Opuntia bahiensis sp nov

Trunk 3 to 15 meters high, cylindric, 20 to 25 cm. in diameter, tapering gradually upward; the center of trunk pithy, hollow in age, surrounded by an open woody cylinder; lateral joints terete, the terminal ones flat and thin, ovate to oblong; leaves small, 2 to 3 mm. long, turgid; spines on terminal joints, if present, 1 or 2, slender, red at first, then brown; spines on old trunk forming large clusters at all the areoles; flowers not seen; fruit deep red both within and without, oblong, 3 to 4 cm. long; its small areoles with brown glochids; seeds 1 to 5, mostly 1 or 2 in each fruit, very hairy, thick, 8 mm. broad.

Collected in the vicinity of Toca da Onca, Bahia, Brazil, by Rose and Russell, June 27 to 29, 1915 (No. 20068).

Figure 269 represents joints of the type plant above cited; figure 270 represents a joint with fruit; figure 271 is from a photograph of the type specimen.

Fig. 271.—Opuntia bahiensis. The tree to the left and Fig. 272.—Opuntia ammophila.

somewhat in the foreground.

238. Opuntia argentina Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 140. 1879.

Opuntia hieronymi Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 140. 1879.

Fig. 271.—Opuntia bahiensis. The tree to the left and Fig. 272.—Opuntia ammophila.

somewhat in the foreground.

238. Opuntia argentina Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 140. 1879.

Opuntia hieronymi Grisebach, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 140. 1879.

Erect, 5 to 15 meters high, branching at the top, the lateral branches subverticillate, teretes terminal branches flat, 5 to 12 cm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad; ovary 2 to 2.5 cm. long; petals elliptic to spatulate, 1.8 cm. long, 8 mm. broad, greenish yellow; filaments white; style white; stigmalobe; yellowish green; ovary flattened, tuberculate, deeply umbilicate; fruit clavate, 5 cm. long, dull purplish violet, with wine-colored pulp; seeds lens-shaped, 5 to 6 mm long 2 5 to 3 mm broad

Type locality: Near San Andrés, Oran, Argentina. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

This species was considered identical with O. brasiliensis by Schumann, but they separate on very good fruit characters.

Figure 274 is from a photograph of a flowering branch furnished by Dr. C. Spegazzini.

Series 28. AMMOPHILAE.

One peculiar species, native of Florida, constitutes this series, characterized by a continuous erect subterete trunk, flat, spiny branches, and large, yellow flowers.

239. Opuntia ammophila Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 10: 29.


Plant erect, more or less branched throughout or ultimately with a stem I to 2 meters tall or more, becoming 2 to 2.5 dm.

in diameter, bearing several spreading branches near the top, thus tree-like, tuberous at the base; joints various, those of the main stem elongate, ultimately fused on the ends and subcylindric, those of the branches typically obovate or cuneate, varying to elliptic or oval, thickish, 5 to 17 cm. long, becoming grayish green; leaves stout-subulate, 6 to 10 mm. long, green; areoles relatively

Fig. 273.—Opuntia ammophila.

numerous, conspicuous on account of the densely crowded long bristles, especially on the older joints, the marginal ones, at least, armed; spines very slender, solitary or 2 together, reddish or red, at maturity gray, mostly 2 to 6 cm. long, nearly terete, scarcely spirally twisted; flowers several on a joint; sepals lanceolate, acute or slightly acuminate; buds sharply pointed; corolla bright yellow, 5 to 8 cm. wide; petals obovate, cuneate, notched, and prominently apiculate, 3 cm. long, scarcely erose; stigma-lobes cream-color; berries obovoid, 2 to 3 cm. long, more or less flushed with reddish purple, many-seeded; seeds about 4 mm. in diameter.

Fig. 274.—Opuntia argentina. Fig. 275.—Opuntia chaffeyi. Photograph by Señor Don Teodoro Chairez.

Fig. 274.—Opuntia argentina. Fig. 275.—Opuntia chaffeyi. Photograph by Señor Don Teodoro Chairez.

Type locality: Fort Pierce, Florida.

Distribution: Inland sand-dunes (scrub), peninsular Florida.

The plant was first collected by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, Florida, in 19 17, and again studied by him in its more northern range west of St. George in 19 I 8. He describes it as the most conspicuous native prickly pear of Florida, always viciously armed and with a characteristically unjointed trunk. In spite of its many slender spines, cattle browse upon it.

Figure 272 is from a photograph of the plant taken by Dr. Small near Fort Pierce, Florida; figure 273 shows a fruiting joint of the type specimen.


This series contains a single Mexican species, differing from all the other opuntias in having an annual stem which arises from a large, fleshy root or rootstock. The joints, which are elongated and nearly terete, resemble somewhat those of O. leptocaulis, but are more fleshy, while the flowers and fruit are like those of the platyopuntias.

240. Opuntia chaffeyi Britton and Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 241. 1913.

Perennial by a large, fleshy, deep-seated root or rootstock often 35 cm. long by 4 cm. in diameter; stems normally annual, 5 to 15 cm. long, sometimes in cultivated specimens 25 cm. long, much branched, often weak and prostrate; joints elongated, 3 to 5 cm. long, 6 to 7 mm. broad, slightly

Fig. 276.—Opuntia chaffeyi.

flattened, glabrous, pale bluish green or sometimes purplish; leaves minute, caducous; areoles small, circular, with white wool in the lower parts and brown wool in the upper parts; spines 1, rarely 2 or 3, acicular, 2 to 3 cm. long, whitish or pale yellow; glochids numerous, pale yellow; flower-buds, including ovary, 8 cm. long; flower opening at 10 a. m., closing at 2 p. m., 6 cm. broad; sepals few, small, ovate to oblong, greenish; petals few, 7 to 9, pale lemon-yellow, but slightly pinkish on the outside; filaments numerous, about 1 cm. long; style slender, extending beyond the stamens, about 22 mm. long, somewhat swollen at base; ovary deeply umbilicate, somewhat club-shaped, 4 to 5 cm. long, bearing flattened tubercles and large areoles filled with white wool; upper areoles on ovary bearing also white bristly spines; ovules numerous, borne in the upper third of the ovary; fruit and seeds still unknown.

Type locality: Hacienda de Cedros, near Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Distribution: State of Zacatecas, Mexico.

Figure 275 is from a photograph of part of the original collection as grown by Dr. E. Chaffey, taken and contributed by Señor Don Teodoro Chairez, of Ciudad Lerdo, Mexico; figure 276 is from a photograph of the type showing the large root and the young shoot.

As stated in the original description, this is a remarkable Opuntia, being the only one known which has an annual stem. In cultivation, where the plant is grown under abnormal conditions, the stem persists for more than a year; but Dr. Chaffey assures us that in the desert, where the species grows naturally, the stem dies down to the ground in the dry season. We have had it in cultivation since 1910, but it does not do well, and is gradually dying out. It has not been found in flower in a wild state, but it flowered with Dr. Chaffey at Ciudad Lerdo, Durango, Mexico, in 1915. Dr. Chaffey, who has been studying this species for several years, has made a number of interesting observations; he states that the large base, which usually is found 15 to 20 cm. beneath the surface of the ground, when allowed to grow above the ground develops clusters of spines like those on the normal stems, and finds that the plant is easily started from cuttings which soon develop the normal, large, underground part. He further states that the desert turtle eats this plant. It is well known that the Galapagos turtles feed upon the native opuntias of those islands.

The native name of this plant is sacacil.

The following described Opuntias we have been unable to refer to any of the species otherwise mentioned in this work:

Opuntia bicolor Philippi, Linnaea 33: 83. 1864.

glaucophylla Wendland, Cat. Hort. Herrenh. 1835.

laevior Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845. longiglochia C. Z. Nelson, Galesburg Register. July 20, 1915. lucida Hortus, Wiener Illustr. Gartenz. 14: 146. 1889. prostrata spinosior Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 723. 1898.

spinaurea Karwinsky in Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1844. 46. 1845. As synonym for O. pseudotuna elongata Salm-Dyck.

tuberculata Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 80. 1819, first described as Cactus tuberculatus (Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 34. 1813).

The following names of Opuntia are chiefly found in catalogues or in lists, or have been so briefly described that we have not been able to identify them, and it does not seem worth while even to cite the places where they first occur in literature:

Opuntia alpicola Schumann americana Forbes attulica Forbes barbata K. Brandegee barbata gracillima K. Brandegee bernhardinii Hildmann betancourt Murillo calacantha calacantha rubra carolina Forbes ciliosa Forbes consoleana Todaro consolei Haage and Schmidt demorenia Forbes demoriana Förster deppei Wendland dichotoma Forbes eborina Förster erecta Schumann festiva Sencke ficus-indica albispina Haage and Schmidt flavispina Förster hevernickii Hildmann hitchenii Forbes itali ca Tenore joconostle Haage and Schmidt jussieuii Haage leucostata Forbes macrophylla Haage and Schmidt

Opuntia missouriensis elongata Salm-Dyck erythrostemma Haage and Schmidt salmonea Haage and Schmidt montana Sencke morenoi Schumann myriacantha Link and Otto. Not Weber ottonis Salm-Dyck pachyarthra flava Haage and Schmidt pachyclada rosea Haage and Schmidt spaethiana Haage and Schmidt parote Forbes piccolomini Hort. platyclada Haworth praecox Forbes protracta Lemaire elongata Salm-Dyck pseudococcinellifer Bertoloni pseudotuna Salm-Dyck elongata Salm-Dyck spinosior Salm-Dyck pulverata Förster retans Karwinsky salmii Forbes schomburgkii Salm-Dyck speciosa Steudel spinuliflora Salm-Dyck spinulosa Salm-Dyck straminea S encke stricta spinulescens Salm-Dyck subinermis Link

Opuntia clavata Philippi (Anal. Univ. Chile 41: 722. 1872), O. ottonis G. Don (Hist. Dichl. Pl. 3: 172. 1834), O. phyllanthus Miller (Gard. Dict. ed. 8. No. 9. 1768), O. salicor-nioides Sprengel (Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 141. 1837), and O. spiniflora Philippi (Linnaea 30: 2 211. 1859) are of the tribe Cereeae.

7. GRUSONIA F. Reichenbach in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896.

A low, much branched cactus, the branches terete, jointed, and ribbed; areoles borne on the tops of the ribs, very spiny, but all except the flowering ones without glochids, subtended by small deciduous leaves; corolla rotate, yellow; fruit baccate.

This was first described as a Cereus from specimens collected by Mrs. Anna B. Nickels in 1895, then as a new genus Grusonia, and lastly as an Opuntia. It clearly is not Cereus, but when growing might easily be mistaken by its habit for Echinocereus. The leaves, glochids, flowers, and fruit are those of Opuntia, but its ribbed stem is unlike that of any known species of that genus.

1. Grusonia bradtiana (Coulter).

Cereus bradtianus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 406. 1896 (April).

Grusonia cereiformis F. Reichenbach in Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 6: 177. 1896 (December).

Opuntia bradtiana K. Brandegee, Erythea 5: 121. 1897.

Opuntia cereiform is Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 897. 1898.

Forming dense, often impenetrable thickets 2 meters high or less, very spiny; stems light green, 4 to 7 cm. thick, with 8 to 10 low, longitudinal, somewhat tuberculate ribs; areoles 1 to 1.5 cm. apart, 3 to 5 mm. in diameter; leaves linear, fleshy, green, 8 mm. long, early deciduous; spines 15 to 25, yellowish brown when young, soon becoming white, acicular, terete or slightly compressed, 1 to 3 cm. long, not sheathed, some of the longer ones reflexed; wool white, turning brown, early disappearing; corolla rotate, opening in bright sunlight, 3 to 4 cm. broad; sepals ovate, acute, fleshy; petals bright yellow, spatulate, fringed; filaments brownish yellow; stigma-lobes 8, yellow; areoles of the ovary with long, yellow, weak spines, white wool, and yellow glochids; berry (according to Schumann) ellipsoid, deeply umbilicate; seeds not seen.

Type locality: Plains of Coahuila, Mexico.

Distribution: Coahuila, Mexico.

This species first appeared in print in the catalogue of Johannes Nicolai under the name of Grusonia cereiformis, but we are informed that there was no description and therefore it was not technically published. The same name next appears in the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde for 1894. Here Dr. Schumann wrote a long article about the name, especially condemning the loose manner in vogue of publishing new names without descriptions, but giving no characters of the plant, and as a matter of fact he did not then know it. Two months later this name again appears in this same publication, but without description. Two years later Dr. Schumann records seeing this plant and describes it briefly, although he does not approve of the name Grusonia. If the name is to be considered published, it should not date earlier than this (December 1896), although Dalla Torre and Harms accept the date of 1894. In 1898 Weber transferred the name to Opuntia, publishing it as Opuntia cereiformis; in the meantime Coulter (in 1896) published the name Cereus bradtianus for the plant and Mrs. Brandegee (in 1897) transferred it to Opuntia, calling it Opuntia bradtiana.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 121, as Opuntia bradtiana; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 101, as Opuntia cereiformis.

Plate xxxiii, figure 4, represents a joint of the plant collected by C. A. Purpus at Cerro de Cypriano, near Morano, Mexico, in 1910.

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