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Areoles with hairs; joints not or scarcely tuberculate.

Joints 1 to 1.5 cm. thick; spines 2.5 cm. long or less; fruit mostly sterile 35. O. vestita

Joints 2.5 to 3 cm. thick; spines up to 5 cm. long; fruit many-seeded 36. O. shaferi

Areoles without hairs; joints distinctly tuberculate 37. O. verschaffeltii

Of this series? 38. O. hypsophila

35. Opuntia vestita Salm-Dyck, Allg. Gartenz. 13: 388. 1845.

Opuntia teres Cels in Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 898. 1898.

Roots fibrous; stems much branched, weak, forming small clumps 3 dm. broad or less and nearly as high, fragile; joints short or elongated, becoming in greenhouse cultivation 2 dm. long or more, oblong or cylindric, 1 to 1.5 cm. thick, very spiny, easily breaking apart; areoles circular, conspicuous, bearing short wool, spines, and several long hairs; spines about 6 in each cluster, acicular, brownish, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; leaves minute, acute; flowers small, including the ovary; 2 cm. long, deep red; petals 1 cm. long; areoles on ovary conspicuous, filled with white wool and long hairs; fruit red, usually sterile, globular or a little longer than broad, usually naked, generally truncate at apex, often bearing small spiny joints at the areoles.

Type locality: In Bolivia.

Distribution: Common on the sterile hills about La Paz, Bolivia.

Specimens were collected by Miguel Bang some years ago and segregated as a new species by the late Karl Schumann, but this was never published; others were obtained by Dr. H. H. Rusby in 1885, and by R. S. Williams in 1901. It was again collected by Dr. Rose in 1914, and living plants are now growing at the New York Botanical Garden. As seen wild, it is a strange little plant, growing in low clumps, its fragile stems easily breaking apart, especially at the terminal joints. The bright red fruits remain on the parent plant until they produce a number of spiny joints, often as many as five, which, after falling off, strike roots and start new colonies.

Dr. Rose suspected at the time he collected his material that it might be Opuntia vestita, and suggested that it should be carefully compared with it. This he was not able definitely to-prove in the field, but the living specimens sent to the New York Botanical Garden put out new branches which are long, slender, and cylindric, and are devoid of long acicular spines, quite unlike the wild plants but almost identical with the specimens received from La Mortola, Italy, some years ago as O. vestita.

Opuntia teres Cels must belong here, at least in part. Weber states that the flowers are very similar to O. vestita, while the fruit is said to be small, red, and proliferous, just as found in O. vestita. The leaves are described as 2 cm. long, however, and there is a possibility that O. exaltata may be partly represented in the description, as we find herbarium material of both species, from Bolivia, mounted on the same sheet.

Plate xi, figure 5, shows the plant collected by Dr. Rose in 1914; figure 6 is from a plant received from La Mortola, Italy, in 1912.

36. Opuntia shaferi sp. nov.

Plants in clusters of 2 to 4, erect, about 3 dm. high; joints terete, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter, elongated, very spiny; tubercles low, often indistinct; leaves deciduous, 6 mm. long; areoles 1 cm. apart or less, circular, white-felted; glochids numerous, whitish from the upper margin of the areole; spines about 6 at an areole, brownish, acicular, often 4 to 5 cm. long and associated with long white hairs; flowers not known; fruit globular, about 2 cm. in diameter, bearing numerous large areoles, the areoles white-felted, with glochids and hairs, but no spines; seeds turgid, pointed at base, mm. long.

Collected by J. A. Shafer among stones between Purmamarca and Tumbaya, Argentina, February 6, 1917 (No. 90).

Nearest O. vestita but less cespitose, taller and larger, and with fertile fruit.

37. Opuntia verschaffeltii Cels in Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 898. 1898.

Opuntia verschaffeltii digitalis Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 898. 1898.

Forms low, in dense clumps, much branched; joints globular to short-cylindric, 1 to 4 cm. long, somewhat tuberculate, pale green; spines 1 to 3, yellowish, weak, and bristle-like, 1 to 3 cm. long; in cultivated plants joints elongated, 6 to 21 cm. long, slender, 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, strongly tuberculate, spineless; glochids few, white; areoles narrow, longer than broad, filled with short white wool.

Type locality: In Bolivia.

Distribution: Bolivia.

In 1914 Dr. Rose collected this species on the barren hills about La Paz, Bolivia, and from his observations it seemed to be only a form of Opuntia pentlandii. In cultivation, however, it behaves very differently from his specimens of the latter, and in fact has developed a phase very unlike its normal type but identical with other greenhouse specimens sent out by Mr. Berger some years ago under the name of O. verschaffeltii.

Opuntia digitalis Weber (Dict. Hort. Bois 898. 1898) was given as a synonym of O. verschaffeltii digitalis.

Figure 86 represents an elongated joint, from a greenhouse specimen; this grew from the short normal joint, collected by Dr. Rose near La Paz, Bolivia, in 1914.

38. Opuntia hypsophila Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 509. 1905

Cespitose, branching, small, 5 to 10 cm. high, pale green; joints globose to cylindric, 1.5 to 3 cm. long; tubercles depressed; spines 3 to 5, subulate, weak, spreading, white at first, in age brownish; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: In the Province of Salta, Argentina, in the Andes, at an altitude of 2,500 to 4,000 meters.

Distribution: Salta, Argentina.

We do not know this species, but Dr. Spegazzini thought it might be a Tephrocactus and associated it with Opuntia verschaffeltii digitalis.

Series 9. CLAVARIOIDES.

This series is the same as the Etuberculatae of Schumann and contains but a single species, recorded as a native of Chile. According to Schumann, the stems are cylindric to clavate, not tuberculate, the leaves are small and caducous, and the spines are very small and appressed. The fruit is said to contain one woolly seed.

39. Opuntia clavarioides Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 173. 1837.

Low, much branched, grayish brown, 4 dm. high or less, truncate or cristate at apex; joints not tuberculate, rather fragile, short-cylindric or clavate, 1.5 cm. in diameter; leaves minute, 1.5

Oil il

Fig. 86.—Opuntia verschaffeltii. X0.66.

mm. long, reddish, caducous; areoles minute, closely set, filled with wool and minute spines; spines 4 to 10, white, appressed; flowers 6 to 6.5 cm. long; sepals linear, pointed, reddish; petals light brown, narrowly spatulate, slightly crenate; ovary bearing minute leaves with wool and short bristles in their axils; filaments white, shorter than the petals; style white, with 7 stigma-lobes; fruit ellipsoid, 1.5 cm. long, one-seeded.

Type locality: In Chile.

Distribution: Originally described from Chile, but often referred to Mexico.

Very little is known of this species, although it was described as long ago as 1837, and it is rare in collections. We have never seen it in flower and have seen only one record of its flowering in cultivation. 'The peculiar structure of the stem, narrow petals and single lanate seed, join a combination of characters separating it from other opuntias, and lead Schumann to refer it to a distinct series which he calls Etuberculatae. The question has been raised in our own minds if this-is a true Opuntia. In cultivation the plant is usually grafted on some Platyopuntia.

Variety cristata is offered in the trade journals.

Opuntia microthele, Cereus clavarioides, and Cereus sericeus are usually given as synonyms, but all these were cited by Pfeiffer (Enum. Cact. 173. 1837) as synonyms of this species at the place commonly given as their first publication. The varieties fasciata Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 159. 1900), fastigiata Mundt (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 30. 1893), and monstruosa Monville (Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 489. 1853) are anomalous greenhouse forms.

Illustrations: Gartenflora 44: f. 7; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 9; 16: 169; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 104; Gard. Chron. III. 30: f. 75, this last as Opuntia clavarioides cris-tata.

Figure 87 is copied from the illustration used by Schumann cited above.

Series 10. SALMIANAE.

This series (Frutescentes of Schumann), by some supposed to be composed of five species but here treated as Flg 87.—°pun«a davado^s grafio on containing but one, is confined to central South America. ano er species.

It is characterized by slender, bushy, often vine-like habit, terete branches, and red fruit, the latter crowned by proliferous spiny joints. Seeds are unknown. Greenhouse specimens often resemble Opuntia leptocaulis, but the flowers are somewhat larger, and the spines are not sheathed.

40. Opuntia salmiana Parmentier in Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 172. 1837.

Opuntia spegazzinii Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 898. 1898.

Opuntia albiflora Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 152. 1903.

A bushy plant, 3 dm. to 2 meters high, much branched at base; branches often weak, terete, 1.5 cm. in diameter or less, often purplish, etuberculate; areoles small, bearing wool, yellow glochids, and spines; spines sometimes wanting, usually several, 1.5 cm. long or less, white; flowers 2 to 3.5 cm. broad, scattered along the stem; buds pinkish or even scarlet; petals obovate, pale yellow to white, sometimes tinged with pink; stamens and style short; stigma-lobes yellowish green; fruits sterile, clavate, scarlet, with few or no spines.

Type locality: In Brazil.

Distribution: Southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina.

After careful consideration, we have combined three species of Schumann's series Frutescentes into one. We have examined considerable living material and all the illustrations, but have found no grounds for separating the group into species. All were described as proliferous and sterile. O. spegazzinii was supposed to be unarmed, but this

character is not constant; flower differences are described, but these are inconstant. One species, O. albiflora, has already been referred to synonymy.

Opuntia salmiana is said to have come from Brazil, but no definite locality is given for it, and it has not been collected there in recent times. If really from Brazil, and there is no good reason to question this reference, it is doubtless from the southern part, possibly on the border of Paraguay; indeed, O. albiflora, one of the three, was described from a Paraguay collection; the other, O. spegazzinii, is a native of the deserts of northern Argentina.

Cactus salmianus Lemaire (Cact. 87. 1868, name only) has been referred here as a synonym; as has also O. floribunda Lemaire (Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 68. 1839).

Opuntia schickendantzii Weber, included by Schumann in this relationship, we refer to our series Aurantiacae.

Opuntia wagneri Weber in Gosselin (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 393. 1904), described without flower or fruit, is probably to be referred here; at least Roland-Gosselin believed it to be of this group. We have not seen any of the specimens from Chaco, Argentina, obtained by M. Emile Wagner in 1902.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 123; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 76: pl. 4542; Fl. Serr. 7: pl. 670; Jard. Fleur. 2: pl. 194; Loudon, Encycl. pl. ed. 3. f. 19406; Pfeiffer and Otto, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 1: pl. 6; Castle, Cactaceous plants f. 15; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 103, this last as Opuntia spegazzinii; Hogg, Veg. King. 340. f. Iii.

Figure 88 is from a plant in the greenhouses of the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington; figure 89 represents a joint of a plant collected by Dr. Rose at Córdoba, Argentina, in 1915.

Opuntia maldonadensis Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 286. 1905.

Cespitose, erect; branches cylindric, entangled or intertwined; joints 3 to 10 cm. long, about 2 cm. in diameter, the terminal ones obovate-spherical, dark green to olive-colored; areoles each surrounded by a violet blotch, small or prominent, orbicular; spines 5 or more, stout, spreading, elongated, unequal, the longest one 2 to 2.5 cm. long, reddish to brown; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: Punta Ballena, near Maldonado, Uruguay.

Distribution: Uruguay.

This species, referred to the subgenus Cylindropuntia by Arechavaleta, inhabits the coast of Uruguay and is known to us only from description; we append it to the series Salmianae, but its nearest relationship may be elsewhere.

Series 11. SUBULATAE.

This series is confined to South America and represents a very distinct group, differing greatly from the tall cylindric-jointed species of North America. They lack sheaths to the spines, and the typical species has elongated persistent leaves. Although several of the species have long been in cultivation, at least two of them being known only from garden plants; for along time the flowers were unknown and the plants were as frequently called Cereus or Pereskia as Opuntia.

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