Neoporteria villosa Monv Berg

Solitary, at hrst globular then cvlinJric to 15 cm high bv 8 cm. h 2 cm long. |RMF185/'lP/F|

IMStkiirTION: Chile, around lluasco and lo Carri/al

Rajo.

OIHIK N \Ml_s: \'top. atnsptnosa, \ cephalophnra, V laniceps. ?.V. polyrftaphis.

150 NF.OPORTF.RI A - NOTOC ACTUS

Cactus Guide With PicturesNeoporteria Cactus Flower

Ncoportcria wagenkncchtii Rilt.

Solitary, to i-m high bv 11 cm. FI 2.2 cm long. |RMFI9I/IP/F|

disiriih i ion: Chile, Ni ofU Serena, Juan Soldado Gorge.

Ncoportcria wagcnkncchtii v. vallenarensis (Ritt) Hoffmann Solitary, at hrsi globular, later clongated up to (»em across. Ribs 11 - 12. FI 3.5 cm long. |RMF177/IP/F| DISIRIIIITION: Chile, between \allenar and Freinna. Rare due to grazing anil trampling hv glials. OIIIKR NVMK.S: \cvptMenu itllendrenus.

Ncowcrdcrmannia chilcnsis Hkbg. Solitary. À 4 em across. |IP/F| disiriiiition: \ Chile. Ticnamar oi t if .k n ami s II cinfprtu (kilensh

Neoporteria Villosa

'Ncowcrdcrmannia chilcnsis v. plltrcnsis, n.n.

Much larger and with thinner spines than the species. FI Hushed pink |RMF/IP/F| DISTRIBUTION: Chile, Putre.

Ncowcrdcrmannia vorwerkii Fric

Solitary, flattened (becomingglobular-elongate in cultivation) [IP e\ i ju/F| DISTRIBUTION: Over a large irea of the Andean Alliplano from N Argentina I) N Holivia. o 11ll.k NVMI.s: Unnguriiu vtrweriii.

Notocactus bucnckcri (Buin.) Bux. Solitan, t<i 5 cm high bv 6 cm. M 4 cm across, vellovv. |RM|

Dis i Klin iion: All from S Hrazil, Rio (irande do Sul. oiiikr n Wll.s: HraùlipantJid buenek.. PdriJiai buenek. I.arger, to 8 cm bn»ad is N. alacrip« rtaims ( Hkbg & \oil) liuv.

Spines lo only 4 mm is N. brevihanatus (W I Ige ) Mux.

Neoporteria Villosa

Notocactus buiningii Bux.

Solitan, in Htm ln»li jiul 12 mi atrm H ¡i iitni jtiirtt. |CS/I'M |

dmkiih iiov Uruguay, near l.ivramcnto, rare.

Notocactus caespitosus Speg.

Clumping, in 8 cm high and 3 cm across. IT 4 cm long. |IP/GC|

DISTRIBl rl lov Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul. near Alcgrtte and in N Uruguay.

oillKRNVMKs: V minimis, V tenuuylinJrieus.

Notocactus concinnus (Mom.) Berg.

Solitary, III cm across and 6 cm high. Spinaium fairlv variable from quite short and neat to untidy and interlacing. FI 7 cm long, canary yellow. |l)V9c/IP/G| DISTRIBUTION: S Brazil and Uriguay. o ihi rnwits V. agnctae, \ ufiruu\ V hfauun>ianus, V bommdje, V eremeticus, \ multio/status, V tabular»

Notocactus crassipbbus Ritt.

Solitan. Ilattened. lo III cm across. I'l to 10 cm long. |CS/PM|

dis i kiiii iion Brazil, Rio (irande do Sul, l.avras. o 11 ii k NWti s V. jradtnties

Notocactus erinaccus (Haw.) Krainz Globular, to 15 cm high and broad. I I to 7 cm broad, canary yellow. |CS/PM|. DISTRIBUTION: S Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina.

O l inK n VMt-S Malaeocarpus (orynodct, Hlffinsu o>ry., Soto. (wry.,.U. eourantit, II. four., M ennaceus, II. mnacea, Y. ennaeeus r. spwosior, M /riai, V.fririi, II fruit, If. henntsn, If. hrvaridi, V. bn\, II. bn\, 0. lutipspma. .If. sellowi, X. sell., II. sell., If. sessifiorus. X. sen., W. stepnannii, X. sieg., M stef., II sess.,M. tephracanthus, II if. tcph.. If. turbinatus, H. turb., ,11 xWxmckiana, It. iorw.

Notocactus fuscus Ritt.

Solitan, 4-7 cm across. FI 3 cm or more long. |HU29/CS/PM|

dis i Klin iion. Brazil. Rio (irande do Sul. 15 km W of Sao Francisco de Assis.

Notocactus graessncri (Sch.) Berg.

Usuüll) solitary. (o cm high by 15 cm; spincs usually hard and yellow but pal er and softer in 'v. aibisetus. Fl greenish or yellow. fu. microdasvs P.J. Ilraun has exiremely short spincs. |IP/G| IMS IRHU HON: Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul, Jaquerana. oi iti-K NAMES: Hrasifcadusgraeaneri

Notocactus haselbcrgii (F. Hge.) Berg. Solitary,"»10 cm high by 15 cm. spines white or \dlowi,sh

disiklin hon: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. o i i ok names: Brasiticadus iiaselbtrgu

Notocactus herteri VYerd.

Spherical to elongated, 15 cm or more across, soliliry, fa. pseudoherteri (Hum.) Herrn, fas yellow II. |Schll62/CS/P\1|

ol in k n wies: fa. pseudoherteri. V (neuJuhalm.

Notocactus horstii Ritt.

Usualb solitan. to 30 cm high bv 14 an. II orange to purple! ICS/PMI

dim kim Ttov Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Sena Geral.

niiim \ wiks: a"t». purpureas, 'v. mutgelianur'.

Notocactus leninghausii (Hge. jr.) Berg. (Humping, heads lo I m high by 10 cm. PI 5 cm across. Related is N. nigrispinus (Sch.) Iluin.. clumping, to 40 cm high bv 16 cm across, ribs 24, spines thicker and fewer (between Carcpegua and Acaay). (CS/PM|

disi kiiiition: llra/il. Rio Grande do Sul, to Paraguay, Cerro Santo Thomas and Cerro Acaav

OTHER NAMES: F.riocaetus leninghausii.

Notocactus magnifieus (Ritt.) Krainz

Clumping, body to 20 cm across, globular later becoming elongated. Fl 5-6 cm across |F.|

dm kiih hon: llra/il, Rio Grande do Sul, Scrra

Geral. Julio de Castilho.

otio.r vasos- Frwratlu* magnijirus.

Notocactus mammulosus (I.cm.) Berg.

Solitary, tu 10 cm high by 6 cm. I'l 4 cm long. Similar hut less free-flowering is N. allosiphon Marchesi (I ruguay, Rivera. Vallc \r Plan n). |R346/IG| DIsiriih iion: \rgentina and Uruguay. other names: v (ryhramnthas, v jiiiriaimus, 'V onhunjrtihus', V fum/wnus. V submammulmu* \ l". pamptanus.

N. megalanthus Sehl & Bred. Irom the Cerro Mosquilos, L'ruguav appears to be an intermediate between N. mamimilosos and N concinnus.

Notocactus mucllcr-mclchcrsii

Flic ex Bkbg.

Solitan. to 8 cm high bv 6 cm. I I 5 cm across, pale golden yellow. (SCHI.15I/IP/G)

distribution: Uruguay, Sierra de los Animos.

Notocactus muricatus (Otto) Berg.

Clumping, heads to 20 cm and more high. Fl 3 cm long.

distribution: S Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. near Taquarichim.

Notocactus ncoarcchavaletai

Solitan. spherical to elongated, csp dark brown or black.

Fl 5 cm across [CS/PMJ

Disi riui viov Uruguay, near Maldonado

OTHER names. Makixarpu i atahavaklai. H'iffinM a red

Notocactus ncohorstii (Ritt.) Theun.

Solitan, globular to elongated. I'l 3.5 cm wide.

v. juvcniliformis Rilt. resetrbles, when adult, a juvenile form of Ihe speeies (Cacapavi).

DisI Rillt hon: Hrazil, Rio (irandc do Sul, Mine

Camaqua.

other nxme.s: Hl/ginsia hör,Iii

Notocactus ottonis (Lchm.) Berg.

Exceedingly variable yet instantly recognizable because of the general characteristics so obvious in the plate. FI to 6 cm or more across. The most distinctive forms are those with more sharplv-angled ribs, (e.g. V. seairiiubmulatm). [CS/PMI

distribution: S Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and NF. Argentina.

OTHER N VMES: See Appendix 7.

Notocactus ottonis v. tortuosus (Link & Otto) Bcry.

Mower smaller. 3-4 en across, deeper lemon-yellow than the specks. [HU22/G]

DISTRIHUnON: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul.

OTIIKRNYMES: \. tunmbeiensis, V finbii, X megafmtaminii.

Notocactus rauschii van Miet

Solitan, globular to 7 cm acrcss, elongating snmcwhal to 10 cm.' FI 5-6 cm aero«. |CS/PM|

DISTRIBUTION: Uruguay. Cuchilla Negra.

Notocactus rcchensis Bum.

Forming small dumps, heads to 7 cm long In 5 cm FI 3-3.5 cm across. |CS/PM|

DISTRIBUTION: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. near Ana

Reche.

OTIII.K NA.MUS: BraulifuintJia ttchoun.

Notocactus Uebelmannianus FlowerNotocactus RutilansNotocactus Rutilans

Notocactus rosciflorus Schl. & Bred.

Solitan, to 12 cm high bv 6.5 cm. FI 3.5 cm across. |CS/CG|

DISTRIBl HON: Uruguay, Prov. ol Artigas, Cuchilla Vacare.

Notocactus roseolutcus van Miet

Solitan, bodv globose, to 18 en high and broad. IT to 8 cm across. (CS/PM |

DISTRIBUTION: Uruguay, near Tranqueras.

Notocactus rutilans Dacn. & Krainz Solitan. sliuhtb elongated, to 5 cm hitch bv 4 cm. PI to 6 cm across. |CS/PM| DISTRIBUTION: Uruguay. Cerro l.argo.

Notocactus schlosscri van Miel

Soliun. shon-cylindm lo IS cm high by 11 cm. Fl 5 cm across |Schll57/(i|

OtSTKlHLUlON: Uruguay, near (iar/on

Notocactus schumannianus

Body columnar, to 30 cm broad. FI 4 cm across, pale golden-yellow. |R|

DIS i rihi nov Paraguay, Ccrro Sanlo Thomas and Cerro Acaay.

OH IKK N AMES: Fnotartui amflio(oslaiu>, F.. daunps, F. grossei, Xoto. daviceps.

Notocactus scopa (Spreng.) Berg. Solitary, to 25 cm and more high by 10 cm. Csp brown to white Fl 4 cm across. Many vars. - more properly just forms most distinct being v. marchesii Abraham: strongly clumping, heads to 10 cm long, 4 cm across. Csp white to orange. Fl 5 cm across (Dept. of Treinta v Tres, Uruguay). |CS/P1

I »Is I kim TION: S Rra/il and Uruguay OTHER NAMES: ?.V. ruMufttdm

Notocactus sucinctis Kin.

Solitary, spherical lo oblong, 3-7 cm across. Fl 3.5 cm long. [FRI3W/CS/PMI

nisi kim i ion: Brazil, Rio (irandc do Sul, Sao (iabricl.

oiiii.k nwtls. v kfnhufnavn.

Notocactus uchclmanniaous Buin.

Solitary, lo 12 cm high b\ 17 cm. M to 5 cm across, purple or yellow. |CS/PM|

DISTRIBUTION: llra/il, Rio (irandc do Sul, near Cacapa\a

O'ltlKK VVVtl s: \ u/Mnwn fltnifluruf

Notocactus vanvlictii Rausch

Solitary, to 10 cm high by 0 cm. Fl :o 5.5 cm across v. gracilior Rausch is smaller, w ith curly spines and flowers yellow to orange yellow (between Mnas dc Coralcs and \nsina). |I)VI8/(»|

DISTRIBUTION: Uruguay, Cuchilla de los Once Ccrros.

Notocactus vccnianus Van Vliet

Solitan, to 211 cm high In K cm. Fl 5 cm across. |CS/PM|

DisiRlliLTlON. Uruguay. Tacuarembó.

OTHKR NAMKs: 'V ma>', V fugrmar, V. pautas, V wintíen

Notocactus warasii Ritt.

Solitan, to 511 cm high b\ 20 cm or more, Fl 6 cm acros-.. (CS/P\||

DISTRIIILTION: Brazil, Rio (Jrandc do Sul. OTHKR NAMt-S: F.rioautus mans i i

Notocactus wcrdcrniannianus I lerter

Solitan, lo I.» em high b\ 10 no IT over 7 tm atrosv |(i| DISTRIIH HON: l nigua v. l acuarembo.

Obrcgonia dcncgrii Fric

Solitary. lo 12 cm across. Fl 2.5 cm across. [CS/PJ DISTRIBUTION: Mexico, Tamaulipas. Sao Vicente near Ciudad Victoria

OTHKR N WIKS: .írutearfus Jaugrii, Slnmkxartus Jenegrii.

Oroya borchersii (Bocd.) Bkhg. Solitan, to over 20 cm high and broad, spines brown or yellow Fl 1 cm across. |MI4a/IP|

distribi hon: N Peru, G»rdillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra.

Oroya peruviana (Sell.) B. & R. Solitary, dcpressed-sphencal. to 14 cm across 11 to 2 2 cm broad, pink and yellow, lemon-yellow (e g '(). .nnfiora) nr carmine. |IP/F|

Dls|Rim i ii in ( Pent, arouml Oroya oilok nwiks '<}. amilana , <1 baunannii\ (J pNntsak rar*. () lavan ola ta & :ar. 0 ncopmviana \ \an.. (> <ukmutaia X :wn., van ol'O. peruviana.

Ortegocactus nuicdougallii Alex.

Heads globular, io 4 cm acn»», clustering, K1 2.5 un broad. |GC|

Dh iKim nos Mexico. Oavaca, near San Jose I acheguiri.

Parodia argcrichiana VVesk.

IDHHI8/CS/DHS)

DISTRIBUTION: N Argentina, Salia, Sierra del Muerlo, be Ween Sanla Barbara and Santai Rosa.

Parodia aurcispina Bkbg.

Solitary, globose, lo f .5 cm acniss. l'l also red. Plants circulated as P. mulahlh arc invariably this species.

DISTRIBI HON: N Argentina, Salta.

oiill K NAMES: P. annhamata', P. mulahhs, P. wfuoida.

Parodia ayopayana Card.

Stems to 8 cm high bv l) cm, prolihcalb clumping.

ICS/PMI

DISTRIBUTION Bolivia, Puente Pilatos.

other names: P. aHOajetui;, P. elm, P. piciidnaxopayana.

Parodia aurciccntra Bkbg.

Deuiming cliMigatcd in 15 cm aians, umijII* clumping, spinatuin verv variable Fl 4 cm bn:ad, light blood-red |P252/CS/DHS|

distribution \ Argentina, Salta, Cacbipampa. other nvmi .s: P. dureu, i. omniaureu & rubrispmu, P. muhrii, P. rausihu, P. ukliguina, ?. ianunlor.

Parodia campcstrac Brandt

Solitary, to 11 cm high b\ 7 cm, spines straight. |CS/P.M|

DISTRIBLTION: Argentina, meeting point of Salta, Tucuman and Santiago del Kstem Provinces on the road F of Antilla

Parodia chrysacanthion (Sch.) Bkbg.

Solitary, sphcrical Fl itaall. yellow |CS/PM| otSTRim iion: N Argentina, Jujuy

Parodia columnaris Card.

Solitan, lo 30 cm high b\ 7 cm. I I J cm across, light yellow. (I)onald IP/D1IS|

DtSTRlBUtTON: Bolivia, Dept. Cochabamba. \ngosto dc Perez.

other nvxiks: P. Iqpiimu.

Parodia comarapana Card.

Solitary , lo > cm high by % cm. 11 5 urn aero»*, orange. ull.,A |kkl462/IP/DIIS|

DISTRIBUTION: Bolivia, Comarapa

OTHER NVNII.S: P ntfUila, P. HCgfataJts.

Parodia commutans Ritt.

Solitary, to 30 cm by 16 cm. FI to 3.5 cm long, yellow distribution: Holivia, near Impora. (mint n vmes: P. maasui r. fmmutans, P obtusa. Illustrated but probably only a variety is Parodia maxima Ritt. which is solitary, cylmdrie, to 25 cm high Csp in seedlings hooked, straight in mature plants. I'l 4 cm across. II.928/IP/DHSI

distribution: Holivia, Cieneguillas. o i iikr names: P maauii r, ammutunsfa maxima.

'Parodia dcxtrohamata' Bkbg.

Solitan, lo 5 cm high by 3.5 cm. II 2 cm across, yellow | P44a/CS/DHS|

DtSTRIBlTION: N Argentina.

Parodia dichroacantha Brandl & csk.

I lemispherical cjt later elongated. I ' I fc cm across, brilliant yellow or red. |B53/IP DHS| DISTRIBI'TION: \ Argentina, N of Salu and Tucuman.

Parodia Dichroacantha

Parodia cchinopsoidcs Brandl

Soliun. »o -K) cm high bv 10 cm, nl>.s alwass 13. ti 3.5-4 cm long. ydon (CS/DHS| dimrim hon: Bolivia. Prov. Méndez. Colpa na on ihc Rio Pilaya.

011 ikk namks P separata, P. trtdeñmcoslata,

Sulilan, lo 6 Cin aims, 1*1 Marlct uufeide, gwldcn-vcllow insidc. | B160/1P/DIIS|

Parodia faustiana Bkbg.

Sulilan, lo 6 Cin aims, 1*1 Marlct uufeide, gwldcn-vcllow insidc. | B160/1P/DIIS|

distribution: N Argentina, Salla, Quebrada del Toro.

othi.r na.mks: P. eruei-niffiffnlni n.n..

'Parodia fechseri* Bkbg.

Sulilan, to K cm high bv 4 cm. Fl 4 cm across, vellow. |IP cv Fechscr/DHS| distribution: N Argentina othfck nwiks: P. mesemkrina.

Parodia formosa Ritt.

Siiliian, globular to clongatcd, to 8 cm across. Spinatinn rather variable, Fl to 4 cm long, sulphur-vcllow.

jCS/DIISI

distribution: Widesprcad in C and S Bolivia. 01hkk n vmks: ¡' <arap{ir\unu, P. iarJenasii, P. ehaetoearpa, P. rhinmo)\irana, P p&hysu, P. pan'ula, P. purpurci-aurca. I' punlla, P fetispina, P tilín

'Parodia fuscato-viridis* Bkbg.

Sohtan, spherieal to 4.5 cm broad. Fl 3.5-6 cm broad, vellow. IP239/CS/DHS1

disikihi iio.n: N Argentina. Quebrada de Belén.

Parodia gibbulosoidcs Brandt

Broadlv spherieal, lo 10 cm across. Fl I cm across.

distribution: Bolivia, Dcpt. Coclubamba in the mountains N of the Rio Grande. 011 ikk n\mrs: P. gikbulosa.

Parodia haustciniana Rausch

Solitary , short-cvlindric, to 5 cm across. Fl HI mm across, yellow jcS/l».M|

DISTRIBUTION: Bolina, near Mizque-

Parodia hcr/.ogii Rausch

Solitary , to ft cm high b\ 9 cm. Fl 4 cm across, golden-yellow to orange. |WR707a'CS/DHS| DISTRIBUTION: Argentina, Salla, F. of Cafayate.

Parodia hctcracantha Ritt. & Wcsk. Solitary, 9.5 cm high In 5.5 cm. FI yellowish-orange. JP62/CS/DHSI

DISTRIBUTION: N Argentina, Salla, near Cachi.

Parodia hórrida Brandt

Solitary, slim-cvlindric to 9 cm or more high. Fl yellow I Mulu IP/DHSI

DISTRIBUTION: \ Argentina, Salla, Rio Calchaqui OTHER N WIES: P. pHtziorum.

Parodia hummcliana l.au & Wesk. Solitary, f> cm high bv 7 cm. Related to I'. microspcrnia |li67/CS/DHS|

distribution: Argentina, Salta, Amblayo.

Parodia krahnii Wcsk.

Solitary or clumping, to 311 cm high by 8 esn I I velliw. ICS/DUSI

DISTRIBUTION; Bolivia, Prov. 'Carita, la Vinj i»n the Rio (Jaine.

Parodia lauii Brandl

Solitary, to 7 cm hii»h ta cm. Fl to I cm across, salmon to red. (CS/PM)

DIM Kilt i HON llolivu, between Mi/que and Mine \sicnios. above the Rio Came

Parodia mairamna Card.

Broadly spherical to over 5 cm across, greyish-green lo glossy dart green. IT lo 3.5 cm across, orange to golden-yellow. Plants distributed under the name 'P. ma i ra nana v. aira' ire oben nothing to do with ibis species (FR744/HS/DHSI DISTRIBUTION: Bolivia, Mairana.

Neoporteria Villosa

Parodia maassii (Heese) Berg.

V cry variable, solitary or clumping, body large or small, spines long or relatively short, white to brown lo black. Fl various shades of red. |H|

DISTRIBUTION: Over a wide area of C and S Bolivia and \ Argentina.

OTHER NAMES: P. belliata, P bermejoensis, P. camargensis, P eastanea, P dntiensis, P. eteayaehensis, P. fulmfnna, P haagrana, P. knizei,, P lamprospina, P. mendezana, P olaiiana, P perptexa, P nued & v. dmiens is, P. rostrum-sperma, P. rubtda, P suprema P. tkicicana, P. lojoensis.

Parodia malyana Rausch

Solitary, to 6 cm high by 5 cm, csp straight, Fl to 4 cm across, yellow or red. (CS/DHS)

Dis I Klin HON: Argentina, Catamarca, near Ancasti.

Parodia macrancistra (Sch.) Wesk.

Solitary, to H cm high by 6.5 cm, c»p to 3.7 cm long. Undoubtedly a long-spined form of P. mierosperma IB24/1P/DHSJ

DISTRIBUTION: N Argentina, Tucuman at the fool of the Sierra Medina.

other names: P. talaensis.

Parodia mcrccdcsiana Wesk.

Soliian, to 5.5 cm high bv 6.5 cm. II 6 cm across, red or yellow |I)III16/CS/I)IÍS|

DISTRIBUTION: N Argentina. Salla, N\V of I .as Curtiembres.

Parodia microspcrma (Web.) Speg. Solitan, to 20 cm hich bv 10 cm. M vellow to red to 4 cm across. |B155/IP/DHS| DISTRIBUTION: N Argentina, Tucuman. oil IKK N.WIt.s: P. unJ>tapmsis, P. hetuniand, P. catamarrensis, P. chhrocurpa, P. gUschnKarpa, P rubfllihdrr.uid, P sdna^a^la, P seulera. P. sputum, P ihifinanlha, P. tuhcreubsi-cmLild, P. avskdmpidnd.

Parodia miguillensis Card.

Solitan, to ft cm high hv 4 cm. FI only 7 mm broad, pale yellow. |I.IUOI/IP/DHS|

DIS I RIIII TION: W idespread in river gorges in C N Bolivia. OTIIKR NVMKS: P. horealu, P. ,ùnuuu, P. echinus, P. macednnsa.

Parodia minuscula Rausch

Solitan, globosc, to 4 cm hroad, csp hooked. CJosel) rclatcd tu P. malvana |VVR?57/CS/DHi»j DISIRIBt MON; Argentina. ( atamarca. along the Rio (iuayamba.

O IMKR WMKS: P. »unimu Rausch non Brandi.

Parodia Minuscula

Parodia nivosa Fric ex Bkbg.

Solitan, lo 15 cm high hv S cm. FI 5 cm hroad, red.

DtsiRim nos: \ Argentins, Salta.

Parodia ocampoi Card. Stem to 7 cm high hy 6 cm, forming cushions to 40 cm across. FI 3 cm long, golden yellow. P. compress Ritt (illus.) appears to he merely a red-flowered slightly spinier form from only a lew miles distant. (Il|

DISIRIIH IION. Bolivia, Pucite Arce

OIHKR NAMES: iP. cameand, P. annprosa, P ipturald.

Parodia occulta Ritt.

Solitary, llattened. to 2.5(—5) cm a.ross. FI to 2-4 cm across, red, reddish-orange or yellow The smallest of the parodias. |ll|

DISTRIBUTION: Bolivia, between Cjmargo and Culpina.

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