Illustration Credits

The following persons contributed photos to this book (number of photos in parantheses) B cker, Andreas 37186 Moringen, Germany (3) Photos 2 (Plate 17) 2 and 3 (Plate 40) Chalet, Jean-Marc 1226 Th nex, Switzerland (1) Photo 1 (Plate 39) FitzMaurice, W.A. 78250 san Luis Potos , S.L.P. Mexico (3) Photos 1,3,4 (Plate 29) Glass, Charles (f) San Miguel de Allende, GTO, Mexico (1) Photo 4 (Plate 60) Hinton, George San Rafael, NL, Mexico (4) Photos 1 (Plate 19) 1 (Plate 53) 1,2 (Plate 54) Krac k,...

Direction of the Tubercle Axis

The axis of the tubercles of Coryphantha spp. always points to the centre and to the base of the sprout. For the description of this position of the tubercles, the term porrect is used (see Fig. 7). Within this strict orientation of the tubercle axis,three variations can be differentiated If a part of the plant body is below ground level, the tubercles appear more upright and are described by this term (see Fig. 8). In certain species only the base of the tubercle points to the centre of the...

Seeds

The seeds of Coryphantha spp. are generally reniform (only exception C. gracilis with globular hat-like seeds). Sometimes they are somewhat longer or rounder and vary in size. The measurements given are maximum length and width. In a rounded impression on the flat side of the seed, there is the hilum and behind, slightly distant, the micropyle. The hilum is narrow and long to oval-shaped. It is slightly depressed and may be surrounded by a bulging prominence, which also includes the micropyle....

IA Section Lepidocoryphantha Backeberg Moran

Gentes Herb. 8(4) 318,1953 Basionym Lepidocoryphantha Backeberg, Bl tter Kakteenforschung 6 18, 1938 (pro gen.) Type Coryphantha macromeris (Engelmann) Lemaire. Synonyms Coryphantha series Macromeres Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 4 24,1923. Definition Areoles Macromeris type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) Plants flowering only after attainment of maximum length areolar grooves, which extend only about halfway to the axils. Margins of outer perianth segments fimbriate. Ovary and fruits with few single...

Systematic Overview of the Genus Coryphantha

Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. L thy I. Subgenus Neocoryphantha Backeberg emend. Dicht & A. L thy Section Lepidocoryphantha (Backeberg) Moran Section Robustispina Dicht & A. L thy I.C.a Series Echinoideae Dicht & A. L thy I.C.b Series Clavatae Dicht & A. L thy Section Ottonis Dicht & A. L thy

New Extended Thesis of Areole Development

None of the known interpretations of areole development is capable of giving a complete and logical explanation of the specific and pronounced areole development of the genus Coryphantha. A phylogenetic analysis of areole development shows that the oldest taxa (e.g. Ferocactus) produce only very short grooves close to the spiniferous areole, while the somewhat younger Macromeres make shortened grooves which are not transient to the axil. In addition, the Protocoryphanthae (C. poselgeriana, C....

Coryphanta Echinus

Anderson, E.F. (2000) The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. Appenzeller, O. (1992) Feldnummern-Liste Alfred Lau. AfM, Frankenthal (Sonderheft 1992 des Arbeitskreises f r Mammillarienfreunde, e.V. Osnabr ck). Appenzeller, O. (1996) Feldnummern-Liste Steven Brack der Gattungen Coryphantha, Escobaria, Mam-millaria und Neolloydia. AfM, Frankenthal (Sonderheft 1996 des Arbeitskreises f r Mammillarien-freunde). Arias, S., Gama S., and Guzman, L.U. (1992) Cact. Suc. Mex. 37 71. Arias, S.,...

Watering and Fertilization

From spring to autumn Coryphantha spp. need to be watered regularly and the soil should never dry out completely. In summer, weekly watering may be necessary, in spring and autumn a bit less, depending on the weather. Some species from northern Mexico and all species with taproots, e.g. C. gracilis, are very sensitive to over-watering and their roots can rot very easily. After watering, the plant body should dry as fast as possible. Therefore, the optimum time to water them is early in the...

Ortegocactus type

Abrupt groove formation with no transitional stage with grooves getting longer, floriferous before or after production of grooves. Nectary glands and trichomes in the axil may occur before groove formation, and later also in the groove. Like type 4, but with obligatory tubercle groove when reaching the adult stage. Nectary glands and woolly hairs (trichomes) in the groove. Production of longer complete grooves extending to the axil within a short period (less than 1 year), without persistence...

Chronology

The first Coryphantha sp. reached Europe in the 1820s. Some of the central Mexican species had been collected by that time in the mining region of the Valle de Mexico by Thomas Coulter (1793-1843) and sent to Geneva to Augustin Pyramus De Candolle (1778-1841), one of the best-known botanists of the period. Coulter worked in the mining region of Real del Monte (today Mineral del Monte) until 1825 and from 1827 at Zimapan. The plants for De Candolle were shipped on, or prior to, 1 May 1828 from...

Comparison Tables

Coryphantha echinoidea Coryphantha glanduligera Table i. Coryphantha echinoidea Coryphantha glanduligera Coryphantha echinoidea (Quehl) BR. & R. Coryphantha glanduligera (Otto) Lemaire Reversed egg-shaped to short clavate, up to 6 cm 0 and 12 cm high 18-20, yellowish, then greyish-white 1-3, mostly 2, up to 15 mm long, horn-coloured to brown 3-4,15-20 mm long, yellowish-horn-coloured with brown tips Table 2. C. clavata C. octacantha C. georgii Table 2. C. clavata C. octacantha C....

ID Section Ottonis Dicht ALthy

Init. 11 13,2001 Type Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire. Definition Areoles Ortegocactus type (ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61) with abrupt change to full length areolar grooves after a Mammil-laria-like stage, flowering from areoles characteristic of either stage of development. Cortex mucilaginous. 14. Coryphantha ottonis (Pfeiffer) Lemaire Cact es 34,1868 Basionym Mammillaria ottonis Pfeiffer,Allg. Gartenz. 6 274,1838. Type not designated. Synonyms Aulacothele ottonis (Pfeiffer)...

Shape

The tubercle shape of a particular Coryphan-tha species has unique features and is, in fact, one of the best diagnostic features for differentiation between species. In general, tubercles are based on the shape of a cone with the upper part obliquely cut, rounded and more or less edged. The lower part is more or less bulging and sometimes keeled. The base is more or less enlarged. Another typical characteristic feature is the shape of the contour line where the enlarged base of the tubercle...

Previous Traditional Interpretation of the Genus Coryphantha

While the opinion prevailed that Coryphantha should be treated as a genus separate from Mammillaria, authors had to deal with the question of its position within Cactaceae and to decide whether Coryphantha should be divided into smaller groups. Consequently, BRITTON & ROSE (1923) separated Escobaria and Neobesseya from Coryphantha, while BUXBAUM (1956) treated Escobaria as a separate genus and, as the first author, included the Vivipara complex in Escobaria. BENSON (1969) regarded Escobaria...

Aa Series Retusae Dicht A Lthy

Type Coryphantha elephantidens (Lemaire) Definition Radial spines mostly subulate. 17 a. Coryphantha elephantidens (Lemaire) Lemaire subsp. elephantidens Cact es 35,1868 Basionym Mammillaria elephantidens Lemaire, Cact.Aliq. Nov. 1,1838. Lectotype Lemaire, Iconogr. descr. des Cact es, Part 5,t.9,1841 (Dicht & A. L thy, CSI 11 14,2001). Synonyms Mammillaria retusa Pfeiffer, Allg. Gartenz. 5 369,1837 (nom. rejic. prop.) Aula-cothele elephantidens (Lemaire) Monville, Cat. Pl.Exot.,21,1846...

The Type Species of the Genus Coryphantha

When ENGELMANN 1856 proposed Cory-phantha as a new subgenus of Mammillaria, he did not give any indication of a type species. Lemaire, who raised Coryphantha to the level of genus, also did not mention any type species for the genus Aulacothele, he had proposed M. sulcolanata . One problem was that Lemaire's and Engelmann's lists of species differed markedly. There were, in fact, few species in common. After typification had been deemed necessary for taxa of any rank, several authors set out to...

Synonyms and Valid Names

Bold valid names of species recognized by the authors and described in detail in this book. nom. rejic. nomen rejiciendum rejected names Aulacothele acanthostephes Lehmann Aulacothele biglandulosa Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele clava Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele cornifera De Candolle Monville Aulacothele elephantidens Lemaire Monville Aulacothele erecta Lemaire Monville Aulacothele exsudans Zuccarini Monville Aulacothele lehmannii Otto Monville Aulacothele ottonis Pfeiffer Monville Aulacothele...

Verification at Locations

Coryphantha Obscura

In this confusing situation, it was important to check the locations of all taxa concerned, especially the old locations listed by Ehrenberg. This was not that easy, since Mexico has changed a lot in the 150 years since Ehrenberg, especially in the regions of the habitats of this species, which prefers plane, deep lava soils. Coryphantha pycnacantha is very much endangered today by intensified extensive farming, and has become very rare. We managed to verify some plants in Hidalgo near San Mateo near Zempoala and also near Atotonilco and Regla and at locations in the state of Mexico near Otumba and south of Cd. Shahogun. However, our search was only successful in pitiful remnants of habitats such as basureros garbage dumps or near railroad dams. In several locations plants with heavily bundled upper radial spines connivens , but with otherwise identical features, can be found in addition to classical plants as described by Martius. In addition, our research affirmed that Coryphantha...

IB Section Robustispina Dicht A Luthy

Type Coryphantha robustispina Schott ex Engelmann Britton amp Rose. Definition Areoles Protocoryphantha type grooves becoming slowly longer on each newly formed tubercle during the ontogenesis of the individual plant, this process being interrupted for a longer period years when the grooves reach about three-quarters of the way to the tubercle axils and incomplete grooves persist on old tubercles, flowering only after attainment of maximum length areolar grooves...

Pests and Illnesses

Coryphantha spp. are quite resistant to pests and are rarely the first cacti to be attacked in a greenhouse. One should be aware of mealybugs, since they can hide very well in the woolly apex and axils of the plants. Mealybugs on the roots and larvae of Sciara flies can be a threat, especially for young seedlings. Therefore, it is important to control seedlings regularly. Some of the species are favoured by the red spider mite, which leave ugly traces of their damage on new sprouts of the...

IC Section Neocoryphantha

Type Coryphantha clavata Scheidweiler Backeberg Definition Areoles Protomammillaria type ZIMMERMAN 1985, p. 61 with abrupt transition from a completely grooveless sterile condition to areoles having fully fledged fertile areolar grooves, flowering only after the development of grooves. I.C.a Series Echinoideae Dicht amp A. L thy Cact. Syst. Init. 11 10,2001. Type Coryphantha echinoidea Quehl Britton amp Rose. Definition Areoles modified Protomammillaria type ZIMMERMAN 1985 with abrupt...