Opuntia pottsii Salm Dyck Cact Hort Dyck 1849 236 1850

Opuntiafilipendula Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856.

Low, spreading plant, 3 dm. high or less, from thickened tuberous roots 2 to 3 cm. in diameter, these sometimes moniliform; joints broadly obovate, 3.5 to 12 cm. long, pale green to bluish; areoles few, either small or large; spines confined to the upper and marginal areoles, 1 or 2, slender, 2 to 4 cm. long, usually white but sometimes purplish; glochids yellow, usually few but sometimes abundant; flowers large, 6 to 7 cm. broad, deep purple; ovary slender, 3 to 3.5 cm. long, with only a few scattered areoles; fruit spineless.

Type locality: Near Chihuahua City, Mexico.

Distribution: Central Chihuahua, Mexico, to Texas and New Mexico.

This species was described by Prince Salm-Dyck in 1850 from material collected by John Potts, who was manager of the mint at Chihuahua and who sent many cacti to F. Scheer at Kew between 1842 and 1850. No types of his species seem to have been retained.

In 1885 C. G. Pringle again collected this species near Chihuahua City and it was distributed as O. filipendula, and there Coulter leaves Pringle's specimen (Cont. Nat. Herb. 3: 428) Dr. E. Palmer collected an abundance of material in 1908 which enabled us to reestablish O. pottsi, which Coulter omits and Schumann lists under unknown species.

If these Chihuahua specimens are the same as the Texas plants, as Coulter believed and as we regard them, then Opuntia filipendula must give place to the older name of SalmDyck.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 68; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 10, 131; Suppl. Dict. Gard. Nicholson 2: f. 605; W. Watson, Cact. Cult. f. 81, all as Opuntia filipendula.

Figure 173 shows a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose in the valley of the Rio Grande below El Paso, Texas, in 1913.

135. Opuntia setispina Engelmann in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 239. 1850.

Stem branching and spreading, sometimes 9 to 12 dm. broad, with some of the branches composed of 3 or 4 joints, erect and 6 dm. high; joints deep bluish green, somewhat glaucous, often purplish at the areoles, sometimes more or less tinged with purple throughout, obovate to orbicular, 5 to 15 cm. in diameter; leaves minute, subulate; spines 1 to 6 from an areole, white, 2 to 3 cm.

Type locality: Pine woods in the mountains west of Chihuahua, Mexico (fide Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856).

Distribution: Western Chihuahua, Mexico.

This species has long been known only from the type specimens; but in 1908 Dr. Rose visited western Chihuahua, where this species is quite common; our description is based largely upon the specimens he then collected.

Figure 174 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near Mifiaca, Chihuahua, in 1908.

136. Opuntia mackensenii Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 310. 1911.

Plants low, with thick, tuberous roots, spreading, usually resting on the edges of the joints, but some of the branches often erect; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, rarely broader than long, pale and glaucous when young, deep green when older; areoles small, the lower ones without spines, the upper ones with 1 to 4 spines; spines white or brown, or brown at base and white above, somewhat flattened and twisted, slender, 5 cm. long or less; glochids brown; flowers of medium size, 7 to 8 cm. broad, yellow with a reddish brown center; stigma-lobes 7 to 9, white; fruit spineless, 4 to 6 cm. long, truncate or nearly so at apex, rose-purple; seeds suborbicular, 5 to 6 mm. broad, acute on the margin.

Type locality: Near Kerrville, Texas. Distribution: Kerr County, Texas.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: pl. 67; Plant World 19: 142. f. 1; 143. f. 2, the last as O. macrorhiza.

Figure 175 is from a photograph of the type plant from near Kerrville, Texas.

Fig. 175.—Opuntia mackensensii.

137. Opuntia tenuispina Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 294. 1856.

Opuntia minor C. Mueller in Walpers, Ann. Bot. 5: 50. 1858.

Low and spreading, but becoming 3 dm. high; joints obovate, attenuate at base, 7 to 15 cm. long, light green; leaves very slender, 4 mm. long or less; spines 1 to 3 from an areole, slender, usually white but sometimes brownish, 3 to 5 cm. long, the upper spines erect or spreading; glochids brown; flowers yellow, 6 to 7.5 cm. broad; ovary with numerous areoles filled with brown wool and brown glochids; fruit oblong, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, with a deep umbilicus; seeds mm. broad or less, very irregular.

Type locality: Sand hills near El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Southwestern Texas and adjacent parts of Mexico and New Mexico, apparently extending to Arizona.

Engelmann says that this plant grows with O. phaeacantha, but is readily distinguished from the latter by its spines and fruit. Cultivated plants and herbarium specimens closely resemble O. phaeacantha.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 75, f. 14; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [15].

Plate xxiii, figure 3, represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near El Paso, Texas, in 1913.

Series 11. PHAEACANTHAE.

Bushy or depressed species, with relatively large, flat, persistent joints, the subulate, usually stout spines brown at least at the base, or in some species nearly white. The series is composed of about fifteen species, natives of the south central and southwestern United States, northern and central Mexico.

the cactaceae. Key to Species.

More or less bushy plants.

Joints thin; spines, when present, very long and confined to the upper and middle areoles.

Spines dark brown, stout, rigid.

Plant pale green to purplish; spines up to 12 cm. long 138.

Plant dull dark green; spines 6 cm. long or less 139.

Spines pale brown, flexible or subulate.

Usually abundantly spiny 140.

Usually spineless or some areoles with 1 setaceous deflexed spine 141.

Joints thick; spines not confined to the upper and middle areoles.

Joints relatively small, seldom over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively low.

Joints narrowly obovate, about twice as long as wide 142.

Joints broadly obovate to orbicular.

Flowers yellow.

Spines subulate, brown at least in part.

Plant light green 143.

Plant bluish green or grayish green.

Plant erect, 2 meters high or less 144.

Plant bushy, rarely over 1 meter high 145.

Plant prostrate 146.

Spines acicular, nearly white 147.

Flowers magenta 148.

Joints relatively large, mostly over 15 cm. broad; plants relatively tall.

Spines clear brown nearly throughout 149.

Spines nearly white above or throughout.

Spines with dark brown bases 150.

Spines whitish throughout 151.

Small creeping plants 152.

138. Opuntia macrocentra Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad.

Somewhat bushy, with ascending branches, 6 to 9 dm. high; joints orbicular to oblong, or sometimes broader than long, 10 to 20 cm. long, often bluish or purplish, sometimes spineless but usually-bearing spines at the uppermost areoles; spines 1 or 2, rarely 3 together, usually brownish or black but sometimes white above, slender, erect or porrect, 4 to 7 cm. long; flowers yellow, often drying red, 7.5 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acuminate; ovary with few areoles, these bearing brown glochids; filaments very short; fruit 3 to 6 cm. long, purple; seeds 4 to 4.5 mm. broad.

Type locality: Sand hills on the Rio Grande near El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Western Texas to Eastern Arizona and Chihuahua, Mexico.

This species, especially the forms that have bluish and purplish joints, are very showy. Seedlings sometimes produce long, silky hairs from the areoles, in this respect resembling the Criniferae.

O. macrocentra O. tardospina

O. gosseliniana O. santa-rita

O. angustata

O. atri s pina

O. azu rea O. phaeacantha O. mojavensis O. covillei O. vaseyi

O. occidentalis

O. engelmannii O. discata O. rastrera

Fig. 176.—Opuntia macrocentra. X0.5.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 75, f. 8; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [8]. Figure 176 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose near the Rio Grande in New Mexico, northwest of El Paso, Texas, in 1913.

139. Opuntia tardospina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 34. 1912.

Roots fibrous; low, spreading plant, the joints usually resting on the ground; joints orbicular to obovate, 16 to 24 cm. long; areoles large, usually distant, often 4 cm. apart; spines usually wanting except from the upper areoles and along the upper margin, usually single, sometimes 2 from an areole, 4 to 5 cm. long, brown, but lighter towards the apex; glochids numerous, brown, persistent; fruit red, 6 cm. long; seeds 5 mm. broad, acute on the margin.

Type locality: Near Lampasas, Texas. Distribution: Eastern Texas.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 11, in part; pl. 15.

Figure 177 represents a joint of the plant collected by Albert Ruth in 1912, north of Dallas, Texas.

140. Opuntia gosseliniana Weber, Bull. Soc. Acclim. France 49: 83. 1902.

One meter or more high, branching from the base, the old trunk often bearing numerous, long, acicular spines; joints usually red or purplish, usually very thin, as broad as or broader than long, sometimes 2 dm. broad; lower and sometimes all the areoles without spines; spines porrect or nearly so, generally 1, sometimes 2, rarely 3 from an areole, to 5 or even 10 cm. long, brown, usually weak; glochids brown, numerous, forming on old joints very large clusters; fruit 4 cm. long, without spines but bearing numerous brown glochids at the areoles, with a depressed umbilicus.

Type locality: Coast of Sonora on the Gulf of California.

Distribution: Sonora and Lower California, Mexico.

This species was placed tentatively in the Pubescentes by Schumann, although always glabrous; but it belongs better in the Phaeacanthae. In some of its phases it resembles O. macrocentra. It is a very showy species and worthy of a place in any collection.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 69.

Figure 179 represents a joint of the plant collected at Hermosillo in Sonora, by Rose, Standley, and Russell in 1910; figure 178 shows a cluster of spines from a trunk areole.

141. Opuntia santa-rita (Griffiths and Hare) Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coil. 52: 195. 1908.

Opuntia chlorotica santa-rita Griffiths and Hare, N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: 64. 1906.

Opuntia shreveana C. Z. Nelson, Galesburg Register, July 20, 1915.

Compact plant, 6 to 14 dm. high, with a very short trunk; joints orbicular or a little broader than long, bluish green but deep purple about the areoles and margins; areoles 1.5 cm. apart, bearing numerous chestnut-brown glochids and occasionally a brown spine; flowers very handsome, deep yellow, 6 to 7 cm. broad; ovary purple; oblong.

Type locality: Selero Mountains, Arizona.

Distribution: Southeastern Arizona.

This species is one of the most ornamental of the opuntias, and although it does not grow well in greenhouse cultivation, it would doubtless flourish in the Southwest, where it could be given conditions similar to its wild surroundings.

Illustrations: Smiths. Misc. Coil. 52: pl. 15; Plant World 1110: f. 6, this last as Opuntia chlorotica; Journ. Inter. Gard. Club 3: facing page 5, as O. chlorotica santa-rita.

Plate xxiv, figure 1, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal of a plant near Surritas, Arizona, in 1906.

142. Opuntia angustata Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad.

Ascending to erect; joints narrow, 15 to 25 cm. long, rounded above, gradually narrowing downward; areoles distant, often 2.5 cm. apart, large, oblong; spines sharply angled, straw-colored or whitish but with brown bases, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long; glochids brown; fruit obovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long.

Type locality: Bottoms, Bill Williams Fork, Arizona.

Distribution: Recorded as extending from New Mexico to California, but known definitely to us only from central Arizona, perhaps extending north to Utah.

Engelmann's Opuntia angustata was based on three specimens, one from New Mexico, one from Arizona, and one from California. He stated that the first and last were prostrate, while the second was erect. A study of his specimens and descriptions indicates that he had three species before him. The first is from Zuni, New Mexico, and is probably Opuntia phaeacantha. The California specimen is the Opuntia magenta Griffiths, which is probably the same as O. vaseyi, while the suberect plant from the bottoms of the Bill Williams River we have allowed to stand for O. angustata. Wooton and Standley (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 19: 447. 1915) suggest that the two fruits illustrated by Engelmann in connection with this species Fig i8°.—°puntia angustata. may belong to two species of Cylindropuntia.

This plant was first collected by J. M. Bigelow, February 4, 1854.

Figure 180 is copied from figure 3 of the illustrations above cited.

143. Opuntia atrispina Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 172. 1910.

Usually low and spreading, sometimes 2 meters in diameter, but sometimes the central branches nearly erect and 6 dm. high; joints rather small, nearly orbicular, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, light green, sometimes a little glaucous; lower areoles spineless; spines from the upper areoles 2 to 4, the principal ones spreading, flattened, dark brown, almost black at base, much lighter above; glochids at first yellow or yellowish, but soon changing to brown; flowers described as yellow, changing to orange; fruit reddish purple.

1. Plant of Opuntia santa-rita.

2. Plant of Opuntia discata.

1. Plant of Opuntia santa-rita.

2. Plant of Opuntia discata.

Type locality: Near Devil's River, Texas. Distribution: Type locality and vicinity.

This plant is abundant between Del Rio, Texas, and Devil's River, being one of the two commonest species in that region.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 26, in part.

Plate xxv, figure 1, represents a flowering joint of the plant collected near Devil's River, Texas, by Dr. Rose in 19 13.

Fig. iBi.—Opuntia azurea, Zacatecas, Mexico.

144. Opuntia azurea Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 291.

1909.

Compact, upright, with a single trunk, or branching from the base and more or less spreading; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, pale bluish green, glaucous; areoles about 2 cm. apart, the lower ones spineless, the upper ones with 1 to 3 rather stout spines; spines, at least when old., almost black, unequal, the longer ones 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less reflexed; glochids numerous, brown; petals 3 cm. long, deep yellow, with crimson claw, but in age pink throughout; filaments greenish or almost white; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit dull crimson, subglobose to ovoid, spineless, truncate, juicy, edible.

Type locality: Northeastern Zacatecas, Mexico.

Distribution: Zacatecas and probably Durango.

Illustrations: Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 24; also f. 33.

Figure 181 is from a photograph by F. E. Lloyd of the type plant; figure 182 represents joints of the plant collected by Albert de Lautreppe near Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1904.

145. Opuntia phaeacantha Engelmann in Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. 4: 52. 1849.

Opuntia phaeacantha brunnea Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856.

Opuntia phaeacantha major Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856.

Opuntia phaeacantha nigricans Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856.

Opuntia camanchica Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293. 1856.

Opuntia chihuahuensis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 291. 1909.

Opuntia toumeyi Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 402. 1909.

Opuntia blakeana Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 402. 1909.

Opuntia zuniensis Griffiths, Bull. Torr. Club 43: 86. 1916. (From the description.)

Low, usually prostrate, with some branches ascending; joints usually longer than broad, 10 to 15 cm. long; areoles rather remote, the lower ones often spineless; spines 1 to 4, those on the sides of the joints more or less reflexed, somewhat flattened, usually rather stout, brown, sometimes darker at base, or often nearly white throughout, the longer ones 5 to 6 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow to brown; flowers 5 cm. broad, yellow; ovary short; fruit 30 to 35 mm. long, much contracted at base.

Type locality: About Santa Fe and on the Rio Grande, New Mexico.

Distribution: Texas to Arizona and Chihuahua.

We have referred to Opuntia phaeacantha the common low, bushy Opuntia with small joints, brown spines, and yellow flowers of the Southwest; we formerly regarded it as composed of several species, and others have followed our lead; but we are unable to draw any distinct lines after a study of much additional herbarium and greenhouse material. Dr. Rose has collected a large series of specimens from the Southwest, especially from the type localities, but his specimens seem to bridge over differences which before seemed tangible; cited differences appear to be racial rather than specific.

Opuntia blakeana, which is found west of the Rocky Mountains, one would expect to be different. It is characterized by small obovate joints, rather short spines, small yellow flowers purple at center.

Opuntia chihuahuensis, which was first described from Mexican specimens, if it belongs here, is in the southern range of O. phaeacantha. It, too, has yellow flowers with red centers, rather large joints, and long, slender spines. Mr. Wooton is of the opinion that to O. chihuahuensis is to be referred the common, low, brown species from El Paso, which includes the specimens of G. R. Vasey, which Coulter called Opuntia mesacantha oplocarpa. This long-spined form extends north throughout eastern New Mexico to southeastern Colorado. With the latter form Mr. Wooton believes Opuntia camanchica belongs. If we take this broad view of the limits of this species we are forced to include Opuntia toumeyi, although it is much larger than O. blakeana, and was considered by Dr. Rose to be different.

Opuntia mesacantha sphaerocarpa Wooton and Standley (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 19: 446. 1915) is a mistake, O. mesacantha oplocarpa being intended.

Opuntia rubrifolia Engelmann in Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 424. 1896), from St. George, Utah, belongs in this series if E. W. Nelson's No. 156, from the same place has been properly determined as such. The type specimen of O. rubrifolia has, apparently, been lost.

The following varieties of Opuntia camanchica have been offered by Haage and Schmidt in their catalogues: albispina (Trade Seed Cat. 104. 1911-1912); orbicularis, rubra, and salmonea (all in Haupt-Verzeichnis 1908: 228. 1908). Under O. camanchica has been mentioned also variety luteo-staminea (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 53. 1908).

Opuntia eocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 11. 1916) , also O. recurvospina Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 12. 1916) and possibly O. superbospina Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 13. 1916) and O. caesia Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 13. 1916) are of this relationship.

Opuntia microcarpa* Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 7. 1848) and O. violacea Engelmann (Emory, Mil. Reconn. 158. f. 8. 1848 were described from drawings brought

*Since the above was written Dr. Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club, 43: 527) has published a detailed account of this species, which he regards as distinct; it inhabits southern Arizona.

BRITTON AND ROSE

PLATE XXV

BRITTON AND ROSE

PLATE XXV

1. Flowering joints of Opuntia atrispina. 2. Flowering joint of Opuntiaphaecantha.

3. Upper part of joint of Opuntia engelmannii. (All natural size.)

1. Flowering joints of Opuntia atrispina. 2. Flowering joint of Opuntiaphaecantha.

3. Upper part of joint of Opuntia engelmannii. (All natural size.)

Fig. 183.—Opuntia covillei. X0.4.

back from the Southwest by W. H. Emory. They can never be critically identified, but are probably of this relationship.

Illustrations: Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 36a: f. 57, C; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. f. 141; Illustr. Fl. 2: f. 2530; ed. 2. 2: f. 2989; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 9, f. 1 to 5; pl. 22, f. 12 to 15; Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 10: f. 115, all as Opuntia camanchica; N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [7], as Opuntia chihuahuensis; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: pl. 55, as Opuntia blakeana; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 75, f. 9 to !3.

Plate xxv, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from Tucson, Arizona, in 1916, by Dr. Mac-Dougal.

146. Opuntia mojavensis Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 293.

1856.

Prostrate, with suborbicular joints; pulvini remote, with large yellow bristles; spines 2 to 6, stout and annulate, acutely angular and compressed, more or less curved, reddish brown, paler toward tip, 2.5 to 6 cm. long, 1 to 3 smaller, slenderer, pale ones added below; fruit oblong, 4.5 cm. long.

Type locality: On the Mojave, west of the Colorado, California.

Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

The fragmentary type specimen has been examined; we have been unable to refer any other specimens to this species, which is thus very imperfectly understood.

147. Opuntia covillei Britton and

532. 1908.

Opuntia megacarpa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 91. 1909.

Opuntia rugosa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 27. 1914.

Bushy plants, usually growing in dense thickets; joints orbicular to obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long or more, pale green, sometimes purplish, slightly glaucous; areoles 2 to 4 cm. apart; spines several from an areole, slender, unequal, the longest ones 6 cm. long, white when young, brownish when old; flowers large, yellow.

Type locality: San Bernardino, California.

Distribution: Interior valleys of southern California.

Fig 184.—Opuntia covillei.

Opuntia covillei and O. vaseyi grow in the same valleys, often in adjoining colonies, and while hybrids may occur, the two species could easily be distinguished. When grow ing in conjunction, O. covillei is considerably taller, has joints of different color, and has yellow flowers. It has doubtless generally passed as Opuntia occidentalis, but that is a much larger, stouter plant, with strong, more or less flattened spines, and is common along the coast.

Figure 183 represents a joint of the plant sent by Dr. MacDougal from Elsinore, California, in 1913; figure 184 is from a photograph of a specimen collected by Mr. S. B. Parish from near the type locality in 1916.

148. Opuntia vaseyi (Coulter) Britton and Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 532. 1908.

Opuntia mesacantha vaseyi Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 431. 1896.

Opuntia rafinesquei vaseyi Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898.

Opuntia humifusa vaseyi Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl. ed. 2. 8. 1900.

Opuntia magenta Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 268. 1908.

Opuntia rubiflora Davidson, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 15: 33. 1916.

Plants low, the lower stems spreading at base, but some of the branches erect and to 7 joints high; joints thick, small (usually 10 to 12 cm. long), ovate, pale green, somewhat glaucous; areoles rather large, 2 to 3 cm. apart, bearing 1 to 3 spines; spines porrect, usually short (rarely 2 cm. long), grayish brown or bright brown, whitish or yellowish towards the tips, somewhat flattened; young joints bright green, thickish, bearing short purplish leaves and a single brownish spine from an areole flowers deep salmon, almost a red-salmon, from the very first; ovary globular to shortly oblong; areoles few, mostly towards the top of the ovary, spineless but with a few brown glochids; fruit globular to shortly oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, deep purple, truncate at apex, with few areoles, the pulp sweetish but hardly edible; umbilicus broadly depressed.

Type locality: Cited as Yuma, Arizona, presumably erroneously.

Distribution: San Bernardino and Orange Counties, southern California.

Even from a moving train this species is distinguishable from its relatives by the color of its flowers. It forms great thickets along the Southern Pacific Railroad north of Los Angeles, either alone or interspersed with one or more other species, and it is also common in the San Bernardino Valley toward the Cajon Pass where it forms great thickets either alone or with Opuntia covillei. Considerable quantities were seen also on hills near Riverside, and it was found cultivated in the cactus garden at Riverside and in the Soldiers' Home Grounds at Santa Monica.

Illustration: Bull. South. Calif. Acad. 15: 32, as Opuntia rubiflora.

Figure 185 represents a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose at Fernando, California, in 1908.

149. Opuntia occidentalis Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad.

Opuntia lindheimeri occidentalis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 421.

1896.

Opuntia engelmannii occidentalis Engelmann in Brewer and Watson, Bot.

Opuntia demissa Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 29. 1912.

Erect or spreading, often 1 meter high or more, forming large thickets; joints large, obovate to oblong, 2 to 3 dm. long; areoles remote; spines 2 to 7, stout, unequal, the longest ones 4 to 5 cm. long, more or less flattened, brown or nearly white, sometimes wanting; shorter spines often white; glochids often prominent, brown; flowers yellow, large, including the ovary often 10 to 11 cm. long; fruit large, purple.

Type locality: Western slopes of the California Mountains, between San Diego and Los Angeles.

Distribution: Southwestern California and northern Lower Cali- Fig. 185.—Opuntia vaseyi. fornia and adjacent islands.

In their description of this species, Engelmann and Bigelow state that it was found on the western slope of the California Mountains near San Diego and Los Angeles. In the

*Coulter refers this name to Pac. R. Rep. 4: errata, 3, 1 856, but no formal name is published there.

Engelmann herbarium are the two original sheets. One of these comes from the "Mountain Valleys of San Pasquel and Santa Isabel," northeast of San Diego. This consists of a single flower and a small piece of a joint, containing three bunches of spines; we doubt if this can be identified. The other comes from near Los Angeles and consists of a large pad and fruit with seeds. The spines are dark brown or nearly black. This specimen appears to be the one figured in the Pacific Railroad Report and may very properly be taken as the type of the species.

There is much uncertainty regarding the range of this species, some referring it to the interior valleys of California. An examination, however, of the type material, and a study of the living plants in southern California by Dr. Rose, convince us that the coastal opuntias can not all be referred to O. littoralis as is sometimes done, but a part belongs to O. occidentalis. The limits of the latter species, and its distribution, are not well defined.

Of this relationship is to be considered Opuntia semispinosa Griffiths (Bull. Torr. Club 43: 89. 1916), which the author describes as a common, conspicuous species in the coastal region of California.

Illustrations: N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 60: pl. 3, f. 2; Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 7, f. 1, 2; pl. 22, f. 10; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 8, this last as Opuntia demissa.

Figure 186 is from a plant collected on Santa Catalina Island, California, by Mr. S. B. Parish in 1916.

150. Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck in Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat. list. 6: 207. 1850.

Opuntia engelmannii cyclodes Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 291. 1856.

Opuntia lindheimeri cyclodes Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 422. 1896.

Opuntia dillei Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 82. 1909.

Opuntia arizonica Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 93. 1909.

Opuntia wootonii Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: 171. 1910.

Opuntia cyclodes Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 309. 1911.

Opuntia gregoriana Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 26. 1912.

Opuntia valida Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 24. 1914.

Opuntia confusa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 28. 1914.

Opuntia magnarenensis Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 9. 1916.

Opuntia expansa Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 14. 1916.

Originally described as erect and up to 2 meters high, but more properly a widely spreading bush, usually without a definite trunk; joints oblong to orbicular, 2 to 3 dm. long, thick, pale green; areoles distant, becoming large and bulging; spines usually more or less white, with dark red or brownish bases and sometimes with black tips, usually 3 or 4, sometimes only 1, or entirely wanting from the lower areoles, but on old joints 10 or more, usually somewhat porrect or a little spreading, but never reflexed, the larger ones much flattened, the longest one 5 cm. long; leaves subulate, about 15 mm. long; glochids numerous, brown with yellowish tips;, flowers large, yellow; fruit 3.5 to 4 cm. long, red; seeds small, 3 to 4 mm. broad.

Type locality: From El Paso to Chihuahua.

Distribution: Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.

Fig. 186.—Opuntia occidentalis.

An examination of the plant collected by Wislizenus (No. 223) north of Chihuahua, now in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden and labeled by Dr. Engelmann as O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck, shows that this species is of Schumann's series Fulvispinosae (our series Phaeacanthae) rather than series Tunae.

Opuntia engelmannii has been more confused than any other species of Opuntia. SalmDyck, who first studied the species, doubtless had but a single specimen before him, and this or a duplicate is now in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden. This type specimen came from near Chihuahua City, from which place Dr. Rose has collected identical material. Dr. Engelmann, who published Salm-Dyck's name, described the plant as erect and 5 to 6 feet high, giving its range from Chihuahua City to Texas. These remarks of his were doubtless based on notes of Dr. Wislizenus, who collected the type, and must have included more than one species; as Engelmann says it is both cultivated and wild, the cultivated plants doubtless referring to some of the many forms grown about towns and ranches. In 1852 Engelmann extends the distribution of the species westward to the Pacific Ocean, referring especially to a San Diego specimen. In 1856 he refers here his previously described species O. lindheimeri, and extends the range eastward to the mouth of the Rio Grande and to lower Mexico. Coulter brought all this material together under O. lindheimeri and four varieties.

An examination of herbarium and greenhouse specimens shows that at least half a dozen species have been passing under the name of O. engelmannii. While certain varieties and specimens are evidently to be excluded from the species, we are still uncertain as to its specific limits. It is quite common about Chihuahua City and extends to Monterey and Saltillo or is represented there by a near ally, while Mr. E. O. Wooton would refer here plants of southern New Mexico, and we are including large, bushy opuntias from Arizona.

Dr. Rose was inclined at one time to separate the Tucson plant, which seems to have some just claims for specific recognition, but there is a mass of herbarium material which seems to connect this with the true O. engelmannii.

Opuntia engelmannii monstrosa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 54. 1908) is doubtless one of the abnormal forms so common among the flat-jointed opuntias.

Opuntia cyclodes, first found by Bigelow near Anton Chico, New Mexico, is certainly of this relationship. The characters of orbicular joints, of small fruit and of stout, usually solitary spines, originally assigned to it, are not constant, for it often has obovate to oblong joints bearing as many as four slender spines and large fruit.

In 1913 Dr. Rose explored the upper Pecos, especially about Anton Chico, near the type locality, where he collected specimens similar to the Bigelow plant, but these grade into more spiny forms, some bearing as many as five spines at an areole, usually yellow, especially distally, and more slender than in typical O. engelmannii. From the same type locality, and associated with O. cyclodes, is O. expansa Griffiths, which has more and whiter spines than the typical form, although they are sometimes yellowish with brown bases. O. dillei Griffiths is also related to O. cyclodes, but the spines are fewer; Dr. Griffiths states, however, that more spines develop on cultivated plants.

Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 8, f. 1; pl. 22, f. 8, 9, all as Opuntia engelmannii cyclodes; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 4, in part, as Opuntia dillei. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pl. 7, f. 1; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 10; Safford, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1908: pl. 10, f. 3, 6, all as Opuntia arizonica. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 21: pl. 26, in part, 27, both as Opuntia wootonii. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: pl. 3, this last as Opuntia gregoriana. Standley, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 1911: pl. 2; Bull. Torr. Club 32: pl. 10, f. 10 to 13; Cact. Journ. 2: 147; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 75, f. 1 to 4; Cycl. Amer. Hort. Bailey 3: f. 1547; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 123 N. Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 78: pl. [5, 6].

Plate xxv, figure 3, represents a flowering joint of a plant sent from Arizona by Dr. MacDougal in 1902.

151. Opuntia discata Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 266. 1908.

Opuntia gilvescens Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: 87. 1909.

Opuntia riparia Griffiths, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 27: 26. 1914.

Plants bushy, spreading, sometimes 15 dm. high; joints thick, orbicular to broadly obovate, 2.5 dm. in diameter or less, pale bluish green, somewhat glaucous; areoles rather few, distant, in age becoming very large, hemispheric, filled with short brown wool; spines usually 2 to 4, sometimes 7 or more in old areoles, 2 cm. long or more, grayish with dark bases, somewhat flattened; flowers large, 9 to 10 cm. broad, light yellow, darker near the center; style white; stigma-lobes green; fruit magenta, pyriform, 6 to 7 cm. long.

Type locality: Foothills of Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona.

Distribution: Foothills and high mesas of southern Arizona and northern Sonora.

Illustrations: Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 20: pl. 2, f. 5; pl. 7; pl. 13, 1. 6, all as Opuntia gilvescens; Amer. Garden 11: 469, this last as Opuntia angustata. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 67: pl. 1, f. 2; Bull U. S. Dept. Agr. 31: pl. 3, f. 2; Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: pl. 27, in part.

Plate xxiv, figure 2, is from a photograph taken by Dr. MacDougal in the Tortolita Mountains, Arizona, in 1916; Opuntia discata is the plant shown in left foreground.

152. Opuntia rastrera Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 896. 1898.

?Opuntia lucens Griffiths, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 19: 269. 1908.

Creeping plant; joints circular to obovate, the largest 2 dm. in diameter; spines white, several from an areole, the longest 4 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers yellow; fruit purple, acid, obovoid.

Type locality: San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

Distribution: The type locality and vicinity.

This species was very briefly described in 1898 by Dr. Weber, who states that it is quite distinct from O. tuna, the Jamaican species. Schumann, who treats it in a note under O. tuna, states that it is a well-differentiated species from Mexico.

From descriptions we are referring here O. lucens Griffiths, also described from San Luis Potosí specimens. Dr. Griffiths states that his O. lucens is related to O. engelmannii, but has a different habit; he says it is called cuija by the Mexicans, but that it is very different from Opuntia cuija.

Series 12. ELATIORES.

Tall species, with flat, broad, persistent joints, the areoles bearing acicular, setaceous, or subulate brown spines, or some species spineless. We know about twelve species, most of them South American, with one in Florida (see Appendix p. 222), possibly one (O. fuliginosa) in Mexico.

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