About 3 meters high, much branched; joints small, linear-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 6 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. broad, rather thin; areoles small, 1 to 2 cm. apart; spines very unequal, 5 to 20 mm. long, acicular, 4 to 12, yellowish when young; flower small, including ovary and stamens about 4 cm. long; sepals ovate, acute; petals oblong, 12 mm. long; stamens long-exserted; style longer than the stamens; stigma-lobes 6, greenish; fruit red, darker within, obovoid, 3 cm. long, its numerous areoles bearing spines and yellow glochids; umbilicus prominent, 1 cm. deep; seeds about 4 mm. broad, with a very narrow margin and a very thin testa.

Collected by George F. Gaumer and sons near Sisal, Yucatan, March 1916 (No. 23250, type); also by Dr. Gaumer from Port Silam, 1895 (No. 647).

Dr. Gaumer's field note is as follows: "A coastal cactus, 10 feet high, much branched, small-jointed and of slight build, not of robust build like the interior species. It blooms from February to June. The birds are very fond of the fruit and consume it as fast as it ripens."

Figures 277 and 278 show joints of the type-specimen.

77 a. Opuntia depauperata sp. nov. (See page 101, ante.)

Plant 1 to 2 dm. high, with a flattened, much branched top; joints dark green, readily detached, terete or slightly flattened, to 12 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. thick, puberulent; spines on young joints 2 or 3, on old joints sometimes 6 at each areole, reddish to pale brown, acicular, 1 to 2.5 cm. long, nearly porrect; glochids tardily developing, conspicuous on old joints, yellow; ovary with a deep umbilicus.

Collected by Dr. and Mrs. J. N. Rose north of the station of Zig Zag, along the railroad above Caracas, Venezuela, October 17, 1916 (No. 21751).

This little cactus is very inconspicuous and only a few specimens were observed. The station is near the top of the mountains which separate the valley, in which Caracas lies, from the sea. The region here is not so dry as it is farther down on the seaward side of the mountains, but there are several other species of cacti associated with it.

Figure 279 is from a photograph of type plant taken by Mrs. Rose; figure 280 shows a joint.

A plant, apparently of this relationship, was collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby in 1917 on granite rocks, narrows of Magdalena River, Colombia. The joints, however, are glabrous, only 2 to 3 cm. long, the young joints have numerous brown spines and the young areoles produce long white wool.

g. 279.—Opuntia depauperata.

82«. Opuntia pestifer nom. nov. (See page 103, ante.)

Cactus nanus Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 68. 1823.

Cereus nanus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 470. 1828.

Low and nearly prostrate but sometimes 2 dm. high, much branched; the joints very fragile, glabrous; young joints 2 to 5 cm. long, or when old up to 8 cm. long, nearly terete, 1 to 3 cm. in diameter, or when young flattened and 2 to 3 cm. broad, very spiny; spines 2 to at each areole, acicular, brownish, 1 to 3 cm. long; glochids numerous, yellow; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: Near Sondorello and Guancabamba. In Humboldt's time these places were in southern Ecuador, but they are now in northern Peru.

Distribution: Northern Peru to central Ecuador.

Dr. Rose observed the plant in various places in Ecuador, usually at an altitude ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 meters. The following collections were made: at Huigra (No. 22306); at Sibambe (No. 22433); and west of San Pedro, Province of Loja (No. 23352).

This plant, although widely distributed and very common, has never Fig 28°.—°puntia de-been seen by botanists in flower or fruit. The joints, which come loose pauperata. x°.5. easily, are freely distributed by animals. It is so small that, growing half-hidden in the grass, it is easily overlooked but very annoying when one comes upon it unawares. Humboldt speaks of its being troublesome to men and dogs.

Fig. 281.—Opuntia pestifer. X0.5

Kunth who described it as Cactus nanus referred it with hesitancy to the Section Cereus. De Candolle transferred it from Cactus to Cereus placing it in a new subgenus Opuntiacei along with C. moniliformis (which we know now is an Opuntia) and C. serpens. He thought these might represent a genus between Opuntia and Cereus.

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 166) considered it an Opuntia but did not formally refer it to that genus.

This name should not be confused with Opuntia nana (Fl. Damatica 3: 143. 1852) which is Opuntia opuntia.

Figure 281 is from a photograph taken by George Rose at Sibambe, Ecuador, in 1918; figure 283 shows the joints of the same plant (Rose, No. 22433.)

96 a. Opuntia discolor sp. nov. (See page 109, ante.)

A low plant, forming small dense clumps; joints slender, 4 to 12 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, turgid, glabrous, dark green with dark purple blotches extending downward from the under margin of the areoles; spines 1 to 6, acicular, nearly porrect, somewhat variegated but mostly brown, 3 cm. long or less; glochids tardily developing but conspicuous on old branches, dark brown; flowers light yellow to orange-yellow, only 3 cm. long including the ovary; filaments white; style and stigma-lobes nearly white; fruit evidently very small, bright red.

Fig. 282.—Opuntia discolor.

This species is represented by two collections made by Dr. J. A. Shafer in 1917 which slightly differ from each other. They are No. 111, from sandy thickets, Santiago del Estero, Argentina, February 23 (type), and No. 95, from gravelly hills near Tapia, Tucuman, February 9.

Apparently common in dry sandy thickets, growing best under bushes where it is least disturbed. The joints easily become detached, sticking readily to any disturbing object.

The species differs from Opuntia retrorsa in its more nearly terete joints and spreading spines.

Figure 282 is from a photograph of the type plant; figure 284 represents a joint of the plant from near Tapia, Tucuman.

101 a. Opuntia guatemalensis sp. nov. (See pageii3, ante.)

Low, spreading plant, resembling O. decumbens, but joints glabrous and shining; joints deep green, sometimes with dark blotches below the areoles; areoles small, filled with brown wool, subtended by small leaves; spines i to 3 at the areoles, terete, acicular, shining white with blackish tips when young, soon gray, mostly deflexed, somewhat spreading; flower-buds reddish; flowers much smaller than those of O. decumbens; petals lemon-yellow, 2.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes cream-colored.

Collected by Dr. Glover B. Wilcox in 1909 while acting as surgeon on a ship plying between Guatemala and San Francisco. Living specimens were sent directly to Washington and flowered there in April 1915.

Figure 285 represents a joint of the type specimen.

Fig. 283.—Opuntia pestifer. Xo. 5. Fig. 284.—Opuntia discolor.

102 a. Opuntia pennellii sp. nov. (See page 115, ante.)

Plant low; joints 1 to 1.5 cm. long, obovate, turgid, bright green; spines 1 or 2 at each areole, nearly porrect, subulate, 3.5 cm. long or less, white with dark tips; glochids not very conspicuous, yellowish.

Collected near Magangue, coastal plain of Colombia, Department of Bolivar, at about 100 meters altitude, by Francis W. Pennell in 1918.

Figure 286 shows a joint of the type plant.

Here may belong herbarium specimens which we have seen from northern Colombia but with the material at hand it is impossible to determine them definitely. One of these was collected by William R. Maxon, April 10, 1906 (No. 3849) at Puerto Colombia. This plant is described as consisting of 3 to 6 joints, branching at the third or fourth joint, the joints all being in one place. The flowers are yellow and small, only about 4 cm. long, including the ovary. Another was collected by H. H. Smith near Bonda in 1898-1899 (No. 2728); this has joints very similar to those of Dr. Pennell's plant. It is said to be from 2 to 4 feet high.

103 a. Opuntia caracasana Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 238. 1850. (See page 116, ante.)

Stems low, bushy, 4 to 12 dm. high; joints oblong, 10 to 12.5, cm. long, turgid, pale green, "leaves squamiform, minute"; spines 2 to 4, unequal, 2.5 to 4 cm. long or less, pale yellow; flowers and fruit unknown.

Type locality: Near Caracas, Venezuela.

Distribution: Mountains about Caracas, Venezuela.

The type specimens were collected near Caracas by E. Otto, prior to 1849. Dr. Rose found the plant abundant above Caracas in 1916. It usually grows on exposed hillsides near the top of the divide which separates Caracas from the coast, and it was especially common along the railroad just below the little station of Zig Zag. Several other cacti are to be found in this neighborhood, among which are O. elatior and O. depauperata.

Figure 287 shows a joint of the plant collected by Dr. Rose above Caracas in 1916.

104 a. Opuntia aequatorialis sp. nov. (See page 116, ante.)

Bushy, much branched; 1 to 1.5 meters high; the branches spreading or recurved; joints narrowly oblong to obovate, 1.5 to 2 dm. long, 3 to 8 cm. broad, easily becoming detached; spines pale yellow, at first only 2 to 4 but more in age, subulate, 2.5 to 6 cm. long; flower-buds ovoid, acute, red; petals few, 8 to 10, orange-red, spatulate; filaments and style red; stigma-lobes cream-colored.

Fig. 285.—Opuntia guatemalensis.

Fig. 285.—Opuntia guatemalensis.

Fig. 287.—Opuntia caracasana. X0.5.

Collected in thickets on dry hills near Sibambe, Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador, by J. N. Rose and George Rose, August 29, 1918 (No. 22432).

The locality at which this species is found is semiarid and a number of other cacti are associated with it, among which is the little O. pestifer, described on a preceding page. O. aequatorialis was not so common as some of the other species and was usually found growing up through open-branched bushes and was in this way more or less protected.

Figure 288 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by George Rose; figure 289 shows one of its joints.

Plant prostrate, often radially branched, sometimes forming mats nearly a meter in width, the tip of the branches sometimes assurgent, with elongate cord-like roots; joints elliptic to narrowly obovate, often narrowly so, thick, 4 to 15 cm. long, deep green, sometimes glaucous, especially when young; leaves subulate, 6 to 11 mm. long, green or purple-tinged; areoles scattered, often conspicuous, sometimes very prominent and densely bristly, the marginal ones, at least, armed; spines slender, solitary or 2 together, pink, turning red or red-banded, at maturity gray or nearly white, nearly Fig. 288.—Opuntia aequatorialis.

terete, slightly spirally twisted; flowers usually several on a joint, conspicuous; sepals subulate to lanceolate, acute; corolla yellow, 7 to 9 cm. wide; petals numerous, the inner ones broadly obovate to flabellate, erose at the broad minutely mucronate apex; berries clavate, 5 to 6.5 cm. long, red or reddish purple, many-seeded; seeds about 5 mm. in diameter.

Type locality: Twelve miles west of Gainesville, Florida,

Distribution: Pinelands, northern peninsular Florida.

It was first observed by Dr. Small near Gainesville, Florida, in 1917, and plants were taken to Mr. Charles Deering's cactus garden at Buena Vista, Miami, where it has grown luxuriantly, flowering and fruiting freely alongside of O. pollardii which it resembles in habit, but differs from in its long clavate berries and more numerous petals.

Figure 290 shows joints of the plant; figure 291 shows its fruit.

127 a. Opuntia macateei sp. nov. (See page 133, ante.)

Small prostrate plant; joints 2.5 to 6 cm. long, orbicular to obovate, glabrous, dull green, in age somewhat tuberculate; leaves linear, 10 mm. long or less, green; spines 1 to 3, brownish, the longer ones up to 2.5 cm. long; flowers, including the ovary, 8 to 10 cm. long, 7 to 8 cm. broad, yellow with a red center; ovary subcylindric, 5 to 6 cm. long, bearing conspicuous leaves, sometimes 12 mm. long.

Differs from related species by its small joints and slender, elongated, leafy ovaries. Collected by W. L. MacAtee at Rockport, Texas, December 28, 1910 (No. 1992).

Figures 292 and 293 represent the joints and flower of the plant.

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