C. umbeiluta

Threatened by habitat clearance.


Peninsular India is the second centre of origin of the genus Brachystelma. Species are distributed in the hill ranges of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka. Of the ten species found in India, nine are endemic to Peninsular India; the only species occurring outside this region is B. parviflorus in the north-west (Ahmedullah 1993). The main threat to the species is quarrying and mining (Babu 1994).

I Brachystelma bourneae Endemic to Tamil Nadu.

I B. brevitubula turn Endemic to Tamil Nadu.

K B. cilia tum Endemic to Karnataka.

E B. glabrum Endemic to Andhra Pradesh.

K B. kolarensis Endemic to Karnataka.

B. maculatum Endemic to Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

I B. rangacharii Endemic to Coimbatore.

R B. volubile Endemic to Andhra Pradesh.


Three species are found in the Andaman Islands. Dischidia bengalensis and D. nimularia can be found extensively while D. raffelsiana var. major is Rare.


The genus Hoya is widely distributed in the temperate regions of the Himalayas where species are under threat due to deforestation. Since forty percent of the forest cover in the Himalayas has been lost, substantial numbers of populations of Himalayan Hoya species have also been lost. The remainder of these species requires immediate conservation measures. H. wightii is an endemic species of Peninsular India but is likely to become extinct when its habitat is submerged upon completion of the Idukki Hydroelectric dam.

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