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8 (62%)

The Huntington has 60 CITES Appendix I taxa in its living collection. It is responsible for growing and distributing the International Succulent Institute (ISI)

materials each year. The list of succulents offered is published annually in the Cactus and Succulent Journal (US).

Succulent collectors include E. F. Anderson, W. Baker, G. Barad, J. Bauml, J. Berdach, J. Betzler, J. Bleck, F. Boutin, S. Brack, F. Brandt, M. Cardenas, J. Clements, S. Collenette, J. Dice, J. Dodson, H. Earle, U. Eggli, A. Ellert, C. Fleming, J. Folsom, R. Foster, E. Gay, H. S. Gentry, C. Glass, S. Hammer, D. Hardy, A. Hoffman, I. Hoffmann, F. Horwood, P. Hutchison, E. van Jaarsfeld, F. Katterman, R. Kiesling, M. Kimnach, K. Knize, D. Koutnik, A. Lau, J. Lavranos, B. Leuenberger, S. Linden, H. Y. Liu, J. Lomeli-Sencion, G. Lyons, T. Mcdougall, N. Martinez, W. Minnich, R. Moran, L. Newton, F. Otero, D. Plowes, W. Rauh, H. Sanchez-Mejorada, R. Thompson, J. Trager, V. Turecek, C. Uhl, M. Vassar, and M. Wilkins.

4. Jardín Botánico del Instituto de Biología de UNAM

Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-614, 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico D.F., Mexico. Telephone: 52915-6-22-9046, 6-16-1297. FAX: 52-915- 6-22-9046, 6-162326.

This major Mexican botanic garden is part of the National University of Mexico and is funded by the government. The botanic garden consists of an area of 10 hectares (24.7 acres). A major portion of the garden is dedicated to Dra. Helia Bravo H. and contains the succulent collection. It consists of 148 Agavaceae species, with 120 (81%) documented (1 species of CITES Appendix I); 455 Cactaceae species, with 300 (66%) documented (23 species of CITES Appendix I); 65 Crassulaceae species, with 60 (92%) documented; 25 Nolinaceae species, with 15 (60%) documented. Important collectors of succulents have been H. Bravo H., A. Garcia M. (active), D. B. Gold, U. Guzmán C. (active), E. Matuda, F. Miranda, J. Reyes S. (active), H. Sanchez-Mejorada R., and S. Arias M. (active).

5. Jardín Botánico "El Charco del Ingenio" Can Te, A.C,

Mesones 71, 37700, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico. Telephone: 52-415-2-2990. FAX: 52-515-2-4015.

This private garden was founded in 1990 in an area north-west of the colonial city of San Miguel de Allende. At present much of El Charco is in the form of a nature reserve, but an area of 64 hectares (158 acres) is being developed into a more formal botanic garden. This new garden is emphasising the Agavaceae, Cactaceae, and Crassulaceae of the Mexican flora. Most of the collection is outside, but there are two large glasshouses on the grounds of the garden and a major propagation facility on a farm a few kilometres away. Significant collectors are C. Glass and W. A. Fitz Maurice. A seed exchange programme with other institutions has not yet been formally approved by the Mexican government, but it is the intention of Can Te, A.C. to develop a major seed exchange programme for the Mexican government.

Hopefully, this will reduce the pressure on wild populations from illegal collectors.

Can Te, A.C. has also been involved in several rescue and salvage operations in Mexico. Mammillaria aurilanata, Pelecyphora aselliformis, and Echinocacius are examples of cacti which have been removed prior to major habitat changes, such as road and dam construction. Can Te, A.C. has also established a nature reserve for the protection of Mammillaria albiflora. The staff is also heavily involved in rare cactus monitoring projects in many parts of Mexico.

6. Jardin Exotique B.P.I05, Monte Carlo 98002, Monaco. Telephone: 33-93-30-33-65. FAX: 33-93-30-60-74.

Founded 1933, this municipally operated garden, with an area of one hectare (2.5 acres), has long specialised in succulents. It contains 4000 succulent plant taxa, of which 800 (20%) are documented. The collection contains about 30 CITES Appendix I taxa in Pachypodium, Euphorbia, Aloe, Ariocarpus, Astrophytum, Discocactus, Mammillaria, Melocactus, Obregonia, Pediocactus, Turbinicarpus, and Uebelmannia. The most important succulent groups represented are the Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, Aloaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apocynaceac, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae, Crassulaceae, Dracaenaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. Collectors of succulents who have deposited material in the Jardin Exotique include M. Kroenlein, W. Rauh, R. Kiesling, and C. Backeberg.

7. National Botanic Gardens of South Africa National Botanic Institute, Kirstenbosch, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa. Telephone: 27-2 1-7972090. FAX: 27-021-797-2376.

The National Botanical Institute of South Africa has eight National Botanical Gardens strategically located in the major natural regions of the country: Harold Porter, Karoo, Kirstenbosch, Lowveld, Natal, Orange Free State, Pretoria, and Witwatersrand National Botanical Gardens. The role of these gardens is to cultivate, protect, display, research, and utilise South Africa's floral wealth, for the education and enjoyment of all. While all of these gardens have succulent plants in their collections, three of the gardens have succulent collections of international importance.

Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, located on the slopes of Table Mountain near Cape Town, was founded in 1913. The garden occupies 528 hectares (1305 acres), of which some 36 hectares (89 acres) is cultivated, while the remainder is maintained as a natural flora reserve. Approximately 6000 indigenous species are grown in the garden, of which 1500 are succulents. There are a few individual plants of three CITES Appendix I species: Aloe pillansii, A. polyphylla, and A. thomcroftii.

Approximately 95 per cent of all the succulent plants grown at Kirstenbosch are documented in that all their accession details and location within the garden are fully computerised. Voucher specimens of a number of the plants in cultivation are placed in the Compton Herbarium, which is also at Kirstenbosch. The system could use some improvements on information accessibility.

Part of the succulent collection is grown outdoors in two main areas, namely the Mathews Rockery and the Mesem Banks (covering an area of approximately 3000 while the remainder, especially the smaller species and the research collections, are grown in glasshouses in the nursery area. The winters in Cape Town are far too wet for many of the succulent species to be grown outdoors. As a result, a display glasshouse is being built (covering 1400 m2), the main feature of which will be the succulent flora of southern Africa.

Many of the plants grown at Kirstenbosch are the result of staff collecting activities, but other collectors who have made significant contributions to the collection include M. B. Bayer, H. Hall, C. A. Smith, F. Stayner, and W. Wisura.

The Karoo National Botanical Garden, at the foot of the Brandwacht Mountains near Worcester, was founded in 1921 but transferred to its present location in 1945. This garden concentrates on plants from the arid semi-desert areas of southern Africa, particularly the succulents. Approximately 11 hectares (27 acres) of the garden have been developed for the cultivation of plants, and the remaining 143 hectares (353 acres) are being retained as a flora reserve, protecting a typical example of the local Karoo vegetation, which includes over 80 species of succulents.

The lower part of the garden is devoted to summer rainfall arid-area plants, while in the upper part of the garden their winter rainfall counterparts are grown. There are plantings of related species, such as the aloes and mesembs, and elsewhere there are plantings that reflect the floras of different regions, such as Namibia, the Richtersveld, the Knersvlakte, Tanqua Karoo, Little Karoo, etc. In all, some 6400 plant species have been established, of which over 2500 are succulents.

There are a number of important reference collections, e.g. the Haworthia collection, the Conophytum collection, the Euphorbia collection, and the collection of succulent asclepiads, which are grown under controlled conditions in shade and glasshouses. Over 300 species of rare or endangered succulents are cultivated in the garden, including two CITES Appendix I species: Aloe pillansii (40 plants) and Pachypodium baronii (only 1 plant and which comes from Madagascar). Approximately 80 per cent of the collections are fully documented. A small reference herbarium is maintained at the garden, but most of the specimen vouchers are sent to the Compton Herbarium at Kirstenbosch.

Accession data for all the species in cultivation are available. Unfortunately, the plant records system has not been kept fully up-to-date and many plant labels have been lost or misplaced, making it difficult to relate some plants to their accession data. Attempts are being made to rectify this situation. Specimen vouchers of many of the plants in cultivation in the garden are placed in the National Herbarium located within the garden. This is the largest herbarium in Africa, with over 1.3 million specimens; all the specimen label information is fully computerised. The Herbarium also includes the Mary Gunn Library, which has an excellent collection of works on succulent plants.

There are a large number of threatened plants in cultivation at this garden, including 20 CITES Appendix I species: 15 species of Aloe, 2 species of Madagascan Euphorbia, and 3 species of Madagascan Pachypodium. In most cases there are only one or two plants in cultivation, but for some species there are large numbers; for example, there are 10 plants of Aloe descoingsii, 18 of A. parvula, 12 oi A. rauhii, and 55 of A. suzannae.

The major collectors who have made significant contributions to the Pretoria collection include D. Cole, R. A. Dyer, D. S. Hardy, D. de Kock, J. Lavranos, G. Prinsloo, H. Toelken, and J. van Zanten.

8. Städtische Sukkulenten-Sammlung Zürich

Mythenquai 88, CH-8002 Zurich, Switzerland. Telephone: 41-l-201-45-54; FAX: 41-l-201-55-40.

The City of Zurich Succulent Plant Collection was founded in 1931 and is operated by the city. It consists of an area of 0.5 hectare (1.24 acres), with nearly all the collection being housed in glasshouses. The succulent collection numbers some 26,000 accessions, amounting to more than 50,000 individual plants. Approximately 20 per cent of the collection is from horticultural origin with no indication of locality. The other 80 per cent have some documentation; 45 per cent of all accessions are directly from the wild (many in the form of seeds); 10 per cent are later propagations of unknown status (mostly supplied by horticultural firms with a collection number); the remaining material is either from seed obtained through controlled pollination, or propagated from cuttings.

Although it has not been calculated, most (if not all) CITES Appendix I succulents are in cultivation. The collection also has 14,000 herbarium specimens and a Cactaceae seed collection, all of which are documented.

The Zurich Succulent Plant Collection is the official repository of the IOS, with its archives, library holdings, and voucher specimens of several research projects.

Collectors who have contributed substantially to the Zurich holdings include E. F. Anderson, P. Bally, U. Eggli, J. Lavranos, W. Rauh, W. Rausch, W. Reppenhagen, F. Ritter, and D. Supthut. In addition, numerous accessions have been received from the International Succulent Institute (ISI; see under The Huntington), as well as obtained or purchased from horticultural firms such as Kohres, Uhlig, Abbey Garden, and from private individuals.

Botanic garden libraries

Most of these botanic gardens have important succulent libraries, which also play a significant role in plant conservation. Plant sciences libraries and librarians in botanic gardens provide important data for plant conservation both through their own individual plant literature collections, as well as through the links of their libraries with records in other botany library collections. Bibliographies and records on both the literature of botany and seed catalogue collections are two important holdings in libraries. Two such works which pertain to rare plant conservation published by The Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries (CBHL) are:

1) Nursery and Seed Catalogs: A Directory of' Collections (in North America). 1985. Compiled by June Rogier and Mary Lou Wolfe, Librarians, Andersen Horticultural Library (Minnesota) and Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (Pennsylvania) in co-operation with the National Agricultural Library (USA) and Agriculture Canada (Canada).

2) Endangered Plant Species of the World and Their Endangered Habitats: A Compilation of the Literature. 1985. By Meryl A. Miasek and Charles R. Long, Library Director, Indiana University (South Bend) and Director of the Library, The New York Botanical Garden (New York).

As an example of the type of information available in botanic garden libraries, the Desert Botanical Garden in the USA maintains a collection in the Richter Library of all seed exchange programs in which they have participated since they began a seed exchange programme in 1965. That is also the first year of publication of the Desert Botanical Garden's Index Seminurn. Also, its living plant and herbarium accession records are maintained in the Richter Library, dating back to the incorporation of the Garden in the 1930s. Most of these are now in a computer database.

Many botanic gardens also publish records of their collections, which are useful in ex situ research. Plant names, locations, old and new maps of plant discoveries, and other records are important information for ex situ research. The inclusion of botanic garden libraries and librarians in ex situ conservation activities helps insure that these records are preserved for future use.

Hobbyist collections and nurseries

Whereas traditionally one thinks only of botanic gardens and arboreta when considering conservation collections, private hobbyists and commercial nurseries also provide important ex situ collections of succulents. The combined activities of succulent plant growers and botanic gardens with significant collections of succulents, in large part through the encouragement of the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS), are now resolving some of the impediments listed by Given (1987), namely inadequate documentation and conflicting aims. Moreover, co-operative efforts among institutions and individuals, where they do occur, are making these plants available for research and re-introduction.

Several hobbyists, who are not professional botanists, have significant collections of certain groups of succulents. These collections have extensive documentation and have been used in several cases for major taxonomic studies. The IOS has recognised the importance of these private collections, and has established a Section titled IOS Generic Reserve Collections. For many years the collections at Zurich, Switzerland and Linz, Austria have been recognised as such, and in 1978 four other gardens received this recognition. The IOS set up qualifications and objectives to be met by IOS Generic Reserve Collections (Taylor and Hunt 1988): "a collection must contain material of substantial scientific importance, especially with regard to systematic research and/or conservation in their widest senses." The objectives are (Taylor and Hunt 1988):

1) Emphasis on material of known wild origin; all accessions to be properly documented, with details of donor, field data, and recipients of propagations; secure labelling of plants and regular updating of records is essential.

2) Preservation of voucher material (dried or liquid) for study by taxonomists working with the group concerned, and a photographic record of specimens prior to preservation, or as an alternative to preservation. If the Reserve Collection lacks its own herbarium facilities, preserved materials should be deposited in a well known and responsible institution and a record kept of what has been deposited.

3) Representation of as comprehensive a range of species as possible and willingness to assist specialists who are members of IOS in their research by way of access or loan/gifts of material as appropriate.

4) Active propagation and distribution of rare, scientifically valuable, and endangered species.

5) Willingness to co-operate in studies of floral biology and vegetative growth under artificial conditions towards the objective of making rare or endangered species available to a wider public and thereby relieving the pressure on wild populations.

The following private collections have been approved or are under consideration by the IOS as Generic Reserve Collections (Taylor 1991a):

• Andrea Cattabriga, Bologna, Italy — dwarf Mexican

Cactaceae

• Ben Groen, Wageningen, The Netherlands — Conophytum, Astroloba

• Alan Hart, Cheshire, United Kingdom —Ceropegia

• Fred Kattermann, Sussex, New Jersey, USA — Eriosyce, Copiapoa

• Massimo Meregalli, Torino, Italy — Copiapoa

• Roy Mottram, Thirsk, UK —Cleistocaetas, Oreocercus

• David Parker, Birmingham, UK — Echinocereus

• Hans Till, Attersee, Austria — Gymnocalycium

• Richard and Franziska Wolf, Wienderwald, Austria — Mammillaria rred Kattermann and his collection of Eriosyce is an example of a dedicated hobbyist performing exhaustive field work, making detailed records, and writing a noteworthy monograph of the genus (Kattermann 1994). Kattermann spent over 45 weeks in the field during 197794, legally collecting approximately 1500 plants from about 500 different populations. Living material was distributed to several institutions for propagation, and herbarium specimens were prepared and given to the Desert Botanical Garden and The New York Botanical Garden. In addition, he collected living plants of 20 other genera, most of which have been given to the Desert Botanical Garden. He has willingly provided material to researchers throughout the world.

Astrophytum asterias in a cactus nursery, Kurashiki, Japan.

Other collections have been critical for taxonomic studies. The Meregalli collection was the basis for an extensive paper on Copiapoa (Meregalli 1991), and the Echinocereus collection of David Parker was used by Nigel Taylor to supplement his field work in his significant monograph of the genus (Taylor 1985).

Clearly, hobbyist collections are a significant source of germplasm of rare and endangered succulents. The programme established by the IOS to insure the proper maintenance and documentation of these collections must be encouraged, as well as the implementation of an effective networking among researchers, institutions, and the hobbyists.

Some commercial nurseries specialise in the propagation and sale of specific groups of succulents. Many of their propagated plants are derived either from seed or cuttings, from field collected, or documented material. These stock plants, and succeeding generations, can provide a significant source of germplasm for rare and endangered succulents. However, while sometimes reducing demand on wild stock, nursery collections do not necessarily contribute to the genetic and demographic management of threatened plants. Nursery collections of propagules and their artificial propagation for commercial purposes must go hand in hand with providing safeguards, through botanic gardens and seed banks, for tracking and insuring that propagules will be available for research and long-term preservation, and thus contributing to ex situ conservation.

Several commercial nurseries have stocks of rare succulents with documentation. Mesa Garden in Belen, New Mexico provides an example of the roles that some of these commercial businesses have in both in situ and ex situ conservation. This nursery arose from Steven Brack's strong interest in growing succulents from seeds, and was stimulated by his membership in the African Succulent Plant Society and its biennial seed distribution. In 1973 the nursery began using seeds collected from habitat primarily within the state and documenting their source for sales. Starting in 1975, he began to make extensive collections of seeds in Mexico. These collections form the core of Mesa Garden, and their first seed list of 1980 had approximately 1000 offerings.

In 1980 Brack joined with Steven Hammer, a specialist on Old World succulents, to collect seed, especially of the mesembs, in South Africa. They encountered the very rare Conophytum angelicae on one of their trips and were able to collect nine seeds. From those few propagules Mesa Garden has now produced several generations of the plant, with a production of several thousand seeds annually. This has significantly reduced the impact of collectors decimating the remaining in situ population of this species. Brack has also assisted the US Fish and

Guimar nursery, Tenerife, Canary Islands.

Wildlife Service in the propagation of a rare cactus Pediocactus knowltonii for re-introduction back into its natural habitat.

From its very beginning, the Mesa Garden nursery has emphasised the propagation and sale of seedlings and seeds with habitat data. In several instances seed of the same species are offered from different localities, thus providing germplasm variability. Mesa Garden now has a comprehensive collection of mesembs, as well as hundreds of cacti from both North and South America. This nursery has provided research materials to numerous scientists throughout the world.

It should also be noted that the cooperative ex situ activities of botanic gardens and nurseries have meant that several succulent species, now virtually extinct in the wild because of extensive habitat destruction, are widely represented in cultivation. Two examples are Astrophytum asterias and Echinocactus grusonii.

The author would like to acknowledge the following people who reviewed and contributed information to this section: Salvador Arias M., Steven Brack, Jane Cole, Dr Urs Eggli, Holly Forbes, Dr Craig Hilton-Taylor, Fred Kattermann, Mike Maunder, Peggy Olwell, Liz Slausen, Jean-Marie Solichon, John N. Trager, Dr Peter S. Wyse Jackson.

Chapter 3

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