Opuntia lanceolata Haworth Syn Pl Succ 192 1812

Cactus lanceolatus Haworth, Misc. Nat. 188. 1803.

Cactus elongatus Willdenow, Enum. Pl. Suppl. 34. 1813.

Opuntia elongata Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 81. 1819.

Plants tall, much branched; joints elongated, 3.5 cm. long, dull green, somewhat tuberculate; areoles distant, small; spines if present few, small, white, 1 cm. long or less; glochids yellow; flowers large, yellow.

Type locality: In South America.

Distribution: Known only in cultivation.

We have combined O. lanceolata and O. elongata, although there is a possibility of their being different. O. lanceolata was first described essentially as follows: Joints flattened, suberect, subnaked, with leaves 3 lines long; stems at first erect; joints lanceolate, green, when young with many leaves; spines (spicules?) in fascicles, the shortest of all species (except Cactus coccinellifer); leaves longer than in other species.

The species was received by Haworth from W. Anderson; no habitat given. In 1812 Haworth calls it the spear-shaped Opuntia. He says it probably came from South America,

Fig. 219.—Opuntia crassa.

and flowers in July. It had been in cultivation before 1796; it flowered in 1808 with Haworth and was described as follows: Flowers shiny yellow; filaments yellow, half as long as petals; style longer than stamens; stigmas 5, thick, obtuse, 2 lines long, sulphur-colored.

De Candolle says the flowers are 4 inches in diameter.

Pfeiffer states the joints are 5 to 6 inches long by 1 to 1.5 inches broad; that the leaves are red and the spicules yellow.

Opuntia elongata laevior Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 242. 1850) may or may not belong here.

200. Opuntia maxima Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 5. 1768.

Cactus decumanus Willdenow, Enum. Pl. Suppl. 34. 1813.

Opuntia decumana Haworth, Rev. Pl. Suee. 71. 1821.

Opuntia gymnocarpa Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 893. 1898.

Opuntia labouretiana Console* in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898.

Opuntia ficus-indica decumana Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nae. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905.

Opuntia ficus-indica gymnocarpa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nae. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905.

Forming large, mueh branehed plants; joints elongated, more or less spatulate, 35 em. long or more, 10 to 12 em. broad, rounded at apex, somewhat euneate at base, pale green, not at all tubereulate; areoles small, distant; spines sometimes wanting or sometimes 1 or 2, short, white; gloehids yellow (brown in some speeimens referred here); flowers eonspieuous, 8 em. broad, orangered; ovary elongated, 7 to 8 em. long, bearing numerous large gloehids.

200. Opuntia maxima Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. 8. No. 5. 1768.

Cactus decumanus Willdenow, Enum. Pl. Suppl. 34. 1813.

Opuntia decumana Haworth, Rev. Pl. Suee. 71. 1821.

Opuntia gymnocarpa Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois 893. 1898.

Opuntia labouretiana Console* in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 717. 1898.

Opuntia ficus-indica decumana Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nae. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905.

Opuntia ficus-indica gymnocarpa Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nae. Buenos Aires III. 4: 512. 1905.

Forming large, mueh branehed plants; joints elongated, more or less spatulate, 35 em. long or more, 10 to 12 em. broad, rounded at apex, somewhat euneate at base, pale green, not at all tubereulate; areoles small, distant; spines sometimes wanting or sometimes 1 or 2, short, white; gloehids yellow (brown in some speeimens referred here); flowers eonspieuous, 8 em. broad, orangered; ovary elongated, 7 to 8 em. long, bearing numerous large gloehids.

*Berger (Hort. Mortol. 409. 1912) says this is known as O. labouretiana Console.

BRITTON AND ROSE

PLATE XXXIV

BRITTON AND ROSE

1. Part of joint of Opuntia leucotricha.

2. Part of joint of Opuntia maxima.

3. Joint of Opuntia lasiacantha.

4. Joint of Opuntia robusta. (All natural size.)

Type locality: In America.

Distribution: Known only in cultivation.

Opuntia maxima Miller was described as the largest of all the opuntias and as the name is older than any of those here cited, it is taken up for this species. Haworth was uncertain whether or not his O. decumana is distinct from Miller's O. maxima, although in the Index Kewensis the two are considered the same; Burkill considered them distinct, but his idea of O. decumana is the O. ficus-indica type. Mr. Berger, on the other hand, states that it is evidently of the O. dilleni group, but this is hardly warranted by the description. Berger is convinced that O. elongata is distinct from O. decumana.

Opuntia labouretiana macrocarpa (Cat. Darrah Succ. Manchester 55. 1908) is only a garden name.

Plate xxxiv, figure 2, represents a flowering joint of a plant presented to the New York Botanical Garden by Frank Weinberg in 1901, which bloomed in May 1916. Figure 220 is from a photograph of the same plant.

Opuntia bartramii Rafinesque (Atl. Journ. 1: 146. 1832) is based on Bartram's description (Travels p. 163. 1790), in which he states that the plant is 7 to 8 feet high; joints very large, bright green, glossy; spines none; glochids numerous; flowers large, yellow; fruit pear-shaped, purple. It was found about 6 miles from Lake George, northern Florida, associated with Zamia pumila and Erythrina. We do not know of any Opuntia answering the description, growing in Florida at the present time. Dr. Small visited the type locality in 1918 but failed to find any plant answering Rafinesque's description.

Opuntia hernandezii De Candolle (Mem. Hist. Nat. Paris 17: 69. pl. 16. 1828) is a complex. The reference to Hernandez applies to Nopalea cochenillifera. Schumann was not able to identify the plant illustrated by De Candolle, but thought it might be referable to Opuntia ficus-indica, in which we agree.

Series 21. STREPTACANTHAE.

Tall, branched, glabrous, green species with white or faintly yellow, acicular or subulate spines, large yellow or red flowers, and fleshy fruits, natives of Mexico and Central and South America. We recognize twelve species. The fruits, known as tunas, are mostly edible and are sold in large quantities in Mexican markets, a practice which probably dates from prehistoric time. The long-continued selection of plants for their fruit has perpetuated many slightly differing races.

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