Coryphantha

Verification at Locations

Climate Tlaxcala

In this confusing situation, it was important to check the locations of all taxa concerned, especially the old locations listed by Ehrenberg. This was not that easy, since Mexico has changed a lot in the 150 years since Ehrenberg, especially in the regions of the habitats of this species, which prefers plane, deep lava soils. Coryphantha pycnacantha is very much endangered today by intensified extensive farming, and has become very rare. We managed to verify some plants in Hidalgo near San Mateo near Zempoala and also near Atotonilco and Regla and at locations in the state of Mexico near Otumba and south of Cd. Shahogun. However, our search was only successful in pitiful remnants of habitats such as basureros garbage dumps or near railroad dams. In several locations plants with heavily bundled upper radial spines connivens , but with otherwise identical features, can be found in addition to classical plants as described by Martius. In addition, our research affirmed that Coryphantha...

Pests and Illnesses

Coryphantha spp. are quite resistant to pests and are rarely the first cacti to be attacked in a greenhouse. One should be aware of mealybugs, since they can hide very well in the woolly apex and axils of the plants. Mealybugs on the roots and larvae of Sciara flies can be a threat, especially for young seedlings. Therefore, it is important to control seedlings regularly. Some of the species are favoured by the red spider mite, which leave ugly traces of their damage on new sprouts of the...

Synonyms and Valid Names

Bold valid names of species recognized by the authors and described in detail in this book. nom. rejic. nomen rejiciendum rejected names Aulacothele acanthostephes Lehmann Aulacothele biglandulosa Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele clava Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele cornifera De Candolle Monville Aulacothele elephantidens Lemaire Monville Aulacothele erecta Lemaire Monville Aulacothele exsudans Zuccarini Monville Aulacothele lehmannii Otto Monville Aulacothele ottonis Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele...

IC Section Neocoryphantha

Type Coryphantha clavata Scheidweiler Backeberg Definition Areoles Protomammillaria type ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61 with abrupt transition from a completely grooveless sterile condition to areoles having fully fledged fertile areolar grooves, flowering only after the development of grooves. I.C.a Series Echinoideae Dicht amp A. L thy Cact. Syst. Init. 11 10,2001. Type Coryphantha echinoidea Quehl Britton amp Rose. Definition Areoles modified Protomammillaria type ZIMMERMAN 1985 with abrupt...

Introduction to the Genus Coryphantha

Coryphanthas are small to medium-sized globose to short-columnar tubercled cacti from Mexico and the south of the USA, which grow in dry regions and deserts between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental. The plant bodies are not partitioned into ribs as e.g., in Ferocactus, Thelocactus etc., but into tubercles as in the closely related genus Mammillaria. The name Coryphantha originates from the Greek koryphe apex and anthos flower and means flowering from the apex . The...

Previous Traditional Interpretation of the Genus Coryphantha

While the opinion prevailed that Coryphantha should be treated as a genus separate from Mammillaria, authors had to deal with the question of its position within Cactaceae and to decide whether Coryphantha should be divided into smaller groups. Consequently, BRITTON & ROSE (1923) separated Escobaria and Neobesseya from Coryphantha, while BUXBAUM (1956) treated Escobaria as a separate genus and, as the first author, included the Vivipara complex in Escobaria. BENSON (1969) regarded Escobaria...

Previous Thesis on the Areole Development and Their Discussion

The areoles of Cactaceae, sometimes referred to as spine-bearing cushion , correspond to a shortened lateral shoot with leaves transformed into spines and the disposition of an axillary bud ( sleeping eye ) which may produce either a flower or a shoot. The long-living meristematic region, from which flowers or shoots may develop, is reduced to the adaxial (upper) end of the areole in many Cac-taceae. However, in some genera, among them Coryphantha, the areole is elongated in such a way that the...

New Extended Thesis of Areole Development

None of the known interpretations of areole development is capable of giving a complete and logical explanation of the specific and pronounced areole development of the genus Coryphantha. A phylogenetic analysis of areole development shows that the oldest taxa (e.g. Ferocactus) produce only very short grooves close to the spiniferous areole, while the somewhat younger Macromeres make shortened grooves which are not transient to the axil. In addition, the Protocoryphanthae (C. poselgeriana, C....

IB Section Robustispina Dicht A Luthy

Type Coryphantha robustispina Schott ex Engelmann Britton amp Rose. Definition Areoles Protocoryphantha type grooves becoming slowly longer on each newly formed tubercle during the ontogenesis of the individual plant, this process being interrupted for a longer period years when the grooves reach about three-quarters of the way to the tubercle axils and incomplete grooves persist on old tubercles, flowering only after attainment of maximum length areolar grooves...

Coryphanta Echinus

Anderson, E.F. (2000) The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. Appenzeller, O. (1992) Feldnummern-Liste Alfred Lau. AfM, Frankenthal (Sonderheft 1992 des Arbeitskreises f r Mammillarienfreunde, e.V. Osnabr ck). Appenzeller, O. (1996) Feldnummern-Liste Steven Brack der Gattungen Coryphantha, Escobaria, Mam-millaria und Neolloydia. AfM, Frankenthal (Sonderheft 1996 des Arbeitskreises f r Mammillarien-freunde). Arias, S., Gama S., and Guzman, L.U. (1992) Cact. Suc. Mex. 37 71. Arias, S.,...

IA Section Lepidocoryphantha Backeberg Moran

Gentes Herb. 8(4) 318,1953 Basionym Lepidocoryphantha Backeberg, Bl tter Kakteenforschung 6 18, 1938 (pro gen.) Type Coryphantha macromeris (Engelmann) Lemaire. Synonyms Coryphantha series Macromeres Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4 24,1923. Definition Areoles Macromeris type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) Plants flowering only after attainment of maximum length areolar grooves, which extend only about halfway to the axils. Margins of outer perianth segments fimbriate. Ovary and fruits with few single...

Aa Series Retusae Dicht A Lthy

Type Coryphantha elephantidens (Lemaire) Definition Radial spines mostly subulate. 17 a. Coryphantha elephantidens (Lemaire) Lemaire subsp. elephantidens Cact es 35,1868 Basionym Mammillaria elephantidens Lemaire, Cact.Aliq. Nov. 1,1838. Lectotype Lemaire, Iconogr. descr. des Cact es, Part 5,t.9,1841 (Dicht & A. L thy, CSI 11 14,2001). Synonyms Mammillaria retusa Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5 369,1837 (nom. rejic. prop.) Aula-cothele elephantidens (Lemaire) Monville, Cat. Pl.Exot.,21,1846...

ID Section Ottonis Dicht ALthy

Init. 11 13,2001 Type Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire. Definition Areoles Ortegocactus type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) with abrupt change to full length areolar grooves after a Mammil-laria-like stage, flowering from areoles characteristic of either stage of development. Cortex mucilaginous. 14. Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire Cact es 34,1868 Basionym Mammillaria ottonis Pfeiffer,Allg. Gartenz. 6 274,1838. Type not designated. Synonyms Aulacothele ottonis (Pfeiffer)...

Cacti of Mexico and Southern USA

With 338 Figures, Including 299 Colour Photos Schulhausstr. 17 4524 G nsberg Schweiz Waisenhausstr. 17 4500 Solothurn Schweiz Dedicated to our wifes Roswitha Dicht and Agnieszka L thy Translated from the German Edition Coryphantha 2003 by Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart, Germany Library of Congress Control Number 2004109290 ISBN 3-540-22306-1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is...

The Type Species of the Genus Coryphantha

When ENGELMANN 1856 proposed Cory-phantha as a new subgenus of Mammillaria, he did not give any indication of a type species. Lemaire, who raised Coryphantha to the level of genus, also did not mention any type species for the genus Aulacothele, he had proposed M. sulcolanata . One problem was that Lemaire's and Engelmann's lists of species differed markedly. There were, in fact, few species in common. After typification had been deemed necessary for taxa of any rank, several authors set out to...

Comparison Tables

Coryphantha echinoidea Coryphantha glanduligera Table i. Coryphantha echinoidea Coryphantha glanduligera Coryphantha echinoidea (Quehl) BR. & R. Coryphantha glanduligera (Otto) Lemaire Reversed egg-shaped to short clavate, up to 6 cm 0 and 12 cm high 18-20, yellowish, then greyish-white 1-3, mostly 2, up to 15 mm long, horn-coloured to brown 3-4,15-20 mm long, yellowish-horn-coloured with brown tips Table 2. C. clavata C. octacantha C. georgii Table 2. C. clavata C. octacantha C....

About this Book

Alexander the Great needed one short moment to cut the Gordian knot. We needed nearly 15 years to solve the nomenclatural confusion of the genus Coryphantha and to write this monograph. Early on, we succumbed to the fascination of cacti. For most genera, specific literature and monographs were available which, despite many contradictions, opened up the background for a plant collection. However, for Coryphantha spp., which attracted us especially by their wonderful spination and large flowers,...

Sowing and Propagation

The easiest method of propagation can be performed with sprouting Coryphantha spp. The sprouts may be picked from the mother plant and planted into separate pots. Another, somewhat more complicated, method is derived from the fact that all Coryphantha spp. have dormant vegetative centres in their grooves. If a tubercle of a Coryphantha is grafted onto any usual grafting stock, after maybe 1-3 years, it will sprout from the groove and a new plant will appear. This method also serves to rescue...

Key to the Genus Coryphantha

A.1 Extrafloral nectary glands always present in the grooves and or axils B.1 Tubercle grooves extending only half-way to the tubercle axil B.2 Tubercles grooved on whole length between apex and tubercle axil C.1 Cortex watery D.1 Upper side of tubercles longer than 20 mm E.1 Tubercles very broad (35-50 mm), broader than long E.2 Tubercles very long (25-35 mm), longer than broad F.1 Tubercles 25-28 mm long D.2 Upper side of tubercles less than 12 mm long E.1 Central spines 5-7 E.2 Central...

Coryphantha Instead of Aulacothele

During the nineteenth century, while all Coryphantha sp. were still regarded as Mammillaria sp., LEMAIRE (1839) published the name Mammillaria tax. infrag. Aulaco-thelae, which he defined as follows Mam-millarias, whose tubercles carry a groove on their upper surface . He also gave a short Latin diagnosis and compared the taxon with Echinocactus tax. infrag. stenogoni. The taxon was first ranked as Mammillaria sub-sect. Aulacothelae by LAWRENCE (1841). It is true that by doing so, Lawrence did...

Subgenus Coryphantha

C. elephantidens ssp. elephantidens 17.c. C. elephantidens ssp. greenwoodii F.2 Radial spines all needle-like G.1 Central spine straight H.1 Tubercles 20-22 mm wide H.2 Tubercles 14-17 mm wide F.1 No central spine, radial spines less than 7 F.2 Central spine always present, radial spines 7-15 G.1 Central spine(s) never hooked G.2 Central spine always hooked H.1 Tubercles at the base more than 20 mm wide H.2 Tubercles at the base up to 12 mm wide E.3 Tubercles porrect, conical F.1 Central...

Geographical Distribution

The 43 Coryphantha species are plants of the Mexican highlands, their main distribution area extends from the Sierra Madre Oriental to the Sierra Madre Occidental and to the Sierra Madre del Sur. Six species (C. sulcata, C. ramillosa, C. recurvata, C. robustspina, C. echinus and C. macromeris) also occur on the other side of the Rio Grande in the southernmost states of the USA (Texas, New Mexico and Arizona). The only species which occurs in some places south of the Sierra Madre del Sur, mainly...

Conservational Status

The main threat for Coryphantha spp. is the fast growth of the population of Mexico and the consequent activities such as construction of settlements and roads, expansion of areas used by agriculture, intensified use of natural resources, deforestation and clearing by fire. Fortunately, most species are only marginally affected by these changes, thanks to their wide distribution and their remote and unfruitful habitats. However, some Coryphantha species are extremely and acutely endangered. The...

Coryphantha sp in Cultivation

Most Coryphantha spp. are rather easy to cultivate. Thanks to their undemanding nature, they willingly display their numerous large flowers from summer to late autumn. Nevertheless, a lot of patience is required to cultivate Coryphantha spp. they grow very slowly and the time from germination to the first flower may take more than 10 years. To obtain plants with fully developed spination, another couple of years may pass. On the other hand, the happiness and pride in succeeding to cultivate...

Optimum Cultivation Conditions

In general, the optimum cultivation conditions for Coryphantha spp. do not differ from those of other North American genera. The easiest way to cultivate Coryphantha spp. is to grow them in a greenhouse. However, some species, especially those of southern and central Mexico, can be grown on a windowsill as well as in the garden, if protected from rain and frost. They are quite undemanding as regards the climate of their surroundings. In summer, they like enough light and warmth and can be...

Soils and Pots

Mixtures of mineral components are well received. A precise mixture of ingredients of the soil for Coryphantha spp. is not very important as long as some general characteristics of the soil are considered. The more northern the origin of the species, the less organic components the soil should contain. It should be friable and not lumpy and not too finely grained. Soil should never stay wet over a long period of time, however, the roots should always be kept a little moist. The optimum soil...

Watering and Fertilization

From spring to autumn Coryphantha spp. need to be watered regularly and the soil should never dry out completely. In summer, weekly watering may be necessary, in spring and autumn a bit less, depending on the weather. Some species from northern Mexico and all species with taproots, e.g. C. gracilis, are very sensitive to over-watering and their roots can rot very easily. After watering, the plant body should dry as fast as possible. Therefore, the optimum time to water them is early in the...

Perianth Segments

A differentiation is made between inner and outer perianth segments. The number of perianth segments is not indicated. The features used are shown in Figs. 19-21. Concerning the colour of outer perianth segments, the coloration of the outer surface is meant, for inner perianth segments, the inner surface only is considered. Often perianth segments are not unicoloured, a mid-stripe of a different colour is sometimes present. With regard to the outer perianth segments, the midstripe is usually...

Extrafloral nectary glands

All Coryphanthas have the potential to produce extrafloral nectary glands. Two different types must be differentiated (see Plate 2, photos 1-4) Species in which nectary glands are always present, either in the areolar groove and or in the axil (subgenus Neocoryphantha) Species with optional nectary glands around the flowering period only, and directly behind the spine-bearing areole only and, moreover, on singular areoles only (subgenus Coryphantha). Among them, there are species which were...