Somewhat of the habit of Opuntia polyacantha, but not so procumbent, stouter, and with fewer and stouter spines; joints obovate, 10 to 12 cm. long, broad, rounded at top; areoles small, all below the middle of the joint naked, the upper ones each bearing one stout spine and 1 to several very short accessory ones; the longer spine very stout, 3 to 4 cm. long, brown; flowers not known; fruit dry, oblong, 3 cm. long, spineless, with a shallow, flat umbilicus; seeds large, irregular, 6 to 8 mm. brniiH
On dry hills among junipers in vicinity of Cedar Hill, San Juan County, New Mexico, altitude about 1,900 meters, August 17, 1911, Paul C. Standley (No. 8051).
This species is nearest Opuntia rhodantha, but has stouter joints and much larger seeds. Figure 243 represents a joint of the type specimen; figure 244 represents a seed.
221. Opuntia hystricina Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 299. 1856.
More or less diffuse; joints obovate to orbicular, 8 to 20 cm. long; areoles numerous, 10 to 15 mm. apart, rather large; spines numerous, pale brown to white, the longer ones 5 to 10 cm. long, stout, flattish, often reflexed; glochids yellow; flowers 6 cm. long; petals broad, yellow; ovary nearly globular; fruit oblong to obovoid, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, spiny above, dry, with a compressed umbilicus; seeds 7 mm. broad.
Type locality: Colorado Chiquito and on San Francisco Mountains. Distribution: New Mexico to Arizona and Nevada.
Although this species has a wide range, it is not very well understood; it approaches O. rhodantha in some of its forms. We have referred here a very remarkable form collected by E. W. Nelson at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, in 1909, This plant has thick, obovate joints 17
Fig. 245.—Opuntia hystricina. X0.5.
to 22 cm. long, strongly tuberculate, with some of the spines very strong, flattened, and reflexed; the fruit is very spiny; the seeds are 8 mm. broad, angled, with margins thin and acute. This may be the plant listed in Weinberg's catalogue, also from the Grand Canyon, under the name of Opuntia hochderfferi.
Opuntia xerocarpa Griffiths (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 15. 1916), from Kingman, Arizona, is of this relationship, described as "readily distinguished from other species of its dry-fruited allies by its spines, shape of joints and color of plant body."
Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 15, f. 5 to 7; pl. 23, f. 15.
Figure 245 is copied from the first illustration above cited.
222. Opuntia rhodantha Schumann, La Semaine Hort. 1897.
Opuntia xanthostemma Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 735. 1898.
Opuntia utahensis J. A. Purpus, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 133. 1909.
Joints obovate to oblong, 5 to 12 cm. long; areoles distant, 10 mm. apart or more; spines rather stout, 3 or 4, 2 to 3 cm. long, brownish, with 2 or 3 short accessory ones; lower areoles usually naked; glochids brown; flowers, including ovaries, 5 to 6 cm. long, 8 cm. broad; petals red or pink to salmon-colored, obovate, apiculate; stamens red or yellow; fruit spiny; seeds small, 5 mm. in diameter.
Type locality: Colorado, at 2,000 to 2,300 meters altitude.
Distribution: Western Nebraska, Colorado, and Utah.
After a careful examination of living plants of both O. rhodantha and O. xanthostemma, we feel convinced that the latter is only a form of the other. The color of the stamens in the opuntias does not furnish a constant character. It is hardy in cultivation at New York and highly ornamental when in bloom.
Haage and Schmidt, in their 1915 catalogue, list several varieties of this species: brevispina, flavispina, pisciformis, and schu-manniana; and under Opuntia xanthostemma in the same place they list the following varieties: elegans, fulgens, gracilis, orbicularis, and rosea.
Illustrations: Meehan's Monthly 7: 133; Gartenwelt 1: 83, this last as Opuntia xanthostemma; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 19: 135, this last as Opuntia utahensis.
Plate xxxv, figure 2, represents a flowering plant received by the New York Botanical Garden from Haage and Schmidt, of Erfurt, Germany, in 1913.
223. Opuntia sphaerocarpa Engelmann and Bigelow, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 300. 1856.
Small, spreading plants; joints orbicular, 6 to 7 cm. broad, thickish, strongly tuberculate, wrinkled in drying, light green or becoming more or less purple; areoles 8 to 10 mm. apart, mostly spineless or the upper and marginal ones bearing short acicular spines, the longest ones about 2 cm. long; glochids yellow; flowers not known; fruit naked, 18 mm. in diameter, with a truncate umbilicus; seeds 5 mm. broad, very irregular.
Type locality: Mountains near Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Distribution: Known only from type locality.
We have not, with certainty, identified any recently collected plants with this species, although some New Mexican specimens appear to be referable to it.
Illustrations: Pac. R. Rep. 4: pl. 13, f. 6, 7; pl. 24, f. 3.
Figure 246 is copied from the first illustration above cited.
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