Opuntia macracantha Grisebach Cat Pl Cub 116 1866

Erect, the trunk up to 15 cm. in diameter, its areoles 1 to 2 cm. broad, bearing many brownish glochids and several divergent spines 1 cm. long or less; upper portion of the trunk, and the ultimate, oblong, or oblong-ovate, spreading branches flat, green, faintly shining, the areoles 2 to 3 cm. apart, scarcely elevated, the numerous glochids brown; spines 1 to 4, up to 15 cm. long, nearly white, stout, subulate, or wanting; flowers often numerous; ovary 2.5 to 3 cm. long, densely beset with glochid-bearing areoles; petals orange-yellow, 1 to 1.3 cm. long.

Type locality: Cuba, in maritime depressions.

Distribution: Southern coast of eastern Cuba and adjacent plains.

Fig. 253.—Opuntia nashii.

Specimens of the plant were erroneously referred by Grisebach to O. triacantha. It is a picturesque feature of the flora of its native habitat.

Figure 256 is from a photograph of the plant on the United States Naval Station, Guan-tanamo Bay, Cuba, taken by Marshall A. Howe in 1909; figure 257 is from a photograph of a plant from the same place, grown at the New York Botanical Garden.

Fig. 254.—Joint of Opuntia Fig. 255.—Flower Fig. 256.—Opuntia macracantha.

bahamana. of the same.

Fig. 254.—Joint of Opuntia Fig. 255.—Flower Fig. 256.—Opuntia macracantha.

bahamana. of the same.

232. Opuntia spinosissima Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. No. 8. 1768.

Cactus spinosissimus Martyn, Cat. Hort. Cant. 88. 1771.

Consolea spinosissima Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862.

Erect, up to 5 m. high, the trunk sometimes 8 cm. in diameter, densely clothed with areoles bearing many long brownish glochids and acicular, deflexed or spreading spines up to 8 cm. long; ultimate branches flat, dull green, narrowly oblong, 2 to 4 times as long as wide, their areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, slightly or not at all elevated, bearing brown glochids and 1 to 3 acicular, straw-colored or whitish spines 8 cm. long or less, or spineless; ovary 3 to 8 cm.. long, often flattened, its areoles bearing short glochids; petals about 1 cm. long, oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, at first yellow, turning dull red.

Type locality: Jamaica.

Distribution: Southern coast of Jamaica.

Plate xxxvi, from a painting by Miss H. A. Wood at Hope Gardens, Jamaica, sent by William Harris in 1907. Figure 258 is from a photograph of a plant obtained by Professor John F. Cowell in Jamaica and sent from the Buffalo Botanical Garden to the New York Botanical Garden in 1904.

233. Opuntia millspaughii Britton, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 513. 1908.

Trunk terete, 7 cm. thick at base, 5 cm. thick at top, 6 dm. high or less, branching at the summit, the branches divaricate-ascending, narrowly oblong, much compressed, 40 cm. long or

BRITTON AND ROSE

PLATE XXXVI

BRITTON AND ROSE

PLATE XXXVI

H. A. Wood del.

Opuntia spinosissima.

1. Flowering joints. 6. Cross-section of ovary.

4, 5. Longitudinal section of flower.

less, 5 to 10 cm. wide, 1 to 1.5 cm. thick, light green; branchlets obliquely lanceolate, obtuse, as wide as the branches, but shorter, 1 cm. thick or less, floriferous at and near the apex; areoles of the older branches pitted, about 1 cm. apart, those of very young shoots slightly elevated, the glochids very short, yellowish brown; spines of the trunk 15 cm. long or less, very numerous and densely clothing the trunk, very slender, gray, mostly strongly reflexed, pungent, those of the branches and branchlets restricted to the areoles on their edges, shorter than those of the trunk but

Fig. 257.—Opuntia macracantha. Fig. 258.—Opuntia spinosissima.

similar, purple when young, those of the fruit yellowish gray, 2 cm. long or less; flowers cupulate, crimson-lake, 1 cm. wide; sepals fleshy, ovate, acute, 4 mm. long and wide; petals erect-ascending, obovate, mucronulate, about 4 mm. wide; stamens half as long as the corolla; style about as long as the corolla; stigma-lobes oblong, yellowish crimson; fruit compressed-obovoid, 2 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, bearing one or two spines at most of the areoles.

Type locality: Rock Sound, Eleuthera Island, Bahamas.

Distribution: Eleuthera and Great Ragged Island, Bahamas; Cayo Paredon Grande, Cuba.

Figure 259 is from a photograph of the type plant taken at the type locality by Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, February 22, 1907.

234. Opuntia moniliformis (Linnaeus) Haworth in Steu-

Cactus moniliformis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 468. 1753.

Cactusferox Willdenow, Enum. Pl. Suppl. 35. 1813.

Opuntia ferox Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 82. 1819.

Cereus moniliformis De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 470. 1828.

Consolea ferox Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862.

Opuntia microcarpa Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 714.

1898. Not Engelmann. 1848.

Nopalea moniliformis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 750.

1898.

Opuntia testudinis-crus Weber in Gosselin, Bull. Mus. Hist.

Opuntia haitiensis Britton, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 513.

1908.

Trunk somewhat flattened above, 3 to 4 m. high, branching at the top, densely armed with acicular, yellowish or gray spines 12 cm. long or less, their bases clothed with yellowish-white wool 1 to 2 cm. long; joints obliquely linear-oblong to obovate, 1 to 3 dm. long, 13 cm. wide or less, about 1 cm. thick, obtuse, distinctly areolate-reticulate, the areoles somewhat elevated, 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, those of young joints bearing near the edges 3 to 6 acicular spines 1 to 2.5 cm. long, those on the sides of the young joints often spineless or with 1 to 3 yellowish

Fig. 260.—Opuntia moniliformis on the plain at Azua, Santo Domingo.

spines, and with small tufts of grayish wool; older joints bearing at all areoles 5 to 8 yellowish spines similar to those of the trunk, and brown glochids 6 or 8 mm. long; flowers about 2.5 cm. broad; sepals as broad as long, or broader, apiculate; petals yellow to orange, ovate, apiculate, spreading; stamens much shorter than the petals; ovary cylindric to obovoid-cylindric, terete or nearly so, 4 to 5 cm. long, its distinctly elevated areoles close together, only 5 or 6 mm. apart, bearing brown glochids 2 mm. long, but no spines; fruit oblong-obovoid, about 6 cm. long.

Type locality: Hispaniola.

Distribution: Hispaniola; Desecheo Island, Porto Rico.

The ovaries, fruits and small joints of this species are readily detached and on falling to the ground strike root and proliferate, forming masses of subglobose or turgid joints entirely different in aspect from the fully developed, tree-like plant. It was on this stage of the organism that the Cactus moniliformis of Linnaeus, founded on Plumier's conventionalized plate above cited, was based; this illustration is, however, apparently erroneous in showing the style as long-exserted.

The names Opuntia dolabriformis and Opuntia cruciata were published by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 167. 1837) as synonyms of O. ferox. Some of the joints and, perhaps, some whole plants of this species are nearly or quite spineless.

Illustrations: Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. ed. 2. 7: pl. 514, as Cactier moniliforme; Plumier, Pl. Amer. ed. Burmann. pl. 198, as Cactus, etc.

Fig. 261.—Opuntia moniliformis. The same species as 260, but Fig. 262.—Opuntia monili-

showing a different mode of growth. formis. X0.66.

Fig. 261.—Opuntia moniliformis. The same species as 260, but Fig. 262.—Opuntia monili-

showing a different mode of growth. formis. X0.66.

Figure 260 is from a photograph of a plant at Azua, Santo Domingo, taken by Paul G. Russell in 1913; figure 261 is from a photograph taken by Frank E. Lutz on Desecheo Island, Mona Passage, Porto Rico, in 1914, showing a mass of proliferating sterile ovaries or small joints below and the mature stage of the plant above; figure 262 represents several of the small joints of the Desecheo plant.

235. Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck in De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 474, 1828.

Opuntia catacantha Link and Otto in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 166. 1837.

Consolea rubescens Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862.

Consolea catacantha Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862: 174. 1862.

Opuntia guanicana Schumann in Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 18: 180. 1908.

Trunk erect, nearly cylindric below, flattened above, 3 to 6 meters high, sometimes 1.5 dm. in diameter, branching above, its areoles bearing several or many acicular spines up to 8 cm. long or more, or spineless: ultimate joints thin and flat, mostly dark green or reddish green, not reticulate-areolate except when young, oblong to oblong-obovate, 2.5 dm. long or less, mostly 2 to 4 times as long as wide, the terminal ones often much smaller; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, bearing several acicular nearly white spines 1 to 6 cm. long, or spineless; flowers yellow, orange or red, about 2 cm. broad; ovary long-tuberculate, 4 to 5 cm. long, about 1.5 cm. in diameter; petals obovate, apiculate; stamens about half as long as the petals; fruit reddish, obovoid or subglobose, 5 to 8 cm. in diameter, spiny or spineless; seeds suborbicular, 5 to 8 mm. in diameter.

Figs. 263, 264.—Opuntia rubescens.

Type locality: Cited as Brazil, but erroneously.

Distribution: Mona and Porto Rico to Tortola, St. Croix, and Guadeloupe.

Culebra, St. Thomas, St. Jan, and Montserrat plants agree with the description of Opuntia rubescens, which clearly belongs with the Spinosissimae (Cruciformes), as pointed out by Berger, rather than with the South American series Inarmatae, where it was placed by Schumann; it is a spineless state of O. catacantha, as was conclusively proven by us through field observations in the Virgin Islands, and greenhouse plants of O. rubescens develop spines.

Both the spiny and spineless races exhibit remarkable proliferation of the ovaries, these often forming chains of several joints while attached to the plant; these, falling to the ground, strike root and form many small, flattened joints 2 to 4 cm. long, as in Opuntia moniliformis, to which this species is otherwise closely related.

Illustration: Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 7: f. 6, as Opuntia.

Figure 263 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Professor John F. Cowell at Guanica, Porto Rico, in 1915; figure 264 is from a photograph taken by Professor Cowell at the same time and place, showing in the foreground a mass of young plants arisen from proliferating joints, and a mature plant behind; figure 265 represents proliferating joints of a plant grown at Nisky, St. Thomas, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose in 1913; figure 266 represents a fruit, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer on Buck Island, St. Thomas, in 1913.

Figure 263 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Professor John F. Cowell at Guanica, Porto Rico, in 1915; figure 264 is from a photograph taken by Professor Cowell at the same time and place, showing in the foreground a mass of young plants arisen from proliferating joints, and a mature plant behind; figure 265 represents proliferating joints of a plant grown at Nisky, St. Thomas, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Rose in 1913; figure 266 represents a fruit, collected by Dr. Britton and Dr. Shafer on Buck Island, St. Thomas, in 1913.

Figs. 265, 266.—Opuntia rubescens. X0.66. Fig. 267.—Opuntia brasiliensis. X0.75.

Series 27. BRASILIENSES.

This series represents one of the five subgenera described by Dr. Schumann, which he called Brasiliopuntia. It perhaps should be recognized as a distinct genus. We recognize three species in the series, which may be races of a single one, characterized by an erect cylindric trunk with cylindric, horizontal branches terminating in a series of flattened, thin, leaf-like branches. The leaves are small and caducous. The spines are few on the young growth, but large clusters are developed on the old stem and trunk. The flowers are small, the fruit is juicy, and the seeds are large and covered with a dense mass of wool. Unlike most species of Opuntia, these grow in the moist tropical forests, forming tall, slender, tree-like plants.

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