Conservation agencies and botanical institutions
1) Viceministerio Forestal, Ministerio de Agricultura (MINAGRI): This government institution has responsibility for forest management and protected areas. MINAGRI is also the CITES Management Authority.
2) Comisión para la Protección de la Flora, la Fauna y el uso racional de los Recursos Naturales (COMARNA): This government entity, which works closely with MINAGRI, investigates the development of management plans for protected areas.
3) Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática (IES): Research institute under the Ministerio de las Ciencias y la Tecnologia (former Academia de Ciencias), with a core of botanical and zoological staff supported by a strong reference library and the largest herbarium of the country. It includes the Centro Nacional de Biodiversidad which is developing a database on West Indian biodiversity.
4) Jardín Botánico Nacional (JBN): Large garden under the Universidad de La Habana (Facultad de Biologia); it maintains important collections of Cuban plants. There is also a core of botanical staff and an important library.
5) Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN): Also under the Ministerio de las Ciencias y la Tecnologia, with a group of well trained and experienced curators, one of which is a Scientific Advisor of RARE Centre for Tropical Conservation.
Centro Oriental de Biodiversidad y Ecosistemas (COBE): The same as IES in the eastern provinces.
7) Instituto Superior PedagogicO (ISP): Important group of institutes (one in each province) under the Ministerio de Educación, with a Department of Botany and staff specialised in local (provincial) floras.
8) Sociedad pro-Naturaleza (SPN): Recently established NGO for the protection of the environment through local initiatives.
11) Dirección Nacional de Parques (DNP): This government body, under the Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura (SEA), Subsecretaria de Recursos Naturales, is responsible for forest management and protected areas. DNP is also the CITES Management Authority.
2) Jardín Botánico Nacional "Rafael M. Moscoso" (JBN-RMM): Maintains collections of Hispaniolan plants. At the herbarium there is a small but experienced number of curators.
Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD): with a Biological staff, and herbarium.
4) Parque Jaragua (PJ): An NGO for the study and protection of wildlife in Parque Nacional Jaragua. It also investigates the development of management plans for this protected area. 5) Natura (N): Another NGO which serves to check environmental health. Provides control activities developed through local initiatives.
1) Departamento de Recursos Naturales (DRN): This government Department has responsibility for forest management and protected areas. DRN is also the CITES Management Authority.
2) Jardín Botánico de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras (JB-UPR): Maintains living collections of Puerto Rican plants and a herbarium.
3) Centro de Información Ambiental del Caribe (CIAC): Recently established centre under the Universidad Metropolitana, to develop a database on Caribbean environment concerns.
4) Centro de Educación Ambiental (CEA): Also established under the Universidad Metropolitana, to popularise environmental information with educational purposes.
5) Fundación Puertoriquena para la Conservación (FPC): An NGO for the conservation of the island's flora and fauna.
6) Fideicomiso para la Conservación (FC): Another NGO for the rescue and protection of Puerto Rico's natural and cultural heritage.
1) Natural Resources Conservation Department (NRCD): Government Department responsible for forest management and protected areas. It is also the CITES Management Authority.
2) Institute of Jamaica (IJ): Renowned Jamaican institution with the most valuable herbarium collections of the Caribbean.
3) Department of Botany, University of West Indies (UWI): With an experienced staff, and herbarium. Entity: Encourages economic progress coupled with natural resource protection through education and hosting a tree bank.
5) Natural History Society of Jamaica (NHS): Disseminates information and provides education on conservation and preservation of the environment. Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologies: Supports scientists and resource development.
Some Caribbean islands have national legislation protecting the environment (e.g. Law no. 33 of 12 July 1981, in Cuba). Although rare and threatened plant species are considered in some of these legislations, in general legal protection for succulents has not been fully elaborated. The SPAW Protocol, outlined in International legislation in Chapter 2, if effectively implemented may provide the impetus to update or develop new legislation.
Ex situ conservation and ^introduction
For a number of highly threatened succulent species there is no other alternative, at this moment, than to conserve and propagate them ex situ. Studies need to be carried out to find similar habitats for replanting, following the IUCN Guidelines for Re-Introductions (IUCN 1995). Examples of small-scale reintroduction projects for cacti have taken place in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guana, British Virgin Islands.
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