Othe cactaceae

Joints elongated-lanceolate or oblong, several times longer than wide 175. O. linguiformis

Joints obovate to suborbicular. Spines long.

Areoles mostly 1.5 to 2 cm. apart.

Spines subulate, up to 7.5 cm. long 176. O. tapona

Spines acicular, 4 cm. long or less.

Spines nearly clear yellow, short 177. O. littoralis

Spines brown at base, long and slender 178. O. aciculata

Areoles mostly 2.5 to 4 cm. apart. Bushy species.

Spines yellow or yellowish brown 179. O. lindheimeri

Spines pale yellow or whitish 180. O. cantabrigiensis

Depressed or procumbent plant 181. O. procumbens

Spines only 1.5 cm. long or less, or becoming longer on old joints.

Plant I meter high or less; joints thin 182. O. cañada

Plant 3 to 5 meters high; joints very thick.

Spines reflexed; flowers yellow 183. O. pyriformis

Spines spreading, deciduous; flowers orange-red 183a. O. bonplandii

171. Opuntia chlorotica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856.

Opuntia tidballii Bigelow, Pac. R. Rep. 4: 11. 1856.

Opuntia curvospina Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 88. 1916.

Erect bushy, sometimes 2 meters high or more, with a definite trunk; main branches nearly erect; joints ovate to orbicular, sometimes broader than long, 15 to 20 cm. long, more or less glaucous, bluish green; leaves subulate, small, reddish at tip; areoles closely set, prominent; spines yellow, several, most of them usually appressed and reflexed, setaceous, 3 to 4 cm. long; glochids yellow, numerous, elongated, persistent; flowers yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; filaments white; fruit purple without, green within, 4 cm. long; seeds small.

Fig. 199.—Opuntia chlorotica. Fig. 200.—0puntia chlorotica. X0.4.

Type locality: On both sides of the Colorado from San Francisco Mountains to headwaters of Bill Williams River.

Distribution: Sonora and New Mexico to Nevada, California, and Lower California. This species is of wide distribution, but is chiefly confined to mountain canyons, being rarely found on the open mesas.

Illustrations: Bull. Torr. Club 43: pl. 3; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 6, f. 1 to 3; Bull. Torr. Club 43: pl. 2, this last as Opuntia curvospina.

1. Flowering joint of Opuntia laevis. 2. Flowering joint of Opuntia dillenii.

3. Upper part of flowering joint of Opuntia aciculata. (All natural size.)

Figure 199 is from a photograph of a plant with narrow joints, in McCleary's Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, taken by Dr. MacDougal; figure 200 represents a joint of a plant from the collection made by Professor J. W. Toumey at Tucson, Arizona, obtained by Dr. MacDougal in 1902.

Opuntia palmeri Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896.

This plant has not been again collected and is still a doubtful species; it came from St. George, southwestern Utah. In 1909 E. W. Nelson made a collection for us in this region, but the only shrubby, juicy-fruited species which he collected has brown spines and brown glochids, which would seem to exclude it from O. palmeri. It is not at all unlikely that 0. palmeri should be referred to O. chlorotica, a widely dispersed species, but of which we have not seen any specimens from Utah.

172. Opuntia laevis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 419. 1896.

Loosely few-branched, 1 to 2 meters high, but in cultivation often forming a low, dense bush; joints obovate to oblong, 1.5 to 3 dm. long, light green, often spineless but usually with a few (1 to 3) short spines 1 cm. long or less at the areoles of the upper part of the joint; areoles rather distant, small; flower large, 6 to 7 cm. broad; petals lemon-yellow, sometimes tinged with red, broad, and obtuse or retuse; filaments and style short, pale yellow; stigma-lobes green; ovary turbinate, more or less tuberculate, at first leafy, often bristly at top; fruit obovoid, 5 to 7 cm. long; seeds to 5 mm. broad.

Type locality: In Arizona.

Distribution: In the mountains about Tucson, Arizona.

Referred by Professor Schumann to O. inermis (O. stricta), but it is not that species.

Illustrations: Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pl. 8, f. 1; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 72: pl. 1; Plant World 1110: f. 5.

Plate xxviii, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant brought by Dr. MacDougal from Tucson, Arizona, in 1902, to the New York Botanical Garden.

173. Opuntia stricta Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 191. 1812.

Cactus opuntia inermis De Candolle, Pl. Succ. Hist. 2: pl. 138 [C]. 1799*

Cactus strictus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803.

Opuntia inermis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 473. 1828.

Opuntia arampo Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 85: 492. 1894.

Opuntiaparva Berger, Hort. Mortol. 411. 1912.

Opuntia bentonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 25. 1912.

Opuntia longiclada Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 525. 1916 (according to description and illustration).

Bushy, low, spreading plants, sometimes forming large clumps, seldom over 8 dm. high; joints obovate to oblong, usually 8 to 15 cm. long, but sometimes much elongated and then 30 cm. long or more, green or bluish green, glabrous, often spineless especially in greenhouse specimens, sometimes but a spine or two on a joint, at other times spines more abundant; leaves stout, subulate, 3 to 4 mm. long; areoles distant, the wool brownish, the glochids short; spines, when present, usually I or 2 from an areole, stiff, terete, yellow, 1 to 4 cm. long; flowers 6 to 7 cm. long; petals yellow, broad, obtuse, apiculate; filaments yellow to greenish; style usually white; stigma-lobes usually white but sometimes greenish; fruit purple, usually broadest at top, tapering to a slender base, 4 to 6 cm. long, with a more or less depressed umbilicus.

Type locality: Not given.

Distribution: Western Cuba; Florida to southern Texas.

Opuntia vulgaris balearica Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 894. 1898) is given by Weber as a synonym of O. inermis; Opuntia balearica Weber (Hirscht, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 175. 1898) has also been used, but not described, and Hirscht says it belongs here.

This species is often cultivated on the west coast of South America. It was there given the name O. arampo by Dr. Philippi, who supposed it to be the airampo of the Peruvians, a native species, quite different from this one.

This species is the pest pear of New South Wales and Queensland. It has now run wild over thousands of acres of the best agricultural and grazing land of the interior of

*Berger (Hort. Mortol. 411. 1912) gives the date 1797.

Australia. J. H. Maiden says: "The growth of this Opuntia is one of the wonders of the world, and the spread of few plants in any country can be compared with it."

Illustrations: Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pl. [5]; Gard. Chron. III. 34: f. 32; Gartenflora 31: pl. 1082, f. d, e, f; De Candolle, Pl. Succ. Hist. 2: pl. 138 [C]; De Tussac, Fl. Antill. 2: pl. 34, the last two as Cactus opuntia inermis; Agr. Gaz. N. S. W. 23: pl. opp. 713; pl. opp. 714; pl. opp. 716; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 108, all these as Opuntia inermis.

Plate xxvii; figure 4, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Britton and John F. Cowell on limestone rocks near Pinar del Rio, Cuba, in 1911.

173a. Opuntia keyensis Britton. (See Appendix, p. 222.)

174. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawler) Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 79. 1819.

Cactus dillenii Ker-Gawler, Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pl. 255. 1818. Opuntia horrida Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 472. 1828. Opuntia maritima Rafinesque, Atl. Journ. 146. 1832. Opuntia tunoidea Gibbes, Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist. 1: 272. 1859.

Fig. 201.—Opuntia dillenii, Antigua, West Indies.

Low, spreading bushes growing in broad clumps and often forming dense thickets, or tall and much branched, 2 to 3 meters high, sometimes with definite terete trunks; joints obovate to oblong, 7 to 40 cm. long, the margin more or less undulate, bluish green, somewhat glaucous, but bright green when young, the areoles somewhat elevated; leaves subulate, curved backward, 5 mm. long; areoles often large, filled with short brown or white wool when young, usually few and remote, on old joints 10 to 12 mm. in diameter; spines often 10 from an areole on first-year joints, very variable, usually more or less flattened and curved, sometimes terete and straight, yellow, more or less brown-banded, or mottled, often brownish in age, sometimes 7 cm. long, but usually shorter, sometimes few or none; glochids numerous, yellow; wool in areoles short, sometimes brown, sometimes white; flowers in the typical form lemon-yellow, in some forms red from the first, 7 to 8 cm. long; petals broadly obovate, 4 to 5 cm. long; filaments greenish yellow; style thick, white; stigma-lobes white; fruit pear-shaped to subglobose, narrowed at base, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, purplish, spineless, juicy.

Type locality: Based on Dillenius's illustration.

Distribution: Coasts of South Carolina, Florida, Bermuda, the West Indies, east coast of Mexico, and northern South America; extending inland in Cuba.

1. View of Opuntia keyensis.

2. View of Opuntia keyensis.

This species is composed of many races varying greatly in habit, character and number of spines, shape of joints, and color of flowers. Brother Leon has sent us specimens of several individually quite different plants which inhabit hilltops in Cuba.

Opuntia lucayana Britton (Bull. N. V. Bot. Gard. 4: 141. 1906), inhabiting Grand Turk Island, Bahamas, differs in having elongated, often narrowly oblong joints 2 to 4 times as long as wide and many elongated, little-flattened spines. It grows with Opuntia dillenii and O. nashii, and is believed to be a hybrid with these species as parents. A closely similar plant was observed on Buck Island, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, growing immediately with O. dillenii and O. rubescens, the hybrid nature of which was unmistakable, and similar plants were seen also on Antigua, British West Indies.

Opuntia cubensis Britton and Rose (Torreya 12: 14. 1912), observed in a valley near the southern coast of Cuba at Guantanamo Bay, differs in having narrower joints, rather readily separable and smaller flowers, its stout spines little flattened. It grows near colonies of Opuntia dillenii and O. militaris, and is probably a hybrid between them.

Reference has already been made to the possible hybrid origin of Opuntia antillana, with O. dillenii as one of its parents. (See p. 115).

Two varieties of Opuntia dillenii are given by name only; minor Salm-Dyck (Hort. Dyck. 185. 1834); orbiculata Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 67. 1850).

Opuntia gilva Berger (Hort. Mortol. 233. 1912) is unpublished. The name was applied to a specimen collected by Carl F. Baker in Cuba in 1907, and has been distributed under this name. It is only a form of this very variable species.

The plant is hardy on the Gulf coast of the United States and in southern California. It is widely distributed through cultivation in the warmer parts of the Old World, being a "pest pear" in southern India and in Australia; it is used for hedges in Teneriffe, and is common along the sea on Grand Canary Island. On Bermuda, when growing in shade, the plant is often spineless, and its joints elongate sometimes to a length of 3 dm., while only 6 or 7 cm. wide. This elongation of the joints also appears in plants from Florida.

Illustrations: Edwards's Bot. Reg. 3: pl. 255, as Cactus dillenii; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 1, 2, both these as Opuntia bentonii; Dillenius, Hort. Elth. 2: pl. 296, this as Tuna major, etc.; Amer. Journ. Pharm. 68: pl. opp. 169, as Opuntia vulgaris; Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. 7: pl. 513, this as Cactus opuntia. Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 2: pl. 3, f. 7 (?); Amer. Garden 11: 473 (?); Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1545, 1546; Cact. Journ. 1: 154 (?); Dept. Agr. N. S. W. Misc. Publ. 253: pl. [2]; Dict. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 757; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 86, all these as Opuntia tuna; Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: f. 26, this as Opuntia inermis; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. f. 6878, this as Cactus tuna; Britton, Fl. Bermuda 255.

Plate xxvin, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected in 1901 by N. L. Britton and J. F. Cowell on the Island St. Martin, West Indies; plate xxix, figure 1, is from a photograph of the related Opuntia keyensis growing on Boot Key, Florida, taken by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; figure 2 is from a photograph of the plant on Bermuda, obtained by Dr. Britton in 1912. Figure 201 is from a photograph of the plant growing on Antigua, British West Indies, taken by Paul G. Russell in 1913.

175. Opuntia linguiformis Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 270. 1908.

A bushy plant, 1 meter high or more; joints elongated, oblong to ovate-oblong or lanceolate, 2 to 5 dm. long or even more, often several times longer than wide, pale green and slightly glaucous; leaves 6 mm. long, terete; spines yellow, very slender, terete or nearly so; areoles filled with brown wool; flowers yellow, 7 to 8 cm. broad; petals broad; filaments white or greenish at base; stigma-lobes 9, green; ovary bearing numerous long glochids at the upper areoles; fruit reddish purple; seeds 3 or 4 mm. broad, acute on the back.

Type locality: Near San Antonio, Texas.

Distribution: Southern Texas, in the vicinity of San Antonio.

This plant is rather common in cultivation in the Southwest and is now found in most cactus collections. According to Dr. Griffiths, it is occasionally found wild near San Antonio. We have seen somewhat similar plants from near Brownsville, Texas, probably referable to one of the races of Opuntia lindheimeri.

On account of the shape of the joints, this species is commonly called cow's tongue or lengua de vaca.

Illustration: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pl. 27, lower figure.

Plate xxx represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by Dr. MacDougal from the collection of Professor J. W. Tourney at Tucson, Arizona, for the New York Botanical Garden in 1902.

176. Opuntia tapona Engelmann in Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 423. 1896.

Low, spreading plants rarely over 6 dm. high; joints glabrous, orbicular to obovate, 20 to 25 cm. in diameter, turgid, pale green; spines 2 to 4, yellow, one much longer, 5 to 7 cm. long, slender, porrect or sometimes curved downward; glochids brownish; fruit 4 to 6 cm. long, clavate, dark purple without, red within, spineless.

Type locality: Near Loreto, Lower California.

Distribution: Southern part of Lower California.

Figure 202 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose on Pichilinque Island, Lower California, in 1911.

Related to O. tapona, but probably specifically distinct from it, is a plant growing in the mountains of Cedros Island, Lower California; it was recorded from this island by Dr. E. L. Greene as O. engelmannii, and a specimen was brought to Washington by Dr. Rose in 1911. This plant may be described as follows: About 1 meter high; joints oblong, large, 20 cm. long or more, smooth; areoles 3 cm. apart or more, very large, filled with brown wool; spines usually about 7, pale yellow, slender, terete, the longest ones 3 cm. long; glochids yellow. (Rose No. 16170.)

Fig. 203.—Opuntia littoralis g. 202.—Opuntia tapona. X0.4.

Fig. 203.—Opuntia littoralis

M. E. Eaton del.

Flowering joint of Opuntia linguiformis. (Natural size.)

177. Opuntia littoralis (Engelmann) Cockerell, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 4: 15. 1905.

Opuntia engelmannii littoralis Engelmann in Brewer and Watson, Bot. Calif. 1: 248. 1876.

Opuntia lindheimeri littoralis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896.

Bushy plants, low and spreading; joints thick, orbicular to oblong, 15 cm. long or more, usually smaller in greenhouse plants, dull green; areoles rather closely set, large, often elevated on old joints; spines numerous, yellow, rather short on young joints (1 to 2 cm. long), but on old joints much longer, in age more or less flattened; wool of the areoles brown; flowers large, yellow, 8 to 12 cm. broad; sepals broad, apiculate; petals retuse; ovary with many areoles; fruit red, juicy; seeds 4 to 5 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Coast from Santa Barbara to San Diego, California.

Distribution: Along and near the coast of southern California.

This species was very briefly described as a variety of Opuntia engelmannii in 1876.

No definite locality was given for it, and the original material preserved is so poor that its identification is doubtful. We have taken as our representative of this species the low, bushy plant with rather thick joints, large and closely set areoles and yellow spines.

Opuntia littoralis often grows in proximity to O. occidentalis in southern California, and hybrids of the two may exist.

Figure 203 represents joints of the plant collected at Elsinore, California, by Dr. Mac-Dougal in 1913.

178. Opuntia aciculata Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc.. Washington 29: 10. 1916.

Low, bushy plant, 1 meter high or more, often 3 meters broad or more, the lower branches decumbent and sending up erect branches; joints obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rounded at apex, dull dark green, somewhat glaucous, bearing large, closely set areoles, these often spineless; leaves subulate, 7 mm. long; spines several in a cluster, acicular, slender, to 5.5 cm. long, often reflexed, brownish at base, with yellow tips, seemingly deciduous; glochids numerous, from all parts of the areoles, long, persisting for several years; flower golden yellow, sometimes with a greenish center, large, 8 to 10 cm. broad; petals broad, rounded or retuse; filaments yellowish; style dull yellowish green; stigma-lobes 8 to 10, green; fruit pyriform, purple.

Type locality: Near Laredo, Texas.

Distribution: On high gravelly ground at type locality and vicinity.

This species is not very common about Laredo, Texas, but grows in small colonies usually to the exclusion of all other plants. It can easily be distinguished from related species, and is usually restricted to dry hills. Our description is based on specimens obtained by Dr. Rose at Laredo in 1913. Since then it has been grown both in Washington and New York.

Plate xxvin, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near the type locality in 1913.

179. Opuntia lindheimeri Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 207. 1850.

Opuntia dulcis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856.

Opuntia lindheimeri dulcis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 421. 1896.

Opuntia engelmannii dulcis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 725. 1898.

Opuntia cacanapa Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 47. 1906.

Opuntia ferruginispina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 267. 1908.

Opuntia tricolor Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 85. 1909.

Opuntia texana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 92. 1909.

Opuntia subarmata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 94. 1909.

Opuntia alta Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 165. 1910.

Opuntia gomei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 167. 1910.

Opuntia sinclairii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 173. 1910.

Opuntia cyanella Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 30. 1912.

Opuntia gilvoalba Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 5. 1912.

Opuntia convexa Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 290. 1912.

Opuntia griffithsiana Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 291. 1912.

Opuntia reflexa Mackensen, Bull. Torr. Club 39: 292. 1912.

Opuntia deltica Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 84. 1916.

Opuntia laxiflora Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 8. 1916.

Opuntiaflexospina Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 87. 1916

Opuntia squarrosa Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 91. 1916.

Usually erect, 2 to 4 meters high, with a more or less definite trunk, but at times much lower and spreading; joints green or bluish green, somewhat glaucous, orbicular to obovate, up to 25 dm. long; leaves subulate, 3 to 4 mm. long, somewhat flattened, pointed; areoles distant, often 6 cm. apart; spines usually 1 to 6, often only 2, one porrect and 4 cm. long or more, the others somewhat shorter and only slightly spreading, pale yellow to nearly white, sometimes brownish or blackish at base, or some plants spineless; glochids yellow or sometimes brownish, usually prominent; petals yellow to dark red; stigma-lobes usually green; fruit purple, pyriform to oblong, 3.5 to 5.5 cm. long.

Type locality: About New Braunfels, Texas.

Distribution: Southwestern Louisiana, southeastern Texas, and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Opuntia lindheimeri is an extremely variable species, composed of many races, differing in armament, color of flowers, size and shape of joints and of fruit. Certain forms have been described which in cultivation we have been able to recognize as possibly distinct; but in the field they seem to intergrade with other forms, indicating that they are at most only races of a very variable species. In the delta of the Rio Grande this is especially true, and from this region a number of species has been described. In fact, all the plants described as species which are cited above in the synonymy grow within a relatively small distributional area. Dr. Rose has examined all this region and is of the opinion that only one species of this series exists there, and this we believe is to be referred to Opuntia lindheimeri. It is very common about Brownsville and Corpus Christi, where it forms thickets covering thousands of acres of land. It is very variable in habit, being either low and widely spreading or becoming tall and tree-like, sometimes 3 meters high, with a definite cylindric trunk. Plants from these two extremes, if studied apart from the field, might be considered as different species, but in the field one sees innumerable intergrading forms. The low, prostrate forms gradually pass into others with more or less erect or ascending branches, while the large tree-like forms often bear large lateral branches which lie prostrate on the ground, indicating that they have developed from the prostrate ones. Decided differences in the flower colors have been pointed out in the original descriptions, and we have observed them in greenhouse specimens, but they do not correlate with other characters.

Opuntia ellisiana Griffiths (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 170. pl. 25. 1910), an unarmed species, is known only from cultivated plants. Dr. Griffiths states that it is quite different from the Ficus-indcae series, which it much resembles, and is quite hardy in southern Texas. It may be a spineless race of the common O. lindheimeri of this region.

Opuntia pyrocarpa Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 43: 90. 1916) we do not know; in its long pyriform fruit it suggests this plant; the type comes from Marble Falls, Texas.

O. winteriana Berger and O. haematocarpa Berger (Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 455 and 456. 1905) are of this relationship, but have browner spines than is usual in the species.

Opuntia leptocarpa Mackensen (Bull. Torr. Club 38: 141. 1911), characterized by its low, bushy habit and elongated, almost abnormal fruits, suggests a natural hybrid between O. lindheimeri and O. macrorhiza. Indeed, Mr. Mackensen described the species as intermediate between these two, and all three species are often found growing together. O. leptocarpa originally came from San Antonio, Texas.

Illustrations: Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1911: pl. 3, 4, B; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 75, f. 5 to 7; Karsten, Deutsch. Fl. f. 501. 13, 13% i3b; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [13, 14], all as Opuntia dulcis. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pl. 3, f. 1, this as Opuntia cacanapa; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 4, in part, this as Opuntia tricolor; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 9; pl. 13, f. 1, these two as Opuntia texana. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pl. 2, f. 1; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 2, f. 1; pl. 11; pl. 13, f. 4, all these as Opuntia subarmata. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 19; pl. 20, in part, these two as Opuntia alta. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 21; pl. 22, in part, these two as Opuntia gomei. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 28, this as Opuntia sinclairii. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 9, in part; pl. 10; Journ. Agr. Research 4. pl. f., these three as Opuntia cyanella. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 9, in part; pl. 16, 17, these three as Opuntia gilvoalba. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: f. 1.

Flowering joint of Opuntia lindheimeri. 1. Orange-flowered race. 2. Red-flowered race. (Natural size.)

Flowering joint of Opuntia lindheimeri. 1. Orange-flowered race. 2. Red-flowered race. (Natural size.)

Plate xxxi, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant collected near Brownsville, Texas, by Dr. Rose in 1913; figure 2 represents a flowering joint of a plant obtained by the same collector at the same locality; plate xxxii, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent by Mr. M. Mackensen from the type locality of O. leptocarpa in 1910; figure 2 shows the fruit of the same.

180. Opuntia cantabrigiensis Lynch, Gard. Chron. III. 33: 98. 1903.

Rounded bushy plant, 1 to 2 meters high; joints orbicular to obovate, 12 to 20 cm. long, rather pale bluish green; areoles remote, large, filled with brown wool; spines usually 3 to 6 but sometimes more, somewhat spreading, acicular, yellow with brown or reddish bases, 1.5 to 4 cm. long; glochids numerous, large, 1 cm. long or more, yellowish, not forming a brush; flowers 5 to 6 cm. long, yellowish with reddish centers; upper areoles on the ovary bearing long bristles; stigma-lobes green; fruit, globular, about 4 cm. in diameter, purple; seeds numerous, small, 4 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Described from specimen in Cambridge Botanic Garden, England.

Distribution: Very common in the States of San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo, Mexico.

Opuntia chrysacantha (Berger, Hort. Mortol. 231. 1912, name only), an undescribed species, probably belongs here.

Our determination of the identity of O. cantabrigensis and O. cuija is based on a living plant of the former received from Mr. Lynch.

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pl. 2, as Opuntia engelmannii cuija; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 123, as Opuntia engelmannii.

Figure 204 represents joints of a plant collected by Dr. Rose near Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico, in 1905.

181. Opuntia procumbens Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 292. 1856.

Stems low and spreading, forming broad masses; joints "always edgewise," orbicular, 2 to 4 or even ,5 dm. in diameter, yellowish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles distant (3 to 5 cm. apart),

Opuntia engelmannii cuija Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 4. 1906. Opuntia cuija Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 529. 1908.

Fig. 204.—O. cantabrigiensis. X0.4.

large, bearing long yellow glochids; spines i to 5, spreading, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, yellow, lighter above, flattened; flowers said to be yellow; fruit red, juicy.

Type locality: San Francisco Mountains to Cactus Pass, Arizona.

Distribution: Northern Arizona.

This species has long been wanting or poorly represented in our great herbaria. Dr. Rose collected it near Flagstaff, Arizona, and the above description is largely drawn from his notes; but his material was lost. In 1913 it was again collected by Mr. K A. Goldman.

Figure 205 is copied from the illustration above cited.

182. Opuntia cañada Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 90. 1909.

Plant about i meter high, with many erect or ascending branches, forming a broad top; joints ovate to obovate, 16 to 22 cm. long, smooth, and shining; leaves subulate, 1 cm. long; spines various, white to yellow, flattened, sometimes twisted; glochids few on young joints, very abundant on old ones; flowers yellow with red or orange centers; style white to reddish; stigma-lobes green; fruit red.

Type locality: Foothills of the Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona.

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona.

Dr. Griffiths comments on the close relationship of this plant to O. laevis.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 2, f. 6; pl. 6, in part; pl. 13, f. 2, 12.

Figure 206 is copied from the second illustration above cited.

183. Opuntia pyriformis Rose, Contr. U.

Plant 3 to 5 meters high, with widely spreading branches, the lower ones almost resting on the ground and 3 to 5 meters long; joints obovate, thick, 18 cm. long or more; areoles closely set, small; spines i or 2, on old joints more, usually reflexed, slender, weak, yellow, 10 to 22 mm. long; flowers yellow; fruit 4 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, spineless, its large areoles crowded with brown hairs forming hemispherical cushions.

Type locality: Hacienda de Cedros, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Distribution: Zacatecas, Mexico.

The type of this species is in the U. S. National Herbarium. It is known only from the original collection of Professor F. E. Lloyd, made in 1908.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: f. 35; pl. 26.

Figure 207 is copied from the second illustration above cited.

183a. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber. (See Appendix, p. 223.)

The three following described species may belong to this series: Opuntia BECKERIANA Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 722. 1898.

The plant on which this species is based was sent to Dr. Schumann from a garden at Bordighera, Italy, and its origin is unknown; Dr. Schumann thought that it might have

Fig. 207.—Opuntia pyriformis. X0.5.

come from Mexico. From the description it may belong to our series Dillenianae, but we are unable to associate it with any species known to us; the ovary is described as compressed and tubercled.

Opuntia anahuacensis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 92. 1916.

A low, reclining or prostrate plant, up to 5 dm. high, 1.5 meters broad; joints obovate, glossy, yellowish green, 27 cm. long, 13 cm. broad; spines yellow or becoming white, 1 or 2, porrect, flattened, twisted, 2 or 3 cm. long; flowers yellow; style white; stigma-lobes 6, white; fruit dark purplish red, pyriform, 7 cm. long.

Type locality: Anahuac, Texas.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality, at the mouth of Trinity River, eastern Texas.

Opuntia megalantha Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 530. 1916.

A tall, erect, open-branching plant, 2 meters high or more; joints obovate, glaucous, grayish green, 21 cm. long, 14 cm. broad; spines yellow, 1 to 3, or even 5 or 6 on old wood, the longest often 4 to 5 cm. long; flowers yellow, 10 to 11 cm. in diameter; petals 5 cm. long, obovate; style white; stigma-lobes 8 or 9, white or tinged with green; fruit dark red.

Known only from cultivated plants received from the Berlin Botanical Garden, where it was grown as Opuntia bergeriana.

Series 16. MACDOUGALIANAE. Erect, mostly tall species, with flat, broad, and thin, persistent joints, the epidermis, at least that of the ovary, pubescent or puberulent. The spines, when present, yellow. There are about half a dozen species, natives of central and southern Mexico.

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