The cactaceae


Prostrate or spreading plants rarely erect, with mostly rather small, persistent, scarcely tu-berculate, orbicular or oval joints, and large flowers; natives of the eastern, central, and southern United States.

Plate 21 represents a group of hardy cacti, chiefly species of this series, at the New York Botanical Garden.

Key to Species.

Spines none or only 1 or 2 at an areole. Joints bluish green; at least when young; roots tuber-like. Fruit clavate; joints thin.

Fruit about 4.5 cm. long

Fruit obovoid; joints turgid

Joints green; roots not tuberous. Flowers 8 cm. broad or less.

Joints orbicular or little longer than wide

Joints oblong, much longer than wide

Flowers 10 to 12 cm. broad

Spines mostly 2 or more at an areole. Ovary obconic, 2 to 4 cm. long. Roots tuberous.

Joints repand; plant suberect

Joints scarcely repand; plants nearly prostrate

Roots not tuberous.

Flowers and fruit small

Flowers and fruit large. Spines white to light brown, slender.

Seeds acute-margined

Seeds obtuse-margined.

Fruit large, 4 to 5 cm. long; spines light colored

Fruit small, 2 to 3 cm. long; spines brown

Spines dark brown, stout

Ovary narrowly subcylindric, 5 to 6 cm. long

116. Opuntia allairei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard.

A low, spreading, tuberous-rooted, prostrate plant, with some of the joints ascending; joints bluish green, obovate, usually 10 to 15 cm. long, originally described as even longer, with or without spines; spines, if present, 1 to 3, yellowish brown, 2.5 cm. long or less, slender but a little flattened; glochids numerous, especially abundant at very old areoles, yellow; leaves 6 to 8 mm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. broad, yellow with a red center; fruit to 5 cm. long, dark red.

Type locality: Mouth of Trinity River, Texas.

Distribution: Southern Texas and western Louisiana.

This species is perhaps nearest O. macrorhiza, but differs in the usual absence of spines and in differently colored joints.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pi. 2, f. 2; pi. 5; pi. 12, in part.

Figure 158 is copied from the second illustration above cited.

116(7. Opuntia lata Small, Journ. N. V. Bot. Gard. 20: 26. 1919. (See Appendix, p. 220.)

117. Opuntia pollardii Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 523. 1908.

Prostrate, tuberiferous, related to Opuntia opuntia; young joints bluish green, glaucous, 5 to 16 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. thick; areoles 1.5 to 3 cm. apart, bearing numerous yellow glochids 2 to 3 cm.

. .116. O. allairei . 116a. O. lata ..117. O. pollardii

.118. O. opuntia .119. O. macrarthra .120. O. grandiflora

.121. O. austrina .122. O. macrorhiza

.124. O. tortispina

Fig. 158.—Opuntia allairei. X0.66.
Fig. 159.—Opuntia pollardii. X0.4.
Group of hardy preakly pears, mostly Opuntia tortispina, in the herbaceous grounds of the New York Botanical Garden.

long, those toward the top of the joint each with a single stout, stiff, pungent spine 2.5 to 4 cm. long; fruit short-obovoid, 2.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, with a few areoles bearing tufts of brownish wool but no spines and but few glochids; flowers yellow, 6 to 8 cm. broad; sepals deltoid to rhombic; fruit 2.5 to 4 cm. long; seeds 4 to 6 mm. wide, much thicker than those of Opuntia opuntia.

Type locality: Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi.

Distribution: Coastal plain, Church Island, North Carolina, to northern Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi.

Figure 159 is from a photograph of fruiting joints collected by A. H. Howell on Petit Bois Island, Alabama.

118. Opuntia opuntia (Linnaeus) Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. 888. 1882.

Cactus opuntia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 468. 1753.

Cactus compressus Salisbury, Prodr. 348. 1796.

Cactus opuntia nana De Candolle, Pl. Succ. Hist. 2: pl. 138. [A]. 1799.

Cactus humifusus Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 15. 1820.

Opuntia vulgaris major Salm-Djck, Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822.

Opuntia vulgaris media* Salm-Dyck, Observ. Bot. 3: 9. 1822.

Opuntia humifusa Rafinesque, Med. Fl. U. S. 2: 247. 1830.

Opuntia mesacantha Rafinesque, Bull. Bot. Seringe 216. 1830.

Opuntia caespitosa Rafinesque, Bull. Bot. Seringe 216. 1830.

Opuntia intermedia Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 364. 1834.

Opuntia nana Visiani, Fl. Dalmatica 3: 143. 1852.

Opuntia rafinesqueif Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei microsperma Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei minor Engelmann and Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856.

Opuntia vulgaris rafinesquei Gray, Man. Bot. ed. 2. 136. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei arkansana Rümpler in Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 922. 1885.

Opuntia mesacantha microsperma Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896.

Opuntia mesacantha parva Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896.

Opuntia vulgaris nana Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 715. 1898.

Opuntia humifusa microsperma Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl. ed. 2. 8. 1900.

Opuntia humifusa parva Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl. ed. 2. 8. 1900.

Low, spreading plants, sometimes ascending, with fibrous roots; joints orbicular to oblong, 3 to 13 cm. long, rarely longer, thick, dark green; areoles usually far apart; leaves subulate, appressed or spreading, 4 to 8 mm. long, early deciduous; spines often wanting, when present usually one from an areole, rarely two, 5 cm. long or less, brownish or sometimes nearly white, but on seedlings 5 to 12; glochids numerous, yellow to dark brown; flowers usually bright yellow, sometimes with reddish centers, 5 to 8.5 cm. broad; petals 8 to 10, widely spreading; filaments yellow; stigma-lobes white; fruit obovoid to oblong, red, juicy, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, edible; seeds to 5 mm. broad.

Type locality: In Virginia.

Distribution: Sandy and rocky places from Massachusetts to Virginia, the mountains of Georgia and central Alabama extending north into southern Ontario, Canada (Point Pelee), west in isolated colonies to northern Illinois, eastern Missouri and Tennessee, and long established in the mountains of northern Italy and Switzerland.

Linnaeus undoubtedly had two species in his Cactus opuntia, one being the low Virginia plant commonly known as O. vulgaris, and the other a tall, branching plant figured by Bauhin (p. 154). Upon Bauhin's illustration Miller based his Opuntia vulgaris, a name which was afterwards transferred to the low, procumbent plant of the eastern United States. For this reason Burkill (Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 288. 1911) would displace the name O. vulgaris and take up the name O. nana. We are quite in agreement with him as to the O. vulgaris Miller, but we retain for the low plant the specific name opuntia Linnaeus. The tall species is O. monacantha, which we now call O. vulgaris, as suggested by Burkill.

It is to be noted that the southern Atlantic coast specimens of Opuntia opuntia have yellow or greenish-yellow glochids, while those in its northern and western range have brown glochids. Its southwestern limit is uncertain. It probably does not extend to Texas, although two varieties have been reported from there; these we are disposed to treat as species under the names Opuntia macrorhiza and O. grandiflora. It is reported from eastern

*Opuntia vulgaris minor (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 476. 1853) was doubtless intended for this name. fSometimes spelled rafinesquiana.

Kansas, but the plants found there are not like those found in Illinois and Indiana, having more spines and a glaucous bloom, and are tuberous-rooted, and these are referred by us to O. macrorhiza. The published western varieties of O. humifusa are specifically distinct; we have referred them to O. tortispina.

Some of the joints of this plant elongate under shade conditions, reaching at least 2.5 dm. in length and not more than 5 cm. in width.

Opuntia arkansana (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 115. 1898) has not been formally described. The name should doubtless be referred here.

Opuntia prostrata Monville and Lemaire (Förster, Handb. Cact. 478. 1846) was given only as a synonym of O. intermedia, while O. intermedia prostrata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck 1849. 69. 1850) was based on O. prostrata.

O. rafinesquei parva Haage and Schmidt (Verzeichnis Blumenzwiebeln 1915: 29. 1915) is a new name for O. mesacantha parva Coulter.

Under Opuntia vulgaris Michaele Gandoger in his Flora Europea (9: 145. 1886) has proposed the following new binomials: O. recedens, O. morisii, O. cycloidea, O. inaequalis, O. ligustica, and O. mediterranea. The following varieties cited under O. humifusa are in the trade: cymochila, greenei, macrorhiza, oplocarpa and stenochila (Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4:

Fig. 160.—Opuntia opuntia in its natural surroundings on Staten Island, New York.

Illustrations: Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2527; ed. 2. 2: f. 2986; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 50: pl. 2393; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. f. 6884, the last two as Cactus opuntia; De Candolle, Pl. Succ. Hist. 2: pl. 138 [A]; DeTussac, Fl. Antill. 2: pl. 30, the last two as Cactus opuntia nana. Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pl. [1], f. 2; Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 57, G; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 12; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 10, f. 1, 2; 4: pl. 23, f. 13; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 1, all as Opuntia vulgaris. Standard Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2602, in part as Opuntia humifusa. Amer. Entom. Bot. 2: f. 160; Amer. Garden 11: 462; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 115: pl. 7041; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 756; Fl. Serr. 22: pl. 2328; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 2; Gard. Mag. 4: 280; Gartenflora 24: 218; Lemaire, Cact. f. 9; Meehan's Monthly 2: pl. 6; 10: 121; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 10, f. 4, 5; pl. 23, f. 7, 8; Rümpler, Sukkulenten f. 125; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. 1. 84, all as Opuntia rafinesquei; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 11, f. 1, as Opuntia rafinesquei minor; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 1. 126,

1. Joint of Opuntia microdasys. 4. Seed of same.

2. Flowering joint of Opuntia macrarthra. 5. Flowering joint of Opuntia opuntia.

3. Fruit of Opuntia macrarthra. (All natural size except 4.)

1. Joint of Opuntia microdasys. 4. Seed of same.

2. Flowering joint of Opuntia macrarthra. 5. Flowering joint of Opuntia opuntia.

3. Fruit of Opuntia macrarthra. (All natural size except 4.)

as Opuntia rafinesquei arkansana; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 124, as Opuntia vulgaris nana; Miller, Fig. Pl. Gard. Dict. 2: pl. 191, as Opuntia folio minori, etc., Dict. Hort. Bois f. 638; Rev. Hort. 40: f. 10, 11; 66: f. 59, all as Opuntia rafinesquiana. Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 112, as Opuntia rafinesquiana arkansana.

Plate xxii, figure 5, represents a flowering joint of the plant which grows naturally on schistose rocks in the New York Botanical Garden. Figure 160 is from a photograph of the plant growing on sand dunes at Crooke's Point, Staten Island, New York, taken by Howard H. Cleaves in 1914.

119. Opuntia macrarthra Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist. 1: 273. 1859.

Stems prostrate or ascending; joints narrowly oblong to obovate, 12 to 35 cm. long, thick, pale green, somewhat shining; leaves subulate, 10 mm. long, green, sometimes with purplish tips; areoles large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, filled with brown wool; spines wanting, or sometimes 1, up to 2.5 cm. long; glochids when present yellow; flowers not known; fruit narrowly obovoid, red, fleshy, 4 to 6 cm. long.

Type locality: Near Charleston, South Carolina.

Distribution: Coast of South Carolina.

This species, long overlooked, has recently been collected by Dr. J. K. Small in the vicinity of the type locality.

This is doubtless one of the species to which Elliott called attention and which he said he expected to publish, but never did.* The original description long remained unnoticed in the Proceedings of the Elliott Society of Natural History; it is as follows:

"The second, which we will call Opuntia macrarthra, falls under the same section with the preceding, and seems to be near Opuntia angustata, of Engelmann, from the west of the Rio Grande; a prostrate species, joints from ten to fifteen inches long and three inches wide, one-third of an inch thick; no spines, fruit two and a half inches long, slender, clavate."

Plate xv, figure 3, represents a fruiting joint collected by Dr. Small on James Island, South Carolina, in 1916; plate xxii, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Small on the Isle of Palms, near Charleston, South Carolina, in 1916; figure 3 shows a fruit of the same plant and figure 4 a seed, enlarged.

120. Opuntia grandiflora Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295.


Opuntia rafinesquei grandiflora Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 55. 1856.

Opuntia mesacantha grandiflora Coulter Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 429. 1896.

Low, with somewhat ascending branches; joints 12.5 to 15 cm. long; areoles 2.5 cm. apart; spines usually wanting; flowers very large, 11 to 12.5 cm. broad, yellow with a red center; petals broad; fruit elongated, 6 cm. long.

Type locality: On the Brazos, Texas.

Distribution: Eastern Texas.

Although Dr. Engelmann formally described this as a species, he introduced it as "probably only a southern variety of O. rafinesquei." A little later he actually used the name as a variety. The position of the plant is still uncertain; if specimens collected by Mr. Wm. R. Maxon at Victoria, Texas, and by Mr. C. V. Piper at Dallas, Texas, belong here, as they appear to, we believe it to be a distinct species.

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 11, f. 2, 3, as Opuntia rafinesquei grandiflora.

Figures 161 and 162 are copied from the illustrations above cited.

Figs. 161, 162.—Opuntia grandiflora.

*Cactus opuntia. "It is probable that there are now three distinct species on the sea coast of the Southern States covered under this name." tlliott, A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, 1: 537.

121. Opuntia austrina Small, Fl. Southeast. U. S. 816. 1903.

Opuntia youngii C. Z. Nelson, Chicago Examiner. June 13, 1915.

Roots fusiform or tuberous, resembling sweet potatoes, often 4 to 6 cm. in diameter, 5 to 15 cm. long; stems erect or ascending; joints narrowly obovate to oblong-obovate, thick, tuberculate, repand, bright green, to 12 cm. long; leaves, soon deciduous, less than 10 mm. long; glochids yellowish; spines usually on the upper half and margin of the joint, often 2, sometimes 1 to 6, from an areole, whitish or pinkish, darker at base and apex, twisted, sometimes wanting; flowers bright yellow, 6 to 7 cm. broad; petals cuneate, truncate or retuse at apex, mucronate; fruit 2.5 to 3 cm. long.

Fig. 163.—Opuntia austrina. X0.5.

Type locality: Miami, Florida.

Distribution: Southern Florida.

Opuntia youngii C. Z. Nelson, published in a Chicago newspaper, we have referred here, after studying a specimen sent by the author.

Opuntia spinalba Rafinesque (Atl. Journ. 1: 147. 1832) was described as from the keys of Florida, and answers in some respects to O. austrina; but it is very unlikely that any plants of the region inhabited by austrina were known to botanists as early as 1832.

Figure 163 represents a plant collected by Dr. Small at the type locality in 1901.

122. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. list. 6: 206. 1850.

Opuntia fusiformis Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei fusiformis Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 43. 1856.

Opuntia mesacantha macrorhiza Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896.

Opuntia xanthoglochia Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 166. 1910.

Opuntia roseana Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 38: 142. 1911.

Plant low, usually nearly prostrate, forming a clump 1 meter in diameter, from a cluster of tuber-like roots, these sometimes 5 to 7.5 cm. in diameter; joints orbicular to obovate, dull green, 5 to 16 cm. long, about 1 cm. thick; leaves subulate, 4 to 10 mm. long; areoles rather large, the lower ones and sometimes all of them spineless; glochids numerous, yellow or brown; spines, when present, 1 to 4, unequal, yellow to brown, the longest 2.5 cm. long; flower yellow, with a reddish or purplish center, 7 to 8 cm. broad; fruit narrowly obovoid, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, purple or red, with a depressed umbilicus, not edible; seeds mm. in diameter, with broad margins.

Type locality: Rocky places on the Upper Guadalupe, Texas.

Distribution: Missouri and Kansas to Texas.

Opuntia seguina C. Z. Nelson (Galesburg Register, July 20, 1915), published in a newspaper, and said to have come from San Antonio, Texas, seems to be one of the Tortispinae, and is probably referable to O. macrorhiza. Through the kindness of Mr. Nelson; we have seen a joint of this species.

Opuntia bulbosa Engelmann (Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856) was used by Engelmann for O. fusiformis, but never described.

Opuntia macrorhiza, originally described by Dr. Engelmann as a species, was afterwards (Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 296. 1856) proposed as a subspecies but not formally indicated, so that the reference O. rafinesquei macrorhiza Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) is the proper designation if it is used as a variety.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 69; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 11, 127; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 12, f. 7, 8; pl. 23, f. 6; Suppl. Dict. Gard. Nicholson f. 606; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 82, 83; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 20, in part, this last as Opuntia xanthoglochia; Addisonia 1: pl. 19.

Plate xiv, figure 5, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected at Irving, Dallas County, Texas, by Albert Ruth in 1912.

123. Opuntia plumbea Rose, Smiths.

Plant low, creeping, 10 cm. high, 20 to 30 cm. broad, few jointed; joints small, nearly orbicular, 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, of a dull lead-color, the surface somewhat wrinkled in dead specimens; areoles rather large for the size of the joints; spines pale brownish, slender, usually porrect, often 3 cm. long, mostly 2 in number, rarely as many as 4, sometimes one or even wanting; flowers very small, red; ovary naked; fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. long with a few small areoles and these simply woolly; seeds small, rather turgid, smooth, and with a shallow obtuse margin.

Type locality: San Carlos Indian Reservation, Arizona.

Distribution: Arizona.

This is a peculiar little opuntia with very small joints and fruits. It is known only from the original collections made by Mr. F. V. Coville in 1904.

Figure 164 is from a photograph of the type specimen.

124. Opuntia tortispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856.

Opuntia tortisperma Engelmann, Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 23, f. 1 to 5. 1856.

Opuntia cymochila Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei cymochila Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 295. 1856.

Opuntia rafinesquei cymochila montana Engelmann and Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 42. 1856.

Opuntia mesacantha cymochila Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896.

Opuntia mesacantha greenei Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896.

Opuntia mesacantha oplocarpa Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896.

Opuntia greenei Engelmann in Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 523. 1908.

(?) Opuntia sanguinocula Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 26. 1914.

Prostrate and creeping; joints ascending, orbicular to obovate, 15 to 20 cm. long; areoles 1.5 to 3 cm. apart; spines several, often 6 to 8, the upper and longer ones 3 to 6 cm. long, either white, yellowish, or brown; on the upper areoles one spine erect, the others spreading or with the lowermost ones deflexed; flowers sulphur-yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; fruit rather large, 4 to 5 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. broad; seeds 4 to 6 mm. broad, thick, regular, with a slight indentation at the hilum.

Type locality: On the Camanchica Plains near the Canadian River.

Distribution: Wisconsin to South Dakota, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico.

Fig. 164.—Opuntia plumbea

This has long remained one of our least-understood species. We believe now that it has a wide range, and that it has been referred heretofore to several species. does not seem to differ from it, and the two published varieties of geographically out of harmony with that species, doubtless belong here.

Opuntia oplocarpa Engelmann (Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896) was published only as a synonym. Opuntia rafinesquei greenei (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 58. 1908) is a catalogue name.

The plant is hardy at New York, flowering profusely, and also at Buck Hill Falls, eastern Pennsylvania.

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 12, f. 1 to 3; pl. 23, f. 10 to 12; Rev. Hort. Belg. 40: after 186, all as Opuntia cymochila; Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2528; ed. 2. 2: f. 2987; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 10, f. 3; Stand. Cycl. Hort. Bailey 4: f. 2602, in part, these as Opuntia humifusa. Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 8, f. 2, 3; pl. 23, f. 1 to 5, as O. tortisperma. Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2529; ed. 2. 2: f. 2988.

Plate xv, figure 4, represents a flowering and fruiting joint of a plant from Colorado, grown at the New York Botanical Garden.

125. Opuntia stenochila Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad.

Opuntia mesacantha stenochila Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.

Prostrate; joints obovate, 10 cm. long by 7.5 cm. broad; leaves small, 4 to 6 mm. long; spines usually 2, sometimes 3, spreading, I long (2.5 to 3 .cm. long), and 1 or 2 short and reflexed, usually light-colored, sometimes nearly white; glochids brown; flowers yellow, 6 cm. long; fruit very juicy, 4 to 5 cm. long or more, attenuate at base; seeds thick, quite regular, with very narrow obtuse edges.

Type locality: Canyon of Zuni, New Mexico.

Distribution: Western New Mexico and Arizona.

This species has not been well understood. It has usually passed as a variety of the common species of the eastern Mississippi Valley States, but it grows in a very different region. It is the common low, spreading Opuntia of northwestern New Mexico and Arizona.

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 12, f. 4 to 6; pl. 23, f. 9.

Figures 165, 166, and 167 are copied from the first illustration above cited.

126. Opuntia delicata Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 1911.

A small, procumbent plant with rather thin, ovate, bluish, slightly glaucous joints, often only 4 to 9 cm. in diameter; areoles prominent, bearing conspicuous brown glochids; lower areoles spineless, the upper ones bearing 1 or 2 very slender brownish spines, the longer one 3 to 4 cm. long; flowers yellow, 5 cm. long, 5 to 6 cm. broad; fruit oblong, spineless, 2 to 3 cm. long; seeds small, about 4 mm. in diameter, nearly smooth.

Type locality: Calabasas, Arizona.

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona.

Figure 168 is from a photograph of the type plant.

Opuntia stenochila, Figs. 165, 166.—Fruits. Fig. 167.-


Opuntia stenochila, Figs. 165, 166.—Fruits. Fig. 167.-


*Although formally published as a species, Engelmann states that it is a form or subspecies, and hence Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 430. 1896) uses the synonym O. rafinesquei stenochila Engelmann.

Fig. 168.—Opuntia delicata.

127. Opuntia fuscoatra Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 297. 1856.

Diffuse prostrate plants; joints orbicular to obovate, somewhat tuberculate, 5 to 8 cm. long, areoles 12 to 20 mm. apart, very large for the group; spines single or in twos or threes, one rather stout, sometimes a little flattened, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, yellow to dark brown or even nearly black; usually from the lower areoles; glochids numerous, brown; flowers 7.5 cm. broad, yellow; petals very broad; stigma-lobes 5; ovary 2.5 cm. long, slender; fruit 4 to 5 cm. long, red; seeds 4 mm. broad.

Type locality: Sterile places of prairies west of Houston, Texas.

Distribution: Eastern Texas.

Plate xxin, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by W. L. McAtee at Rockport, Texas, in 1911.

127 a. Opuntia macateei sp. nov. (See Appendix, p. 221.)

Opuntia rubiflora Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 529. 1916.

Described as a spreading plant 3 to 4.5 dm. high and a meter broad, with obovate, green joints 12 to 18 cm. long, few white spines up to 5 cm. long with brown or straw-colored bases, and pink flowers. The species is based on cuttings received from European collections, and its origin is unknown.

We have received a similar if not identical plant from Haage and Schmidt of Erfurt, Germany, and we suspect it to be a hybrid, having one of the Tortispinae as one of its parents.

The specific name rubiflora was used by Davidson a few months earlier than by Griffiths for another plant.

Low or prostrate species, with rather thick, flat, tuberculate joints; fruit small, nearly globular. Three species, natives of central and southern South America.


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