A Opuntia soederstromiana sp nov

Sometimes spreading and bushy, but usually erect, 6 to 10 dm. high, very spiny; joints obovate, 2 to 4 dm. long, bright green when young, or sometimes slightly glaucous, grayish green in age; leaves subulate, small, reddish at top; spines at first 2 to 5, but in age 10 or more, when young reddish or pinkish at base and paler above, soon gray throughout, unequal, subulate, 4 cm. long or less; flowers at first yellow but soon orange to brick-red, rather large, 5 to 6 cm. long; petals few, about 10, oblong, retuse; filaments and style reddish; stigma-lobes pale green; fruit obovate to oblong, 4 to 5 cm. long, usually spiny, red, juicy, with a depressed umbilicus.

Collected at San Antonio, Province of Quito, Ecuador, by J. N. Rose and George Rose, October 29, 1918 (No. 23559).

This plant was first collected for us by Ludovic Soderstrom of Quito, at the request of the President of the Central and South American Cable Company. Although great care was taken in shipping the plants they all died in transit. In 1918 Dr. Rose visited Mr. Soderstrom's locality and collected herbarium, living, and formalin material which has enabled us to describe the plant fully. The illustration here used was made at the same time.

Figure 294 is from a photograph of the type plant taken by George Rose.

Fig. 294.—Opuntia soederstromiana.

161 a. Opuntia zebrina Small, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20: 35. 1919. (See page 155, ante.)

Plant erect, more or less branched throughout, fully 1 meter tall or less, the roots fibrous; joints oval or obovate, thickish, mostly 1 to 2 dm. long, deep green, sometimes obscurely glaucous; leaves ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. long, bright green; areoles scattered, some of them, usually the lower ones, unarmed, the upper ones irregularly armed; spines slender, solitary or 2, 3, or 4, together, red-brown, finely banded, nearly terete, closely spirally twisted; flowers few on a joint, or solitary; sepals deltoid to deltoid-reniform or nearly reniform; corolla yellow, rotate, 6 to 7 cm. wide; petals rather numerous, the inner ones broadly obovate, undulate, minutely mucronate or notched at the apex; berries obovoid, not constricted at the base, 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long, red-purple; seeds many, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter.

Fig. 295.—Opuntia zebrina.

Type locality: Middle Cape Sable, Florida.

Distribution: Coastal sand-dunes, Cape Sable, Florida, and the lower Florida Keys.

The plant was first discovered by Dr. Britton on Boot Key, Florida, in 1909, and this is the most northern locality yet known for it. The species is interesting not only from its strikingly banded spines but also as being the only known member of the series Elatiores growing wild within the United States. In habit it resembles O. dillenii, and on Key West the two species

11 - 1 , , 1 Fig. 2q6.—Fruit of were observed growing close together. ° zebrina X0 5

Figure 295 is from a photograph of the plant on Cape Sable, Florida, in cultivation at Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figure 296 shows a fruit collected by Dr. Rose on Key West, Florida, in 1918.

173 a. Opuntia keyensis Britton in Small, Journ. N. V. Bot. Gard. 20: 3 1. 1919. (See p. 162, ante.)

Plant erect, much branched, sometimes forming clumps 3 meters tall, with long fibrous roots; joints elliptic, oval, obovate, or spatulate, thick, 1 to 3 dm. long, bright green; leaves ovoid, 2 to 3 mm. long, green; areoles rather conspicuous, often relatively large and prominent, apparently unarmed; spines stout, 4 to 13 together, very short, mostly hidden in the bristles; at first pink, at maturity salmon-colored, slightly flattened; flowers solitary or 2 or 3 on a joint; sepals deltoid to subreniform, acute or acutish; corolla salmon-colored, cup-like, or short-campanulate, 3 to 3.5 cm. wide; petals rather few, thinner ones broadly obovate or orbicular-obovate, undulate, scarcely, if at all, mucronate; berries obovoid, 4 to 6 cm. long, purple; seeds numerous.

Fig. 297.—Opuntia keyensis.

Type locality: Boot Key, Florida.

Distribution: Hammocks, Florida Keys and Cape Sable.

Opuntia keyensis was first collected by Dr. Britton in 1909 On Boot Key, Florida. Plants brought subsequently by Dr. Small from the Keys to Buena Vista, Miami, and there observed by him under cultivation show the species to be distinct from either O. dillenii or O. stricta, with both of which it has been associated.

Figure 297 is from a photograph of the plant in cultivation at Buena Vista, Miami, Florida; figures 298 and 299 show its flowers, collected by Dr. Small on Key Largo, Florida, in 1909. See also plate xxx, figure 1.

183 a. Opuntia bonplandii (HBK.) Weber, Diet. Hort. Bois Figs. 298 and 2qq.—Flower of Opuntia

Cactus bonplandii Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 6: 69. 1823.

Plants tall, 2 to 4 meters high, open-branching; joints ovate to obovate, 2 to 3 dm. long, dull green; spines at first 2 to 7, pale yellow, acicular, 1 to 1.5 cm. long but soon falling off; flowers orange-colored, about 6 cm. long and nearly as broad when fully expanded; petals obtuse; stamens short.

Type locality: Cuenca, Ecuador.

Distribution: Ecuador.

This species was collected by Humboldt and Bonpland at Cuenca, Ecuador, and was first described as Cactus (Opuntia) bonplandii. Apparently the type was not preserved

as Dr. Rose did not find it either at Berlin or Paris in 1912. Schumann mentions it only in a note under O. quitensis following Weber who associates the two. Dr. Rose, while in Ecuador in 1918, spent about a week at Cuenca collecting plants in all directions from the town. The only Opuntia in this whole region is the one above described which grows in hedges and along the roadsides. It may be an introduced species which has escaped from gardens but we know nothing in cultivation just like it. It resembles

somewhat the Nopal de Castilla, so common in Mexico and the southwestern states Humboldt compared it with the tuna de Espana which may be the same. Bonpland seems to have called his plant Cactus coccinellifer which it very much resembles in the shape of the joints and in being spineless in age. If we are right in our interpretation of this species it has no close alliance with O. quitensis which Dr. Rose collected also; it has very small flowers with erect petals which are not readily affected by the sun as are those of O. bonplandii and most of the other species.

Fig. 301.—Opuntia dobbieana.

Figure 300 shows a joint collected by Dr. Rose at Cuenca, Ecuador, in 1918. 207 a. Opuntia dobbieana sp. nov. (See page 187, ante.)

Usually low and bushy, forming dense thickets, but sometimes tall and then 3 to 4 meters high; joints orbicular to short-oblong or obovate, 1 to 2.5 dm. long, pale green in color, very spiny; leaves minute, 1 to 2 mm. long, green, spreading; areoles small, closely set; spines white, 5 to 12, usually acicular but on old joints subulate, 1 to 3 dm. long, accompanied by 2 to 4 reflexed hairs from the lower side of the areole; flower, including ovary, 5 to 6 cm. long; petals chocolate-colored, oblong, 2 cm. long; filaments and style pinkish; stigma-lobes dull green; ovary strongly tubercled, leafy, very spiny, especially towards the top; fruit juicy, red, at first spiny, 3 to 5 cm. long.

Common in dry places from Huigra to Sibambe, Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador.

Collected by J. N. Rose and George Rose, August to November 1918, at Huigra (No.

This species, on account of its white spines, is referred to the Streptacanthae, although it usually is more bushy than these species generally are. So far as we could learn, the fruit is not used by the Ecuadoreans; the plant was never seen cultivated, and there is every reason to believe it is native to Ecuador.

The species is named for John Dobbie, general manager of the Guayaquil and Quito Railway, whose courtesies and assistance added greatly to the success of Dr. Rose's visit to Ecuador in 1918.

Figures 301 and 302 (the latter at the bottom of this page) are from photographs of the type plant, taken by George Rose.

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