, brown, shiny, reticulate, 1.4 mm long, 1 mm wide, hilum on the side below the tip, prominent like an edge, micropyle apical, a little distance from the hilum.

Type locality: In the State San Luis Potosí, northeast of the city of Rio Verde, in the mountains near Rio Verde-San Francisco-Estacion Las Tablas on a hill ridge near bushes and low wood in dry stony soil. Distribution: Mexico: southeast of the State of San Luis Potosí and adjacent regions of Tamaulipas.

Habitat: Gravel slopes and plains. Locations checked: Mexico: San Luis Potosí: Angostura, La Gavia,Villa Juárez. Tamaulipas: south of Tula. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. vaupeliana (5.): has 8 and 13 tubercle-series, only 3-4 (or less) central spines, tubercles not round, but rounded keeled.

Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 9, map 2; plant portrait see Plate 18, photos 1 and 2.

5. Coryphantha vaupeliana Bödeker Zeitschr. Sukk.-Kunde 3: 206,1928 Lectotype: Illus. Bödeker l.c. (Dicht & A. Lüthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 11,2001). Synonym: Coryphantha daemenoceras Jau-mavei Fric, Möllers Dtsch. Gartenz. 23: 6, 1925-26, nom. nud.

Body solitary or clustering, globose to egg-shaped, up to 7 cm diameter, dull bluish-green, with a thickened taproot and a thinner neck, apex depressed, with connivent spines and a little wool. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, loosely arranged, with 3 edges to nearly conical, with obtuse, oblique tip, porrect, on the lower part a somewhat rounded keel edge, on the upper part more flattened, 16 mm wide, 11 mm high, length of upper surface 8 mm, of lower surface 20 mm, sharp groove naked to slightly woolly, with red, woolly nectary gland near the axil. Axil naked to slightly woolly. Areoles slightly below the tubercle tip, directed outwards, round, 3 mm diameter, in youth white-woolly. Radial spines 12-15, the lower and lateral 8-9 horizontal, radiating, straight to somewhat curved to the body, firm, needle-like, thickened at the base, 8-10 mm long, horn-coloured with brown tips, the upper ones in two layers, bundled, thinner, stiff needle-like, longer, up to 15 mm long, dirty white with brown tips. Central spines 4, among them 3 dominant porrect, curved, one downwards, 2 to the sides, subulate, thickened at the base, 13-18 mm long, brown, later horn-coloured with darker tips, the fourth, uppermost, somewhat thinner, less spreading and curved, shorter. Flower 5.5 cm diameter, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, light yellow with green-brown midstripe of 3-4 mm width, inner perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, slightly fimbriate towards the tip, 30 mm long, shiny light yellow, flower salmon-coloured when fading. Filaments yellow with a reddish tinge, anthers yellow, style yellow with 9 yellow stigma lobes, sweet fragrance. Fruit clavate, 16 mm long, 9 mm wide, juicy, green, lighter at the base. Seeds reniform, dark brown, shiny, reticulate, 1.5 mm long, 0.8 mm wide.

Distribution: Mexico: Tamaulipas near Jau-mave.

Habitat: Under bushes in sandy-gravelly alluvial soils near the river.

Locations checked: Mexico: Tamaulipas: San Vicente, San Antonio, Palmillas. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: Coryphantha wohlschlageri (4.): has tubercles in 5 and 8 series, mostly 5-7 central spines and rounder tubercles. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 9, map 2; plant portrait see Plate 18, photos 3 and 4.

6. Coryphantha glanduligera (Otto) Lemaire Cactées 34,1868

Basionym: Mammillaria glanduligera Otto (in Dietrich), Allg. Gartenz. 16: 298,1848. Neotype: Illus. Monatsschr. DKG 1(10): 191, 1929 (Dicht, Kakt. and. Sukk. 48(10): 221, 1997).

Synonyms: Echinocactus glanduligerus (Otto) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 102, 1853; Cactus glanduliger (Otto) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891; Coryphantha bergeriana Bodeker, Monatsschr. DKG 1(10): 191,1929. Body solitary, inverted egg-shaped to short clavate, up to 6 cm diameter and 12 cm high, dull dark leaf-green. Apex somewhat depressed, over-towered by a tuft of con-nivent spines, radial spines mainly, tuberous root with narrow neck. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, loosely arranged, conical, slightly concave, with four edges at the base, 12 mm high, 14 mm wide, length on the upper surface 10 mm, on the lower surface 12 mm, with a naked groove on the upper part and 1-2 red, white-woolly surrounded glands. Axils in youth white-woolly, later naked, with 1-2 red glands. Areoles oval, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, slightly woolly initially, later naked. Radial spines 17-20, spreading horizontally, stiff needle-like, slightly curved to the body, lower and lateral ones radiating, 10-12 mm long, upper 6-8 bundled in two layers, up to 16 mm long, all yellowish, upper ones often lighter with dark tips. Central spines 4, the dominant one straight, porrect, slightly curved downwards, subulate, stiff, 18-20 mm long, the 3 upper ones diverging and slightly spreading, straight, somewhat thinner and shorter, all yellow-brown with darker tips. Flower enlarged funnelform, about 4 cm long and 7 cm maximum diameter, outer perianth segments linear-lanceolate, margins entire, slender and acute, about 2-3 cm long and 3 mm wide, olive-green with yellowish margin. Intermediate layer of perianth segments a little bit longer and broader, same shape, but mucronate, light yellow with brownish dorsal midstripe, inner perianth segments of same length and width, at the base narrower, margins entire, acute, of a pure yellow, filaments yellowish-white, anthers dark yellow, style light yellow with 7-12 expanded, whitish-yellow stigma lobes of about 3 mm length, sweet fragrance. Fruit light-green, juicy berry, longish, about 20 mm long, 8 mm wide. Seeds reniform, shiny, reticulate, dark brown, 1.3 mm long, 0.7 mm wide. Distribution: Mexico: In the southwest of Nuevo León and in the adjacent regions of the neighbouring states of San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas.

Habitat: Hills with calcareous gravel on slopes, sometimes protected by bushes, Agaves or Opuntias.

Locations checked: Mexico: Nuevo León: Nueva Primavera, Ascension-Sandia, Jesus Maria de Aguirre, La Zorra, Salinas del Refugio, north of Dr. Arroyo, El Milagro, Los Poci-tos, San Francisco, La Escondida, Mier y Noriega, Sierra las Vaillas. San Luis Potosí: north of Matehuala, El Fraile, Tinaja, Matehuala-Dr.Arroyo, Cedral, Cuatro Milpas. Tamauli-pas: La Tapona. Incidence: Least concern. Development: seedlings clavate/short columnar, about 3-4 times as high as wide. Differentiation: C. echinoidea (7.): see comparison table in the Appendix. Comments: The first description, written by OTTO (1848), appeared in an article of Dietrich entitled Beiträge zur Kakteenkunde in the Allgemeine Gartenzeitung as Mammil-laria glanduligera (the incorrect spelling

"granduligera" being obviously a misprint). It was supplemented by SALM-DYCK (1850) and reprinted by LABOURET (1858) and FÖRSTER-RÜMPLER (1886) with few modifications. POSELGER (1853) renamed this species Echinocactus glanduligerus and LEMAIRE (1868) in Cactées made the new combination Coryphantha glanduligera.

As QUEHL (1913b) wrote, Mammillaria glanduligera had disappeared from all collections when SCHUMANN (1898) had his "Gesamtbeschreibung" in process; this explains why Schumann mentioned the name only without adding any comment or judgment.

After the first description of Mammillaria echinoidea by QUEHL (1913a), there was a long discussion in the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde between QUEHL (1913b, 1914) and E.WEIDLICH (1913,1914),who regarded the newly described Mammillaria echinoidea as a new description of Coryphantha glanduligera.

After the appearance of BRITTON & ROSE's Cactaceae (1923), where Coryphantha glanduligera was wrongly treated as a synonym of Coryphantha exsudans, the name disappeared from cactus literature or was used in the sense of Britton & Rose only. In 1985, ZIMMERMAN resurrected the name Coryphantha glanduligera, but only as a synonym of Coryphantha echinoidea.

In 1929, BÖDEKER described Coryphantha bergeriana, but subsequently, there was no hint in the whole literature that Coryphantha glanduligera might be related to this species, or indeed identical to it.

However, new comparison analysis (DICHT 1997) showed that Coryphantha bergeriana BÖDEKER (1929) is only a younger synonym of Coryphantha glanduligera.

Remark: The flower anatomy and the sweet fragrance of Coryphantha glanduligera are very similar to that of Coryphantha echinoidea, its closest relative.

In the field putative natural hybrids between C. glanduligera and C. vaupeliana can be found in the Jaumave-valley (ZIMMERMAN 1985) and also between C. glanduligera and C. echinoidea to the north of Dr. Arroyo (Nuevo León) and near Mier y Noriega (Nuevo León) (own observations). Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 9, map 2; plant portrait see Plate 19.

7. Coryphantha echinoidea (Quehl)

Britton & Rose Cactaceae 4: 30,1923

Basionym: Mammillaria echinoidea Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakt. 23: 42,1913. Lectotype: Illus. Monatsschr. Kakt. 23: 42, 1913 (Dicht & A. Lüthy, Cact. Syst. Init. 11:11, 2001).

Body solitary, globose to egg-shaped, 5-6 cm wide and 4.5-6 cm high, dull green, apex topped by spines, with little wool, roots fibrous. Tubercles in 8 and 13 series, firstly conical, slightly cut, in later years flattened, becoming rhomboid at the base, 10 mm high, 11 mm wide, length on the upper surface 9 mm, on lower surface 13 mm, top side groove with up to 5 red, woolly glands. Axils woolly in youth, later naked, with at least 1 red gland. Areoles elliptical, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide. Radial spines 20-24 interwoven, lower and lateral ones radiating, horizontal, straight or slightly curved to the body, needle-like, 8-10 mm long, upper 7-9 in two layers, arranged in a bundle, straight or slightly curved to the body, needle-like, flexible, a bit thinner and longer, 12-14 mm, all white, later grey, with dark tips. Central spines 1-3, the dominant one porrect, slightly curved downwards, subulate, thickened at the base, 13-15 mm long, 2 others above it, spreading V-like, protruding less, slightly curved to the body, somewhat thinner and shorter, all horn-coloured to brown, darker towards the tips, later becoming grey. Flower funnelform, 5-6 cm wide and long, outer perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, margins entire, lemon-yellow with green-yellow midstripe on the reverse, inner perianth segments broad lanceolate, acute, margins entire, lemon- yellow, filaments pale greenish-white, reddish towards the base, anthers orange-yellow, style pale yellow-green, 9-10 cream-white stigma lobes 2-4 mm long, sweet fragrance. Fruit green, juicy berry with attached flower remnants, broad clavate, 15 mm long and 11 mm in diameter, light dull green to very pale-green at the base, attachment 2 mm in diameter. Seeds dark brown, reniform, shiny, 1.3 mm long and 0.8 mm wide. Distribution: Mexico: San Luis Potosí. Following the first description in the east of the state of Durango, where until today no locations are known.

Habitat: Lower slopes of hills of limestone gravel.

Locations checked: Mexico: San Luis Potosí: Huizache, Monte de Caldera, Sta. Gertrudis, Sta. Teresa, Tulillo,Ventura. Incidence: Least concern. Development: seedlings globose, a single, porrect central spine forming at an age of about 3 years, afterwards a second central spine above the first and ultimately a third aside the second.

Differentiation: C. glanduligera (6.): see comparison table in the appendix. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 9, map 2; plant portrait see Plate 20.

I.C.b Series Clavatae Dicht & A. Lüthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 11,2001 Type: Coryphantha clavata (Scheideweiler) Backeberg

Definition: Areoles typical Protomammillaria type (ZIMMERMAN 1985). Cortex mucilaginous.

8. Coryphantha octacantha (De Candolle)

Britton & Rose Cact. 4:30,1923

Basionym: Mammillaria octacantha De Can-dolle, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17:113,1828.

Type: not designated.

Synonym: Cactus octacanthus (De Candolle) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.1:261,1891; Mammillaria leucacantha De Candolle, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 113 1828; Mammillaria exsudans Zuccharini ex Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 15, 1837; Aulacothele exsudans (Zuccarini) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot.,21,1846; Coryphantha exsudans (Zuccharini) Lemaire ex Rümpler, Handb. Cact. ed.2: 395,1885; Cactus exsudans (Zuccharini) Kuntze,Rev.Gen.Pl. 1:260,1891; Mammillaria curvata Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 15, 1837; Mammillaria lehmanni Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 15, 1837; Aulacothele lehmannii (Otto) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Coryphantha lehmannii (Pfeiffer) Lemaire, Cactées 34, 1868; Cactus lehmannii (Pfeiffer) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.1: 260,1891; Mammillaria macrothele Martius ex Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact 24, 1837; Echinocactus macrothele (Martius) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 125, 1853; Mammillaria macrothele lehmanni Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849: 19,1850; Echinocactus macrothele lehmanni (Salm-Dyck) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 125, 1853; Mammillaria macrothele biglandulosa Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849: 19,1850; Echinocactus macrothele biglandulosus (Salm-Dyck) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 125, 1853; Cactus macrothele (Martius) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891; Coryphantha macrothele (Martius ex Pfeiffer) Kümmler, AfM 22(2): 109,1998; Mammillaria plaschnickii Otto ex Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 24, 1837; Aulacothele plaschnickii (Otto) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21, 1846; Mammillaria plaschnickii straminea Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849: 19, 1850; Echinocactus plaschnickii (Otto) Poselger,Allg. Gartenz. 21: 125, 1853; Cactus plaschnickii (Otto) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.1: 261, 1891; Mammillaria brevi-mamma Zuccharini ex Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 34, 1837; Echinocactus brevimammus (Zuccharini ex Pfeiffer) Poselger,Allg. Gartenz. 21: 102, 1853; Mammillaria brevimamma exsudans Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849: 19, 1850; Coryphantha brevimamma (Zuccha-

rini) Lemaire ex Rümpler, Handb. Cact. ed.2: 394,1885; Cactus brevimammus (Zuccharini) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891; Mammil-laria aulacothele Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 8, 1838; Coryphantha aulacothele (Lemaire) Lemaire, Cactées 34,1868; Mammillaria aulacothele multispina Scheidw., Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 6:92, 1839; Mammillaria aulacothele spinosior Monville ex Lem., Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 93, 1839; Mammillaria aulacothele sulci-mamma Pfeiffer in Walpers, Bot. Repert. 2: 302, 1843; Mammillaria aulacothele flav-ispina Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck.1844: 13, 1845; Cactus aulacothele (Lemaire) Kuntze, Rev.Gen.Pl. 1:260,1891; Mammillaria biglan-dulosa Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 6:274, 1838; Aulacothele biglandulosa (Pfeiffer) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21, 1846; Cactus biglandulosus (Pfeiffer) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891; Mammillaria sulcimamma Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 6: 274, 1838; Mammillaria lehmanni sulcimamma Miquel, Linnaea 12: 9, 1838; Aulacothele sulcimamma (Pfeiffer) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Mammillaria martiana Pfeiffer, Linnaea 12: 140, 1838; Cactus mar-tianus (Pfeiffer) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.1: 261, 1891; Mammillaria thelocamptos Lehmann, Linneae, 13: 101, 1839; Mammillaria clava Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 282,1840; Echinocac-tus clavus (Pfeiffer) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21:125, 1853; Aulacothele clava (Pfeiffer) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Coryphantha clava (Pfeiffer) Lemaire, Cactées 34, 1868; Cactus clavus (Pfeiffer) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891; Mammillaria schlechtendalii Ehrenberg, Linnaea 14: 377,1840; Aulacothele schlechtendahlii (Ehrenberg) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21, 1846; Echinocactus schlechtendalii (Ehrenberg) Poselger, Allg. Gartenz.21: 125, 1853; Coryphantha schlechtendalii (Ehrenberg) Lemaire, Cactées 34,1868; Mam-millaria schlechtendalii levior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849: 127, 1850; Cactus schlechtendalii (Ehrenberg) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261, 1891; Coryphantha clava var. schlechtendalii (Ehrenberg) Heinrich ex

Backeberg, Cactaceae 5: 3040,1961; Mammillaria polymorpha Scheer ex Muehlenpfordt, Allg. Gartenz. 14: 373, 1846; Mammillaria glanduligera Otto et Dietr.1848 sensu Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 31, 1923; Echinocactus glanduligerus Poselger 1853 sensu Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 31, 1923; Coryphantha glanduligera Lemaire 1868 sensu Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 31, 1923; Cactus glan-duliger Kuntze, Rev. Gen.Pl. 1: 260,1891 sensu Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 31, 1923; Mammillaria asterias Cels ex Salm-Dyck 1850 sensu Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 31,1923.

Solitary or group-forming, body clavate to cylindrical, columnar, up to 50 cm high and 10 cm diameter, dark green, apex slightly depressed with sparse yellowish-white wool. Tubercles in 5 and 8 spirals, conical, lower part keeled, often concave lateral parts, upside flattened, nearly 3-edged at the base, towards the top more rounded, obliquely cut, directed outwards and upwards, upper surface 18-25 mm long,lower surface 20-30 mm, at the base 12-18 mm wide, in the grooves, axils or near the areoles with 1-4 red glands with a white, felty border. Axils with up to 4 red glands, young with white wool. Areoles round, 4 mm diameter, young with white wool. Radial spines 7-10, irregularly horizontally radiating or slightly protruding, lower ones shorter, 5-10 mm, upper ones longer, 10-15 mm, first all honey-yellow, then lower ones lighter, often with brown tips, upper ones darker, needle-like, straight. Central spines 1-3, longer and stronger, the lower one the longest and strongest up to 25 mm (sometimes 40 mm) long, straight, porrect, thickened at the base, solid, needle-like, upper 1-2 obliquely upwards, up to 18 mm long, all light brown, red-brown or dark brown, then grey with dark tips. Flowers 3 cm long, 7 cm diameter, floral tube light green, outer perianth segments lanceolate, 7 mm wide, 26 mm long, yellowish-green with reddish midstripe, inner perianth segments linear-oblong, acute, yellow. Filaments reddish, anthers yolk-yel low, style yellowish, stigma lobes 8 mm long, yellow, 6-7 or more. Fruit green juicy berry, 20-25 mm long, 10 mm wide, attached dried perianth segments. Seeds hazel-brown, 1.8 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, reticulate, reni-form.

Distribution: Mexico: Hidalgo and Queré-taro, and rarely in San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas.

Habitat: Limestone gravel, alluvial soil on ridges and foothills.

Locations checked: Mexico: Hidalgo: Pa-chuca, Actopan-Ixmiquilpan, Patria Nueva, San Francisco, Ixmiquilpan, San Pablo Tetla-payac, San Cristobal. Queretaro: Vista Her-mosa,Altamira, Cerro Prieto, Tolantongo. San Luis Potosí: Alaquines. Tamaulipas: José Maria Morelos. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. clavata (10.) and C. georgii (16.): see comparison table in the Appendix. Comments: There is no other species of the genus with as many synonyms as this. In its relatively wide range this species, with its imposing groups, is one of the most striking cacti and, therefore, it was collected and sent to Europe very early. Obviously, there were also many young plants among them which are more sparsely spined than adult plants and thus gave rise to several new descriptions.

The first description, which allows us to identify this species, clearly is Mammillaria macrothele Martius ex Pfeiffer 1837. However, Britton & Rose preferred the older basionym Mammillaria octacantha De Candolle 1828. Under this name, De Candolle had described a not yet fully developed young plant, a description which does not contradict this species, but would also fit others like e.g., Coryphantha clavata (Scheidweiler) Backeberg.

This procedure of Britton & Rose is strengthened by the fact that Mammillaria octacantha De Candolle was regarded in the whole important cactus literature of the twentieth century as identical to all the other synonyms mentioned, of which mainly Mammillaria lehmannii, macrothele, plaschnickii and aulacothele were widespread. However, no author mentioned it under Mammillaria clavata or its synonym Mammillaria raphida-cantha. Another circumstance which affirms Mammillaria octacantha as the basionym of this species is the fact that it had been collected by Thomas Coulter, who worked at Mineral del Monte and Zimapan, which means in the centre of its range, as number 39 and was sent to De Candolle in Geneva. Among all Coulter's plants described by De Candolle, there is none that fits Coryphantha octacantha, and it can be assumed that Coulter would not have overlooked such a dominating species.

In 1840, PFEIFFER described another, as he writes himself, "species of the group M. octacantha, macrothele, lehmannii etc. sent from Mexico by Mr. Ehrenberg" as Mammillaria clava. Coryphantha clava (Pfeiffer) Lemaire continues to exist in the whole cactus literature until today, although its description does not show any differences to the ones of the complex around M. octacantha, macrothele, lehmannii etc., although the reported range of all these species is identical. Schumann kept Mammillaria macrothele and Mammillaria clava as valid species, Britton & Rose, Backeberg and Bravo Coryphantha octacantha and Coryphantha clava.We think that there are no differentiating criteria to maintain two species of this complex. Therefore, Mammil-laria octacantha De Candolle remains the valid basionym and Coryphantha octacantha (De Candolle) Britton & Rose the valid combination under inclusion of Coryphantha clava (Pfeiffer) Lemaire as a younger taxo-nomical synonym.

Compared to other Coryphanthas, Coryphantha octacantha does not show a greater variety. Of course, in the case of large-growing species their micro-location is more important and leads to a certain range con cerning growth form and spine number. However, the distribution of this species is clearly defined and continuous and even the most extreme local forms find a place in our given description. The great number of descriptions of this species from the last century is especially surprising, however, this could mainly be due to the density of its range in a region from where especially many plants came to Europe. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 1; plant portrait see Plate 21.

9. Coryphantha jalpanensis Buchenau Cact. Suc.Mex. 10: 36,1965 Type: Mexico, Queretaro, in the cerros around Jalpan, 1350 m, Buchenau s.n. (MEXU). Body branching at the base, forming groups of up to 25 cm diameter, single heads cylindrical up to 15 cm high and 5-6 cm diameter, dull green, apex impressed, few wool. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, cylindrical-conical, somewhat flattened on top, bulging below, ascending, at the base 10-12 mm wide, 9-10 mm high, upper surface 7 mm long. Grooves only on tubercles of older main sprouts, with grey-white felt and 1-2 orange glands. Axils with white wool and 1 orange, sometimes red gland. Areoles round, 1 mm diameter, in oblique or vertical position below the tip of the tubercle, in youth with white wool, then naked. Radial spines 10-12, 6-10 mm long, radiating horizontally, needlelike, somewhat thickened at the base, white with dark tips. Central spines 1-3, one of them dominating, 10-17 mm long, porrect, pointing downwards, two others on the sides, upwards, 6-10 mm long, all straight, thickened at the base, brown, then grey, dark-tipped. Flowers 4-4.5 cm long and 3-4.5 cm wide, appearing from April to June. Floral tube naked, green, 8 mm long and 5 mm diameter, paler below. Outer perianth segments lanceolate, acute, the lower ones shorter, light yellow with greenish-red centre and tips; inner perianth segments 7 mm wide, broad lanceolate, fimbriate towards the tip, purely pale yellow. Filaments pale yellow, somewhat reddish, anthers intensely yellow, style pale green to yellowish, 6-7 stigma lobes of 4-5 mm length, pale yellow. Fruit juicy berry, upper part olive-green, pale-green below, with dried perianth segments attached, 15-20 mm long and 10-12 mm diameter, appears in October/November. Seeds reniform, reticulate, 1.5-1.7 mm long and 1 mm wide, hazel-brown. Type locality: Hills near Jalpan QRO, at 1350 m above sealevel.

Distribution: Mexico: Querétaro and adjacent regions of San Luis Potosí. Habitat: On limestone rocks on pastures and in forests in organic material in grooves. Locations checked: Mexico: Querétaro: Jalpán, Mazcazintla, Landa de Matamoros. San Luis Potosí: Rio Verde-Jalpan km 45, Rayón.

Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. glassii (11.): see comparison table in the appendix. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 1; plant portrait see Plate 22.

10 a. Coryphantha clavata subsp. clavata

Scheidweiler) Backeberg Jahrb. Deutsch. Kakt. Ges. 1941 (2): 61,1942 Basionym: Mammillaria clavata Scheidweiler, Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux. 5: 494,1838. Neotype: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Sierra de Alvarez, Municipio de Villa de Zaragoza, Francisco Rene Sanchez Barra 178 (SLPM 26217).

Synonyms: Neolloydia clavata (Scheidw.) Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 15, 1923; Coryphantha clavata ancistracantha Marshall, Cact. Succ. J. (US) 19: 10,1947; Mammillaria raphidacantha Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Spec. 36, 1839; Aulacothele raphidacantha (Lemaire) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21, 1846; Mammillaria scolymoides raphidacantha Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849: 128,1850; Echinocactus corniferus raphidacanthus

Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 102, 1853; Coryphantha raphidacantha (Lemaire) Lemaire, Cactées 34, 1864; Cactus raphidacanthus (Lemaire) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261, 1891; Mammillaria sulcoglandulifera Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 62,1856; Cactus maculatus Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb.3:117, 1894; Mammillaria maculata (Coulter) Vaupel, Monats. Kakt. 56, 1920; Cactus brunneus Coulter, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 117, 1894; Mammillaria brunnea (Coulter) Vaupel, Monats. Kakt. 56,1920; Mammillaria radicantissima Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakt.22: 164, 1912; Coryphantha unicornis Bodeker, Zeitschr. Sukk. Kunde 3: 205, 1928. Coryphantha clavata var. radicantissima (Quehl) Heinrich ex Backeberg, Cac-taceae 5: 2995,1961.

Body solitary, first globose, then clavate-cylindrical to short columnar, up to 30 cm long and 9 cm diameter, greyish-green, apex woolly, covered by spines. Taproot. Tubercles in 5 and 8 or 8 and 13 series, oblique, conical, rounded, flattened on top, length on upper surface 8-12 mm, on lower surface 10-14 mm, one or several red glands in the groove, which is woolly in youth. Axils with red gland, in youth woolly. Areoles round, 3 mm diameter, in youth with whitish wool. Radial spines 8-12, 8-14 mm long, regularly radiating, somewhat protruding, straight, stiff needle-like, whitish, some black from the top. Central spine 1, 17-25 mm long, straight, porrect, stronger than radials, thin subulate, dark brown to black, then greyish. Sometimes with 1-2 additional, needle-like central spines of 10 mm length, straight, directed upward and slightly spreading. Flowers relatively small, 25-30 mm long, 20-30 mm diameter, whitish-yellow, floral tube naked, outer perianth segments lanceolate, up to 12 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, light yellow with a broad, reddish midstripe, tips red, inner perianth segments narrow lanceolate, to 2 mm wide, inside light yellow to cream -white, outside with a weak purple-red mid-stripe, filaments yellowish below, upwards reddish, numerous, irritable, much shorter than perianth segments, anthers yellow, style yellow, on top slightly rose with 5-6 greenish-yellow stigma lobes. Fruit first juicy, green, 10 mm long and 5 mm wide, then dries fast, reddish-brown, parchment-like skin, with dried perianth segments attached. Seeds 1.4 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, brown, reniform, reticulate.

Juvenile forms: As a young seedling the plant grows thin-columnar and has a taproot. The central spine is absent, there are radial spines of pure white colour only. Seldom flowering before appearance ofa central spine. Distribution: Mexico: San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas, Querétaro and Guanajuato. Habitat: On lower slopes of limestone hills, often under bushes.

Locations checked: Mexico: San Luis Potosí: Balneario Lourdes, San Anton Martinez, south of Rio Verde, Tolosa, San Luis Potosí Aguascalientes km 28,Villa de Zaragosa. Guanajuato: Cañada Moreno, Queretaro-SLP (km 104), junction San Luis de la Paz-Xichu, San Luis de la Paz-Xichu (km 28), km 110 northeast of San Felipe Torres Rochas, Jofre. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. octacantha (8.) and C. georgii (16.): see comparison table in the Appendix.

Comments: The first description is very short, but unequivocal all the same because of the characteristics: 1 central spine, 10 radial spines, red glands.

Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10, map 1; plant portrait see Plate 23, photos 1 and 3.

10 b. Coryphantha clavata subsp. stipitata

(Scheidweiler) Dicht & A. Lüthy Cact. Syst. Init. 11: 12,2001. Basionym: Mammillaria stipitata Scheidw., Bull. Acad. Sci. Brux.5: 495,1838. Neotype: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Municipio de San Luis Potosí, northwest of La Amapola, Rosa Elia Hernandez 282 (SLPM 19396).

Synonyms: Mammillaria ancistracantha Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 36, 1839; Aula-cothele raphidacantha ancistracantha (Le-maire) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Coryphantha ancistracantha (Lemaire) Lemaire, Cactées 34, 1864; Cactus ancistracanthus (Lemaire) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 261, 1891; Mammillaria rhaphidacantha humilior SalmDyck ex Förster, Handb. Cact. 244,1846; Mam-millaria rhaphidacantha ancistracantha Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakt. 506, 1898; Coryphantha clavata var. ancistracantha (Le-maire) Heinrich ex Backeberg, Cactaceae 5: 2995, 1961; Coryphantha rhaphidacantha ancistracantha (Schumann) Ito, 1952.

Shows 1 (rarely -4 I) central always with a hooked tip. The flowers are nearly white and slightly larger (30-35 mm diameter) than in ssp. clavata. All the other characteristics are identical to ssp. clavata. Distribution: Mexico: Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Jalisco, mainly around Lagos de Moreno JAL

Habitat: On lower slopes of volcanic hills under bushes, agaves and hechtias. Locations checked: Mexico: Zacatecas: Villa Garcia, Milagros. Jalisco: Lagos de Moreno. San Luis Potosí: Ojuelos, La Amapola. Incidence: Least concern. Comments: Was first described by SCHEIDWEILER (1838) as Mammillaria stipitata,one year later by Lemaire as Mammillaria raphi-dacantha and also as Mammillaria ancistra-cantha.

The distribution areas of ssp. clavata and of ssp. stipitata are always disjunct, they occur nowhere together.

Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 1; plant portrait see Plate 23, photo 2.

11. Coryphantha glassii Dicht & A. Lüthy Kakt. and. Sukk.51 (1 ): 1,2000. Type: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Sanguijuela, Alberto Arredondo 527 (SLPM 28287). Forming large groups of up to 50 cm diameter by stolons, single heads columnar, up to 30 cm high, 6 cm diameter, linden-green, apex flat, with very little wool, narrow root-neck pro-ceding into a taproot with fibrous ramifications. Tubercles in 5 and 8 series, loosely arranged, cylindrical-conical, keeled, ascending, at the base 6 mm wide, 14 mm high, upper surface 9 mm long, lower surface 20 mm long, upper side, except in new growth, descending towards the tip or at most horizontal, grooves on tubercles of older main sprouts only, with felt and glands near the areoles. Axils with very few wool in youth only, with a yellow-orange gland, surrounded by white wool and very exposed due to the position of the tubercles. Areoles round, 1.5 mm diameter, young with much woolly felt. Radial spines 10-13; 10-11 lower and lateral ones of them radiating, slightly protruding, lower ones 8 mm long, laterals 7 mm, all needle-like, yellowish-white, often with white dots, upper 1-2 longer, thin, needle-like, straight, 12 mm long, nearly white. Central spines 2-3, one of them dominating, straight, porrect, pointing downwards, thick needle-like to subulate, 16-25 mm lang, yellowish-brown to horn-coloured,with white dots, the others somewhat thinner, obliquely upwards, 11 mm long, yellowish-brown to horn-coloured. Flowers 3.5 cm long, 3 cm in diameter, flower-tube naked, light green. Outer perianth segments oblanceolate, apicu-late, margins entire, light yellow with brown-red midstripe on the back. Inner perianth segments oblanceolate, margins entire, denticulate towards the tip, acute,light yellow. Filaments reddish-yellow, anthers yellow, style greenish-yellow, stigma lobes 5-7, yellow, 7 mm long. Fruit olive-green, juicy berry with attached dried perianth-segments,very small, 10 mm long, 8 mm wide. Seeds reniform, hazel-brown, 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide. Distribution: Mexico: Guanajuato and San Luis Potosí.

Habitat: Hills and mountains with calcareous gravel on slopes and tops. Locations checked: Mexico: Guanajuato: in the region of Xichú. San Luis Potosí: near

Sanguijuela (type location) and San Ciro de Acosta.

Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: C. jalpanensis (9.): see comparison table in the Appendix. Comments: The main differences to Coryphantha jalpanensis are pointed out in the comparison table (see Appendix) by boldface letters, mainly:

Taproot, stolons, longer, columnar bodies, narrower, keeled, very loosely arranged tubercles with upper side descending or horizontal towards the tip (except in new growth), clearly visible axillary glands, yellow radial spines and yellowish, longer central spines and smaller fruits.

The growth of Coryphantha glassii with its thin columns is reminiscent of Coryphantha erecta (Lemaire) Lemaire, which does not have stolons or taproots, but has much smaller, more densely arranged tubercles with higher series, different spination and much larger flowers.

In the closer relationship of Coryphantha glassii, there is another species which makes large, columnar groups: Coryphantha octa-cantha (De Candolle) Br. & R. It differs by its much stronger body, the sparse spination, larger flowers and mainly by bigger, more angular tubercles and the missing stolons.

This species has the small, funnelform flowers and the taproot in common with Coryphantha clavata (Scheidweiler) Backeberg. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10, map 1; plant portrait see Plate 24.

12. Coryphantha erecta (Lemaire) Lemaire Cactées 34,1869

Basionym: Mammillaria erecta Lemaire ex Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5: 369,1837. Lectotype: Lemaire, Iconogr. descr. des Cactées, Part 2,t.3,1843 (Dicht & A.Luthy,CSI 11: 13,2001).

Synonyms: Aulacothele erecta (Lemaire) Monville, Cat. Pl. Exot., 21,1846; Cactus erec-tus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260, 1891;

Echinocactus erectus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 126, 1853; Mammillaria evanescens Hort. Belg.; Mammillaria ceratocentra Berg, Allg. Gartenz. 8: 130, 1840; Cactus ceratocentrus (Berg) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 260,1891. Body cylindrical-columnar, upright, up to 50 cm high and 6-8 cm diameter, branching, forming big groups, apex with white wool, epidermis light-green. Tubercles in 8 and 13 or 13 and 21 series, oblique, conical, flattened on top, at the base rhomboid, upper surface

5-7 mm long, at the base 10 mm wide, 9 mm high, most with, some without grooves. Axils with white wool and brown glands. Areoles elliptical, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, young with white wool. Radial spines 11-17, 8-12 mm long, needle-like, stiff, horizontally radiating, somewhat curved towards the body, yellow, somewhat transparent, interwoven. Central spines 0-4, the lower up to 20 mm long, curved downwards, upper ones oblique and slightly protruding, all of same colour as radi-als, later, darker yellow-brown. Flowers

6-7.5 cm diameter,yellow, outer perianth segments lanceolate, acute, narrow, pale yellow, inner perianth segments canary-yellow, greenish at the base, filaments yellow below, upper part reddish, anthers saffron-coloured. Fruit intensely green, lighter basally, small, 12 mm long, 8 mm wide. Seeds reniform, 1.8 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, hazel-brown, reticulate testa.

Distribution: Hidalgo, Querétaro, Guanajuato and San Luis Potosí.

Habitat: Slopes with calcareous gravel, some trees and agaves.

Locactions checked: Mexico: Hidalgo: Metzti-tlan. Querétaro: San Joaquín, Colón, Bucareli, Peña Miller, Rio Blanco, Vizarrón. Guanajuato: San Luis de la Paz,Mineral de Pozos, Atarjea, Cañada Morenos. San Luis Potosí: Rio Bagres, Rancho Santa Rita. Incidence: Least concern. Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10, map 1; plant portrait see colour Plates 25 and 26.

13. Coryphantha potosiana (Jacobi)

Glass & Foster, Cact. Succ. J. (US) 43(1): 7,1971. Basionym: Mammillaria potosiana Jacobi, Allg. Gartenz. 24: 92,1856 (non Mammillaria potosina Britton & Rose, Cact. 4: 99,1923). Type: not designated.

Body cylindrical to short columnar, up to 25 cm high and 8 cm diameter, dark grey-green with fine white dots. Tubercles in 13 and 21 series, small, 8 mm long, at the base 7 mm wide, conical, with complete groove with 2-3 yellow-orange glands. Axils woolly in youth, with yellow-orange gland. Areoles without central spine elliptical, 2 mm wide, 4 mm long, with central spine round, 3 mm diameter, all woolly in youth. Radial spines 15-18, 10-12 mm long, needle-like, whitish, yellowish at the base, brownish at the tip, irregularly radiating, interwoven, slightly curved backwards; rarely one central spine, straight, porrect, 8-15 mm long, yellowish, base and tip brownish. Flowers small, 22 mm long, 20 mm diameter. Outer perianth-segments lanceolate, 2 mm wide, 12 mm long, cream-coloured with large, purple-red mid-stripe. Inner perianth-segments broad lanceolate, margins entire, acute, 4 mm wide, pale yellow to cream-white, filaments reddish, with yellow anthers, style reddish with 6 greenish stigma lobes. Fruit dull green, then yellowish, small, 12 mm long, 6 mm diameter, juicy, wall thin. Seeds small, 1 mm diameter, light brown.

Distribution: San Luis Potosí. Habitat: Flat ridges of lava soil, nearly bare, plants around opuntias and agaves. Location checked: San Luis Potosí, near the highway 80 to Aguascalientes. Incidence: Least concern. Differentiation: Against Coryphantha clavata (Scheidweiler) Backeberg: Coryphantha poto-siana gives a very densely spined impression, because the tubercles are more numerous (13 and 21 series), smaller and denser positioned, moreover, it has many more radial spines.

Another striking feature is the usually missing central spine and the longish, nearly pectinate areoles.

Illustrations: Distribution see Plate 10,map 1; plant portrait see Plate 27.

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