The cactaceae

Type species: Echinocactus erectocentrus Coulter.

The species which we have referred to this genus resemble in size, form, and habit the species of Coryphantha much more than they do the species of Echinocactus or Ferocactus. This resemblance is strengthened by definite tubercles on the ribs. Schumann referred them all to Thelocactus, his very complex subgenus of Echinocactus.

The generic name is from exivog hedgehog, and mactcog breast, referring to the spiny tubercles of the plant. We recognize 6 species, all from northern Mexico and the adjacent parts of the United States. They are closely interrelated.

Key to Species.

Areoles elongated, with more or less pectinate spines.

One or two of the central spines different from the others.

One central spine elongated, erect 1. E. erectocentrus

One central spine short, conic 2. E. intertextus

Central spines several, nearly alike 3. E. dasyacanthus

Areoles circular.

Central spines subulate, some strongly recurved 4. E. unguispinus

Central spines acicular.

Globular; ribs 20 to 25; radial spines white 5. E. macdowellii

Ovoid; ribs 18 to 21; radial spines with black tips 6. E. durangensis

1. Echinomastus erectocentrus (Coulter).

Echinocactus erectocentrus Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 376. 1896.

Plants broadly ovoid to short- cylindric, 8 to 14 cm. high, sometimes lo, cm. broad, pale bluish green; ribs 21, somewhat oblique, very low, made up of closely set tubercles; radial spines 14, straight, terete, pale below, red above (in old dead plants dense and interwoven above but pectinate-appressed on lower part of plant); central spines 1 or 2, elongated, erect, slightly swollen at base, more conspicuous in dead than in living plants, usually ascending, one sometimes very short and porrect; flowers pinkish, 3 to 5 cm. long; stamens short, greenish yellow; style longer than the stamens, pale green; stigma-lobes 8, pinkish to deep red; ovary bearing a few ovate scarious scales. (This description is from living plants and differs somewhat from Dr. Coulter's which was made from dead ones.)

Fig. 154.—Echinomastus erectocentrus. Fig. 155.—Echinomastus unguispinus.

Type locality: Near Benson, Arizona. Distribution: Southeastern Arizona.

Unfortunately, Dr. Coulter associated with this species a plant from Saltillo, Mexico, collected by Weber; this plant has been published as Echinocactus beguinii Weber, to which

Dr. Schumann erroneously referred Echinocactus erectocentrus. E. beguinii is described as having a naked ovary and is a quite different plant of the Coryphanthanae.

The flowers on various plants differ somewhat in color, the deeper colored flowers being associated with higher colored spines. This difference in color extends also to the stigmalobes. The flowers give off a delicate odor; they open in the morning and close at night, lasting for four days.

Echinocactus horripilus erectocentrus is credited by Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 443. 1898) to Weber although he never formally published the variety.

Figure 154 is from a photograph of a plant collected by Kirk Bryan in southeastern Arizona in March 1921.

2. Echinomastus intertextus (Engelmann).

Echinocactus intertextus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 277. 1856.

Cereuspectinatus centralis Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 386. 5896.

Echinocereuspectinatus centralis Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 271. 1898.

Echinocereus centralis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 293. 1909.

Simple, globular or nearly so, 2.5 to 10 cm. in diameter; ribs 13, somewhat acute, more or less divided into tubercles; areoles 5 to 6 mm. apart, somewhat elliptic; spines rigid, red with darker tips; radial spines 16 to 25, appressed, 8 to 15 mm. long, 3 or of the upper radial spines white or nearly so, more slender than the others, almost bristle-like; central spines 4, subulate, of them turned upward and similar to the radials, so to 18 mm. long, the other one very short, porrect; flowers 2.5 cm. long, nearly as broad as long, purplish; outer perianth-segments about 20, broadly ovate, white-margined; inner perianth-segments 20 to 25, oblong, mucronate; fruit nearly globular, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter, with a few scarious scales; seeds black, shining, 2 mm. in diameter.

Fig. 156.—Echinomastus intertextus.

Type locality: Not definitely cited.

Distribution: Southwestern Texas, to southeastern Arizona and northern Mexico.

Engelmann states that the scales on the fruit are with or without some wool in their axils. The fruit is always in amass of wool, but so far as we have seen the scales are always naked in their axils.

When Engelmann described this species he also briefly characterized a variety dasya-canthus which we have treated here as a distinct species. He says that Echinocactus intertextus in this broad sense ranges from El Paso to the Limpio and southward to Chihuahua and adds that the variety is more common about El Paso. We have seen only

Echinomastus dasyacanthus about El Paso while we have the true Echinomastus intertextus from Chihuahua. This latter station may be the type locality for this species.

In making this study we have at last been able to place definitely Cereus pectinatus centralis from near Fort Huachuca, Arizona. This Echinocereus-like plant was described from two sterile specimens whose flowers and fruit were not known. In 1921 J. W. Gidley sent a single specimen from southeastern Arizona. This flowered a few months afterwards, showing clearly that it was not an Echinocereus, but that it belonged to Echinomastus. Further study shows that it is referable to Echinomastus intertextus, although coming from west of the hitherto known range of the species.

Echinocactus krausei Hildmann (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 446. 1898) which came from Dragoon Summit, eastern Arizona, may belong here, but Schumann states that the ovary bears spines; it is known to us only from his description.

Illustrations: Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 201. f. 133, as Echinocactus krausei; Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2.561. f. 72; Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 34; Blanc, Cacti 46. f. 524, as Echinocactus intertextus.

Figure 156 is from a photograph of the type specimen of Cereus pectinatus centralis.

3. Echinomastus dasyacanthus (Engelmann).

Echinocactus intertextus dasyacanthus Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 277. 1856.

Plants cylindric, 10 to 15 cm. high; ribs somewhat spiraled, made up of numerous compressed tubercles; spines slender, more or less purplish; radials 19 to 25, 12 to 22 mm. long; centrals about

4, nearly equal; top of flowering plant and young areoles very woolly; scales and outer perianth-segments red with white margins; inner perianth-segments white or purplish, about 2.5 cm. long, acute or acuminate; ovary bearing a few ovate scales, these naked in their axils; stigma-lobes 9, erect, truncate at apex, deep purple.

Type locality: Near El Paso, Texas.

Distribution: Southwestern Texas.

Most writers, including Engelmann, have treated this species as a variety of Echinocactus intertextus but in the light of a fuller series of specimens we believe it deserves specific rank. In the past many plants which we now know are true Echinomastus dasyacanthus have been passing as Echinocactus intertextus.

Besides the difference brought out by Engelmann this species has much larger flowers than Echinomastus intertextus and the inner perianth-segments are acute or acuminate. This species has also a more northern and eastern range.

Coulter (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb.: 375. 1896) refers to Echinocactus intertextus dasyacanthus, a plant from San Luis Potosí, which we have not seen but which we suspect belongs elsewhere.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 35, f. 1 to 5, as Echinocactus intertextus dasya-canthus.

Figure 157 is from a photograph of a plant sent by F. C. Platt from El Paso, Texas, in 1908.

4. Echinomastus unguispinus (Engelmann).

Echinocactus unguispinus Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour North. Mex. 111. 1848.

Echinocactus trollietii* Rebut, Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 147. 1895.

Plants simple, usually globular, sometimes short-cylindric, 10 to 12 cm. high when mature, pale bluish green; ribs low; areoles woolly when young, circular; armament very peculiar, at times almost hiding the plant itself, most of the spines being erect or connivent; radial spines widely spreading, often as many as 25, usually white, except the tips, these darker, the upper ones 2 cm. long, a little longer than the lower; central spines 4 to 8, stouter than the radials, at first reddish or black, but becoming grayish blue in age, the lowermost turned outward and downward and all more or less curved; flowers 2.5 cm. long, reddish.

*The usual reference to the first publication of this name is the Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde (5: 184. 1895). This appeared, however, in December while the Baltimore Cactus journal reference appeared in July of the same year.

Type locality: About Pelayo, Chihuahua, between Chihuahua City and Parras.

Distribution: States of Chihuahua and Zacatecas, Mexico.

This species was described by Dr. Engelmann in 1848 from a single specimen collected by Dr. Wislizenus in Pelayo, Chihuahua. No other material was known to Dr. Coulter in 1896 when lie wrote his monograph and the species was not in cultivation in this country in 1900. In 1908 Professor F. E. Lloyd sent material from the state of Zacatecas, and since then both Dr. Elswood Chaffey and Dr. C. A. Purpus have sent living plants from central Mexico.

Illustrations: Cact. Mex. Bound. pl. 35, f. 6 to 8; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 61, C; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 185; Knippel, Kakteen pl. 12, f. 1, as Echinocactus unguispinus; Balt. Cact. Journ. 2: 147; Orcutt, Rev. Cact. 54, as Echinocactus trollietii; West Amer. Sci. 8: 119, as Echinocactus No. 79.

Figure 155 is from a photograph of a specimen sent in by Dr. C. A. Purpus from Cerro de Movano, Mexico, which has more slender and less curved central spines than the type.

Fig. 157.—Echinomastus dasyacanthus. Fig. 158.—Echinomastus macdowellii.

5. Echinomastus macdowellii* (Rebut).

Echinocactus macdowellii Rebut in Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 133. 1894.

Simple, globular or a little depressed, about 7 cm. high, 12 cm. in diameter, covered with a mass of interlocking spines; ribs 20 to 25, pale green, 5 to 7 mm. high, divided into tubercles; radial spines 15 to 20, white, spreading, up to 1.8 cm. long; central spines 3 or 4, dark colored, the longest up to 5 cm. in length; flowers rose-colored, up to 4 cm. long; ovary globose, said to be scaly.

Fig. 157.—Echinomastus dasyacanthus. Fig. 158.—Echinomastus macdowellii.

5. Echinomastus macdowellii* (Rebut).

Echinocactus macdowellii Rebut in Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 133. 1894.

Simple, globular or a little depressed, about 7 cm. high, 12 cm. in diameter, covered with a mass of interlocking spines; ribs 20 to 25, pale green, 5 to 7 mm. high, divided into tubercles; radial spines 15 to 20, white, spreading, up to 1.8 cm. long; central spines 3 or 4, dark colored, the longest up to 5 cm. in length; flowers rose-colored, up to 4 cm. long; ovary globose, said to be scaly.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Northern Mexico.

We have had this species in cultivation, but it has never flowered in this country. According to Mr. McDowell, it comes from Nuevo Leon near the border of Coahuila, Mexico.

In addition to the synonym cited above the Index Kewensis cites a homonym, credited to C. R. Orcutt (West Amer. Sci. 8: 118. 1894). Perhaps both names refer to the same plant since they appeared in the same year, the first in September and the second in November.

Illustrations: Knippel, Kakteen pl. 9; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for March; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 134; West Amer. Sci. 8: 118; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 199. f. 131; Orcutt, Rev. Cact. 54, as Echinocactus macdowellii.

Figure 158 is from a photograph obtained by Dr. Rose from L. Quehl in 1912.

*The original spelling of the specific name was E. mcdowellii, but Schumann has corrected it to E. macdowellii.

6. Echinomastus durangensis (Rünge).

Echinocactus durangensis Rünge, Hamb. Gartenz. 46: 231. 1890.

Simple, ovoid, about 8 cm. long, 7 cm. in diameter; ribs 18 to 21, low; areoles white-woolly when young, but without wool when old; radial spines 15 to 30, the lower ones shorter than the upper, more or less incurved, white except the black tips, 1.5 cm. long; central spines 3 or 4, a little longer than the radials, acicular, about 2 cm. long; flowers and fruit not known.

Type locality: Not cited, but Schumann reports it only from Rio Nazas, west of Villa Lerdo, Durango, Mexico.

Distribution: Zacatecas and Durango, Mexico.

This species is similar to Echinomastus unguispinus, but not so large, with more slender and lighter-colored spines, none of them strongly recurved. We know it only from a specimen collected in Zacatecas by Dr. Elswood Chaffey in 1910.

Illustration: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 61, B, as Echinocactus durangensis.

18. GYMNOCALYCIUM Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 1 and pl. 12. 1845.*

Plants globular, simple or cespitose, strongly ribbed; ribs divided into tubercles often protruding at the base; flowers campanulate to short-funnelform, from upper and normally from the nascent areoles, usually large for size of plant, white, pink, or rarely yellow; flower-tube bearing broad scales, these with naked axils; fruit oblong, red so far as known, scaly; seeds cap-shaped or dome-shaped, brownish, tuberculate.

The species of this genus which were treated by Schumann are found in his subgenus Hybocactus of Echinocactus. We recognize about 23 species, all from South America, east of the Andes and chiefly from Argentina, with a few species from Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The generic name is from yv/ivog naked, and KaXv^ bud, referring to the glabrous flower-bud.

The genus was originally based on three species of which G. denudatum was the first, and this is taken by us as the generic type. Heynhold (Nom. 2: 103. 1846) uses the three names of Pfeiffer.

The tubercles on the ribs have an enlargement more or less conspicuous just below the spine-areole which Schumann calls a "chin." So far as our observation goes this is present in all the species, although it is very small in G. saglione, and it may be of considerable diagnostic importance. By this character plants belonging to species of Gymnocalycium can be referred generically when not in flower.

The flower in this genus, as in the other genera of this tribe, normally comes from the center of the plant, borne on nascent areoles; but sometimes, especially in greenhouse plants, the flowers of some are lateral and borne on old areoles as in E. gibbosus (see Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. E. stellatus, and E. schickendantzii (see Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 29).

Key to Species.

A. Inner perianth-segments yellow to yellowish green.

Ribs acute 1. G. mihanovichii

Ribs rounded.

Ribs 11 to 14; inner perianth-segments broadly oblong.

Ribs very definite; tubercles broader than high 2. G. netrelianum

Ribs low, rather indefinite; tubercles subglobose 3. G. leeanum

Ribs 9; inner perianth-segments narrowly oblong 4. G. guerkeanum

AA. Inner perianth-segments red, pink, or white. B. Ribs hardly tubercled.

Ovary and tube bearing few scales.

Scales on ovary rounded 5 . G. spegazzinii

Scales on ovary acute 6. G. denudatum

Ovary and tube very scaly 7. G. hyptiacanthum

* Pfeiffer says: "Pfeiff. in Catal. Hort. Schelh. 1843" but this we do not credit as place of publication.

Key to Species—continued.

BB. Ribs with prominent tubercles.

C. Flowers with a very short tube. Spines brown to black.

Central spines one or more.

Tubercles without a distinct chin 8. G. saglione

Tubercles with a large chin 9. G. mostii

Central spines wanting 10. G. gibbosum

Spines yellow.

Ribs 10 to 15 11. G. multiflorum

Ribs 22 12. G. brachyanthum

CC. Flowers with more or less elongated tube.

Spines yellow, at least when young, or white.

Spines 5 to 7, tortuous, up to 6 cm. long 13. G. anisitsii

Spines a little curved, 1 to 4 cm. long. Spines lo to 13.

Spines slender, not appressed 14. G. monvillei

Spines stout, appressed 15. G. melanocarpum

Spines 3, rarely more 16. G. uruguayense

Spines brown.

Central spines present.

Ribs acute 17. G. megalothelos

Ribs obtuse 18. G. kurtzianum

Central spines none. Spines slender, acicular.

Plant dark green 19. G. damsii

Plant reddish or bronze 20. G. platense

Spines stout, subulate.

Flower-tube as long as limb; flowers sublateral 21. G. schickendantzii

Flower-tube much shorter than limb; flowers central 22. G. stuckertii

AAA. Species not grouped 23. G. joossensianum

Fig. 159.—Gymnocalycium mihanovichii. Fig. 160.—Gymnocalycium netrelianum.

1. Gymnocalycium mihanovichii (Fric and Gurke).

Echinocactus mihanovichii Fric and Gurke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 15: 142. 1905.

Plant somewhat depressed, 5 cm. in diameter or less, grayish green; ribs 8, prominent, acute; areoles small, 12 mm. apart; spines or 6, spreading, yellowish; flowers about 3 cm. long; outer perianth-segments brownish green; inner perianth-segments green to yellowish green, sometimes tinged with red; scales on the slender flower-tube and ovary broad.

Type locality: Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

We have not grown this plant, but Dr. Rose studied it in Berlin, in 1912.

This plant is successfully grown as a graft on the top of some of the Cereus allies.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 101; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 67, as Echinocactus mihanovichii.

Figure 159 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

2. Gymnocalycium netrelianum (Monville).

Echinocactus netrelianus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 248. 1853.

Simple or sometimes proliferous, globular or somewhat depressed, 3 cm. in diameter, naked at apex; ribs 14, broad, rounded, tuberculate, somewhat glaucous; spines 5 to 8, all radial, brownish, setaceous, flexible, less than 1 cm. long; flowers pale citron-yellow, 5 cm. long; inner perianth-segments broadly oblong, acute.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Probably Uruguay or Argentina, according to Schumann, but not reported from the former by Arechavaleta or from the latter by Spegazzini.

According to Dr. Weber, this species is very similar to E. hyptiacanthus, but it is much smaller and the flowers are yellow, not white.

Illustration: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 39, b, as Echinocactus netrelianus.

Figure 160 is copied from the illustration above cited.

3. Gymnocalycium leeanum (Hooker).

Echinocactus leeanus Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4184. 1845.

Globose or somewhat depressed, glaucous-green; tubercles hemispherical but usually 6-angled at base, not definitely arranged; areoles oval; spines about 11, slender; radial spines somewhat curved, appressed, 12 mm. long; central spine 1, straight, porrect; flowers large; outer perianth-segments green, tinged with purple; inner perianth-segments pale yellow.

Type locality: Argentina.

Distribution: Argentina and Uruguay.

This plant was originally obtained from Messrs. Lee, of the Hammersmith Nursery, who grew it from seed sent by Mr. John Tweedie from Argentina. Schumann referred it to Echinocactus hyptiacanthus, a white-flowered species from which we believe that it must be distinct. We have found no records of the rediscovery of this species, but we are inclined to refer here J. A. Shafer's No. 123, collected at Salto, Uruguay, March 7, 1917. This plant flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in 1918 and has beautiful yellow flowers.

Illustrations: Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4184; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1377. f. 19370, as Echinocactus leeanus.

Figure 164 is copied from the first illustration cited above.

4. Gymnocalycium guerkeanum (Heese).

Echinocactus guerkeanus Heese, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 132. 1911.

Usually simple but sometimes cespitose, about 5 cm. in diameter; ribs 9, broad and obtuse, somewhat tuberculate; spines all radial, usually 5, unequal, the longest 12 mm. long, yellowish, with brownish bases, rough, usually spreading or appressed; flowers near center of plant, 5 cm. long, yellow, nearly as broad as long when expanded; inner perianth-segments narrowly oblong, acute, sometimes toothed; scales on the ovary acute; fruit and seeds not known.

Type locality: Bolivia.

Distribution: Bolivia.

This species is said to be near E. netrelianus but apparently quite distinct. We know it only from description and illustrations.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 21: 133; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 144, as Echino-cactus guerkeanus.

Figure 161 is copied from the last illustration above cited.

5. Gymnocalycium spegazzinii nom. nov.

Echinocactus loricatus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 502. 1905. Not Poselger, 1853.

Depressed, globular, 6 cm. high, 14 cm. in diameter, grayish green; ribs 13, broad and low, rounded on the margin; areoles elliptic; spines usually 7, subulate, rigid, appressed to the ribs, sometimes recurved, grayish brown, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; flowers 7 cm. long; inner perianth-segments more or less rose-tinted; filaments and style violaceous; stigma-lobes 16, white to rose-colored; scales on the ovary few, broad.

Type locality: La Viña, province of Salta, Argentina. Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

As this plant requires a new name it gives us great pleasure to dedicate it to such an enthusiastic cactus student as Dr. Carlos Spegazzini of La Plata, Argentina.

Figure 162 is from a photograph of the type specimen, contributed by Dr. Spegazzini.

Fig. 161.—G. guerkeanum. Fig. 162.—G. spegazzini.

6. Gymnocalycium denudatum (Link and Otto) Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 1. 1845.

Echinocactus denudatus Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 17. 1828.

Cereus denudatus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 73. 1837.

Echinocactus denudatus typicus Schumann in Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: 248. 1890.

Simple, subglobose or somewhat depressed, 5 to 15 cm. in diameter; ribs 5 to 8, very broad and low, obtuse, hardly tubercled; spines usually only , sometimes 8, all radial, appressed, slender, sometimes curved; flowers white or pale rose-colored; perianth-segments oblong, acute; ovary and flower-tube bearing only an occasional acute scale.

Type locality: Southern Brazil.

Distribution: Southern part of Brazil and reported from Argentina and Uruguay.

Echinocactus intermedius (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 36. 1898) is, according to Dr. Schumann, a hybrid between this species and Echinocactus multiflorus, while Hildmann (Garten-Zeitung 4: 479. f. 111. 1885) states that it is a cross between this species and E. monvillei. Numerous varieties have been described, some belonging here, while others have been referred to other species, and some are doubtless mere forms not deserving of a name. The following we do not know and they are therefore left under this species: var. octogonus Schumann (Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: 248. 1890), var. golzianus Mundt (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 7: 187. 1897), vars. wieditzianus, andersohnianus, heuschkelianus, meiklejohnianus, delaetianus, wagnerianus, scheidelianus (F. Haage jr., Monatsschr. Kakteenk.

8: 36, 37. 1898), var. roseißorus Hildmann (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 414. 1898), and bruennowii and flavispinus (Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 189. 1907).

Echinocactus denudatus paraguayensis, sometimes credited to Mundt and sometimes to Haage jr., has not been formally published, but has been illustrated as follows: Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 190. f. 123; Tribune Hort. 4: pl. 140; Gartenwelt 9: 266; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 3. This plant has been referred to by Schumann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 13: 50, 51, 109) as Echinocactus paraguayensis.

Fig. 163.—Gymnocalycium denudatum. Fig. 164.—Gymnocalycium leeanum.

Illustrations: Martius, Fl. Bras. 42: pl. 50, f. 1; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 3; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 59; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 72; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 3: 158. f. I; 14: 41; 29: 141; Link and Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. pl. 9; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 188. f. 119, as Echinocactus denudatus; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 10; Tribune Hort. 4: pl. 139, as E. denudatus var.; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 189. f. 120, as E. denudatus bruennowii; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 189. f. 121, as E. denudatus delaetii; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 189. f. 122, as E. denudatus heuschkehlii; De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 18, as Echinocactus denudatus paraguayensis; Garten-Zeitung 4: 479. f. 111, as E. denudatus intermedius. Figure 163 is copied from the third illustration above cited.

7. Gymnocalycium hyptiacanthum (Lemaire).

Echinocactus hyptiacanthus Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 21. 1839. Cactus hyptiacanthus Lemaire in Steudel, Nom. ed. 2. 1: 246. 1840.

Echinocactus hyptiacanthus eleutheracanthus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 249. 1853. Echinocactus hyptiacanthus megalotelus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 249. 1853. Echinocactus hyptiacanthus nitidus Monville in Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 249. 1833.

Simple, globose or sometimes depressed, 5 to 7 cm. in diameter, dull green, the apex somewhat umbilicate; ribs 9 to 12, broad, obtuse, somewhat tuberculate; radial spines 5 to 9, spreading or appressed, 10 to 12 mm. long, flexible, sometimes pubescent; central spine solitary or wanting; flowers white, 4.5 to 5 cm. long.

Type locality: Not cited. Distribution: Uruguay.

This plant is sometimes distributed as Echinocactus multiflorus, but it is very different from that species. It was first described from barren plants, but afterwards Labouret described the flowers as white as did also Arechavaleta and Gürke. We believe, there fore, that the yellow-flowered species (G. leeanum), referred here by Schumann, should be excluded.

Illustrations: Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 70; Blühende Kakteen 3: pl. 164, as Echi-nocactus hyptiacanthus.

8. Gymnocalycium saglione (Cels).

Echinocactus saglionis Cels, Portef. Hort. 180. 1847.

Echinocactus hybogonus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 167. 1850.

Echinocactus hybogonus saglionis Labouret, Monogr. Cact. 257. 1853.

Plants simple, globular, often very large, sometimes 3 din, in diameter, dull green; ribs 13 to 32 according to the size of the plant, low, very broad, sometimes 4 cm. long, separated by wavy intervals, divided into large, low, rounded tubercles; areoles 2 to 4 cm. apart, large, felted when young; spines dark brown to black, at first ascending, afterwards more or less curved outward, 8 to 10 on small plants but on old plants often 15 or more, 3 to 4 cm. long; central spines 1 to several; flowers white or slightly tinged with pink, 3.5 cm. long, the tube short and broadly funnelform; inner perianth-segments spatulate, acute; scales of the ovary nearly orbicular, rounded, with a scarious margin.

Fig. 165.—Gymnocalycium saglione. Fig. 166.—Gymnocalycium gibbosum.

Type locality: Catamarca, Tucuman, Argentina.

Distribution: Northern Argentina and perhaps southern Bolivia.

Our Bolivian reference is based on a living specimen and flowers collected by P. L. Porte at Lagunillas, southeastern Bolivia, July 1920, and delivered to us in good condition March 10, 1921; this may or may not belong here; it flowered May 7 and again on June 21, 1921. It may be described as follows:

Ribs 8, obtuse; flower 3 to 3.5 cm. long; flower-tube proper very short, only 1 to 2 mm. long; throat of flower broad, funnelform, 15 mm. long, bearing many stamens; inner surface of throat and tube deep reddish purple; filaments short, purple; style and stigma-lobes purple; inner perianth-segments short-oblong, obtuse, ochre-yellow, but drying pinkish.

According to Labouret, Echinocactus hybogonus which we refer here as a synonym is a native of Chile, but probably came from Argentina.

Illustrations: De Laet, Cat. Gen. f. 14, 17; Gartenwelt 7: 279; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 58; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 27; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 30; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. f. 125, as Echinocactus saglionis.

Plate xvii, figure 1, shows a plant brought by Dr. Shafer from near Tapa, Argentina, in 1917 (No. 94), which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in May 1919. Figure 165 is from a photograph of an Argentine specimen contributed by Dr. Spegazzini.

9. Gymnocalycium mostii (Gürke) Britton and Rose, Addisonia 3: 5. 1918.

Echinocactus mostii Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 11. 1906.

Plant depressed-globose, 6 to 7 cm. high, 13 cm. in diameter, dark green; ribs 11 to 14, broad and obtuse, more or less tubercled, often strongly; spines subulate, brownish; radial spines 7 to 9, unequal, 6 to 22 mm. long; central spine solitary, 18 to 20 mm. long; flower campanulate, pale red, 6 to 8 cm. broad; perianth-segments spreading, oblong; scales on the ovary 8 to 10, broad.

Type locality: Córdoba, Argentina.

Distribution: Province of Córdoba.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 93, as Echinocactus mostii; Addisonia 3: pl. 83, B.

Plate xvii, figure 2, shows the top of a plant in bloom, brought by Dr. Rose from Cas-safousth, Córdoba, Argentina, to the New York Botanical Garden, in 1915; figure 3 shows a flower.

10. Gymnocalycium gibbosum (Haworth) Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: under pl. 1. 1845.

Cactus gibbosus Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 173. 1812.

Cactus nobilis Haworth, Syn. Pl. Succ. 174. 1812. Not Linnaeus, 1767.

Cactus reductus Link, Enum. 2: 21. 1822.

Echinocactus gibbosus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 461. 1828.

Cereus reductus De Candolle, Prodr. 3: 463. 1828.

Echinocactus nobilis Haworth, Phil. Mag. 7: 115. 1830.

Cereus gibbosus Pfeiffer, Enum. Cact. 74. 1837.

Echinocactus mackieanus Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 64: pl. 3561. 1837.

Echinocactus gibbosus nobilis Monville in Lemaire, Cact. Gen. Nov. Sp. 91. 1839.

Gymnocalycium reductum Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 12. 1847.

Echinocactus reductus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 107. 1895.

Echinocactus gibbosus chubutensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II. 4: 285. 1902.

Echinocactus gibbosus ventanicola Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 2: 7. 1903.

Echinocactus spegazzinii Weber in Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 2: 7. 1903.

Echinocactus gibbosus typicus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 503. 1905.

Plants simple, sometimes depressed, but usually taller than thick, sometimes 20 cm. high; ribs 12 to 14, broad, strongly tubercled; spines 7 to 52, all radial, straight or somewhat curved, usually light brown; flowers white to pinkish, 6 to 6.5 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong; ovary-scales ovate, acutish.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Argentina.

Numerous varieties have been described under this species, among which are the following: celsianus Labouret (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 583. 1885), cerebriformis Spegazzini (Anal. Soc. Cient. Argentina 48: 50. 1899), fennellii F. A. Haage jr. (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 115. 1899; Echinocactus fennellii F. A. Haage jr. in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 409. 1898),ferox Labouret (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 583. 1885; Echinocactus ferox, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 4: 193. 1894), leonensis Hildmann (and Echinocactus leo-nensis Cels in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 409. 1898), leucacanthus Rümpler (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 583. 1885), leucodictyus Salm-Dyck (Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 34. 1850; Echinocactus leucodictyus Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 34. 1850),pluricostatus (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 584. 1885), polygonus Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 409. 1898), and schlumbergeri Rümpler (Förster, Handb. Cact. ed. 2. 584. 1885; Echinocactus schlumbergeri Cels in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 409. 1898).

Echinocactus towensis Cels (Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 409) which comes from Towa, an island off the coast of Argentina, we do not know. It may be of this relationship.

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 409. 1898) uses the binomial Echinocactus celsianus Labouret, but says it is a variety of this species. Echinocactus globosus cristatus is only a gardener's name for a monstrosity. Echinopsis gibbosa Pfeiffer (Förster, Handb. Cact. 291. 1846) was given as a synonym of this species.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 55; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen f. 71; Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 13 (?);Gartenwelt 15: 536; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 28; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 21, as Echinocactus gibbosus; Edwards's Bot. Reg. 2:

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE XVII

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE XVII

M. E. Eaton del.

1. Flowering plant of Gymnocalycium saglione.

2. Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalycium mostii

3. Flower of same.

(All natural size.)

pl. 137; Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 16: pl. 1524; Reichenbach, Fl. Exot. pl. 326, as Cactus gib-bosus; Pfeiffer, Abbild. Beschr. Cact. 2: pl. 12, as Gymnocalycium reductum; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 64: pl. 3561, as Echinocactus mackieanus; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 75: pl. 4443, as Cereus reductus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 30: 181, as Echinocactus gibbosus nobilis.

Figure 166 is from a photograph obtained by Dr. Rose from Dr. Spegazzini in 1915.

11. Gymnocalycium multiflorum (Hooker) Britton and Rose, Addisonia 3: 5. 1918.

Echinocactus multiflorus Hooker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4181. 1845.

Simple or cespitose, globular or somewhat depressed or sometimes short-columnar, 9 cm. high or more, sometimes 12 cm. in diameter; ribs 10 to 15, broad at base, somewhat tubercled, especially above, acutish; areoles elliptic, 10 mm. long; spines 7 to lo, all radial, spreading, somewhat flattened, stout, yellowish, the longest one 3 cm. long; flower-bud ovoid, covered with imbricate scales; flowers 3.5 to 4 cm. long, pinkish to nearly white, short-campanulate; inner perianth-segments oblong, 3 cm. long, obtuse or acute; scales on the ovary broad and rounded, their margins scarious.

Type locality: Not cited.

Distribution: Reported from Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. We know it definitely from Argentina, where it was collected by Dr. Rose in 1915, in Cordoba.

Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 405. 1898) describes briefly the three following varieties: albispinus, parisiensis, and hybopleurus.

Echinocactus ourselianus Monville (Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck. 1849. 34. 1850) is cited by Schumann as a synonym of this species, but it was never published; the name was attributed to Cels by Salm-Dyck. Its variety albispinus (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 111. 1895) is sometimes met with.

Illustrations: Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 22; Loudon, Encycl. Pl. ed. 3. 1376. f. 19369; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 26: 67; Curtis's Bot. Mag. 71: pl. 4181; Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 30, as Echinocactus multiflorus; Addisonia 3: pl.

Plate xviii, figure 3, shows a flowering plant brought by Dr. Rose from Cosquin, Argentina, to the New York Botanical Garden in 1915, where it promptly bloomed. Figure 167 is from a photograph of a plant from Catamarca, Argentina, contributed by Dr. Spegazzini.

12. Gymnocalycium brachyanthum (Gürke).

Echinocactus brachyanthus Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 123. 1907.

Stem simple, depressed-globose, 7 cm. high, 18 cm. in diameter; ribs 22, strongly tubercled; tubercles or 6-sided; areoles elliptic; spines 5 to 7, all radial, subulate, yellowish, 10 to 25 mm. long; flowers, including the ovary, 3 to 5 cm. long, campanulate; inner perianth-segments white to rose-colored; scales of the ovary few, broader than long, rounded, the margin scarious.

Type locality: Argentina.

Distribution: Northern Argentina.

We have studied a plant sent to the New York Botanical Garden from Berlin in 1914 which has not yet flowered.

13. Gymnocalycium anisitsii (Schumann).

Echinocactus anisitsii Schumann, Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 4. 1900.

Simple, short-cylindric, about 1 dm. long, pale green; ribs 11, strongly tubercled, acute; spines to 7, yellowish, slender, usually all radial, subulate, somewhat angled, tortuous, sometimes 6 cm. long; flower 4 cm. long, somewhat funnelshaped; scales and outer perianth-segments broad, greenish white; inner perianth-segments white, broadly oblong, acute.

Fig. 167.—Gymnocalycium multiflorum.
Fig. i 68.—Gymnocalycium anisitsii.
Fig. i 69.—Gymmnocalycium monvillei.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE XVIII

M. E. Eaton del. 1. Flowering plant of Gymnocalicium megalothelos. a.Hon&co.

2. Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalicium platense.

3. Flowering plant of Gymnocalicium multiflorum.

(All natural size.)

Type locality: Rio Tigatigami, Paraguay.

Distribution. Paraguay.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 4; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 29: 81; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 26, as Echinocactus anisitsii.

Figure 168 is copied from the first illustration above cited. 14. Gymnocalycium monvillei Pfeiffer, ined.*

Echinocactus monvillei Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. 14. 1838.

Globose, large, 20 cm. in diameter or more; ribs 13 to 17, broad and obtuse, strongly tubercled; areoles elliptic; spines 12 or 13, all radial, yellowish except the purplish bases, subulate, spreading, 3 to 4 cm. long, slightly curved; flowers large, nearly white, 6 to 8 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong, acute; scales on the ovary orbicular.

Type locality: Paraguay.

Distribution: Mountains of Paraguay.

Echinocactus contractus Hildmann (Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 15, with plate. 1891) is a hybrid between this species and G. gibbosum.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 1: pl. 10; Lemaire, Icon. Cact. pl. 1; Lemaire, Cact. Aliq. Nov. pl. 1, f. 1, 2; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 47. f. 6, No. 4; Garten-Zeitung 4: 182. f. 42, No. 17; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 27: 171; 29: 81, as Echinocactus monvillei.

Figure 169 is copied from the first illustration above cited; figure 170 is from a photograph contributed by Dr. Spegazzini, showing his understanding of this species. This may be different from the plant shown by figure 169, but we know the species only from descriptions and the illustrations cited above. We are unable to determine which of the figures is the more nearly correct.

Fig. 170.—Gymnocalycium monvillei.

Fig. 172.—Gymnocalycium urugayense.

Fig. 171.—Gymnocalycium melanocarpum.

Fig. 172.—Gymnocalycium urugayense.

15. Gymnocalycium melanocarpum (Arechavaleta).

Echinocactus melanocarpus Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 220. 1905. Simple, globose, 7 to 9 cm. in diameter; ribs '5, broad and rounded, strongly tubercled; spines all radial, 10 to 12, yellow when young, in age grayish, 2 to 2.5 cm. long; flowers nearly central; ovary nearly globular, bearing a few broad scales.

* The only reference to this binomial which we have seen is that of Schumann (Gesamtb. Kakteen 411) where it is used as a synonym.

Type locality: Near Paysandu, Uruguay. Distribution: Northwestern Uruguay.

Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 15, as Echinocactus melanocarpus. Figure 171 is copied from the illustration of the type plant above cited.

16. Gymnocalycium uruguayense (Arechavaleta).

Echinocactus uruguayensis Arechavaleta, Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: 218. 1905.

Usually much depressed; ribs 12 to 14, strongly tubercled; areoles orbicular, grayish tomentose when young; spines 3, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, usually white; flowers 4 cm. long; inner perianth-segments linear-lanceolate.

Type locality: Paso de los Toros, Uruguay. Distribution: Known only from the type locality.

Illustration: Anal. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 5: pl. 14, as Echinocactus uruguayensis. Figure 172 is copied from the illustration of the type plant above cited.

Fig. 173.—Gymnocalycium megalothelos. Fig. 174.—Gymnocalycium kurtzianum.

17. Gymnocalycium megalothelos (Sencke).

Echinocactus megalothelos Sencke in Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen 415. 1898.

Plant simple, somewhat depressed-globose, 10 cm. in diameter, but sometimes said to be short-columnar, in cultivation becoming bronzed; ribs 10 to 12, prominent, 10 to 12 mm. high, acute, deeply divided into tubercles; spines acicular, brownish; radial spines 7 or 8, spreading or sometimes ascending, 1 to 1.5 cm. long; central spine solitary, ascending or porrect, more or less curved, 2 to 3 cm. long; flower campanulate-funnelform, erect, 3 to 4 cm. long; outer perianth-segments broad, greenish purple with a broad ovate acute tip; inner perianth-segments pinkish white; scales on the ovary very broad with a pinkish tip.

Type locality: Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

This species was collected in Paraguay by Professor R. Chodat in 1915 and has flowered repeatedly in the New York Botanical Garden.

Plate xviii, figure 1, shows the plant collected by Professor Chodat. Figure 173 is from a photograph of the same plant.

18. Gymnocalycium kurtzianum (Gürke).

Echinocactus kurtzianus Gürke, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 16: 55. 1906.

Simple, globose but depressed, 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, naked at apex; ribs 10 to 18, divided into tubercles; radial spines 8, spreading, brownish, with recurved tips, 2.5 to 4 cm. long; central spine solitary, 3 cm. long; flowers large, white, reddish at base; scales on ovary large; inner perianth-segments obtuse.

Type locality: Probably Córdoba, Argentina.

Distribution: Argentina.

The plant is known to us only from descriptions and illustrations.

This species was named for Dr. Fritz Kurtz (1854-1920) who lived for many years in Argentina.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 126; Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 97, as Ferocactus kurtzianus.

Figure 174 is copied from the second illustration above cited.

19. Gymnocalycium damsii (Schumann).

Echinocactus denudatus bruennowianus Haage jr., Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 8: 37. 1898.

Echinocactus damsii Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. 119. 1903.

Simple, globular or somewhat depressed; ribs so, green, tuberculate; spines all radial, straight, short, the longest 12 mm. long; flowers narrow, funnelform, 6 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong, white to light pinkish, spreading; scales on the ovary and flower-tube small, scattered; fruit oblong, 2.5 cm. long, 6 mm. in diameter, red.

Type locality: Northern part of Paraguay.

Distribution: Paraguay.

The plant is known to us only from descriptions and illustrations.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 83; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 27; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 14: 76, as Echinocactus damsii, Cact. Journ. 1: 53, as Echinocactus denudatus brunnowianus.

Figure 175 is copied from the first illustration above cited.

20. Gymnocalycium platense (Spegazzini).

Echinocactusplatensis Spegazzini, Contr. Fl. Vent. 28. 1896.

Echinocactus quehlianus F. Haage jr. in Quehl, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 9: 43. 1899.

Echinocactus stenocarpus Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 181. 1900.

Echinocactus gibbosusplatensis Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 2: 8. 1902.

Echinocactus platensis typicus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 504. 1905.

Echinocactus platensis leptanthus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 504. 1905.

Echinocactus platensis quehlianus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 504. 1905.

Echinocactus platensis parvulus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 505. 1905.

Echinocactus stellatus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 505. 1905. Not Scheidweiler, 1 840.

Echinocactus baldianus Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 505. 1905.

Plants small, depressed, half-hidden in the earth, 4 to 9 cm. broad, dull bluish green or purple or bronzed; ribs 8 to 12, broad and low, divided by cross lines into tubercles; tubercles with a horizontal or ascending chin-like projection; areoles when young white-felted; spines 3 to 6, I cm. long or less, brown with white tips, acicular, more or less appressed; flower inodorous, 6 cm. long, dull bluish green; tube and ovary bearing a few broad, short, rounded scales, these more or less purplish on the edge; outer perianth-segments white with a broad green stripe down the center; inner perianth-segments pure white; throat broad, purple within; filaments numerous, scattered over the throat: style short and thick, 2 cm. long; stigma-lobes cream-colored; ovary oblong.

Fig. 175.—Gymnocalycium damsii.

Type locality: Argentina.

Distribution: Argentina.

This species has a wide range in southern Argentina and consists evidently of several races differing in armament and relative length of the perianth-tube and limb. A plant from the Berlin Botanical Garden sent as Echinocactus quehlianus produced flowers identical with those of a plant of E. platensis brought by Dr. Rose from Cordoba.

Illustrations: Blühende Kakteen 2: pl. 105; Möllers Deutsche Gärt. Zeit. 25: 474. f. 6, No. 21; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 10: 152; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 28, as Echinocactus quehlianus; Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 17: 9; 29: 141, as Echinocactus platensis.

Figs. 176 and 177.—Gymnocalycium platense.

Plate xviii, figure 2, shows a plant in flower, brought by Dr. Rose in 1915 to the New York Botanical Garden from near Córdoba, Argentina; plate xix, figure 1, shows the flowering top of a plant received at the New York Botanical Garden from the Berlin Botanical Garden as Echinocactus quehlianus. Figure 176 is from a photograph of a plant from Argentina determined by Dr. Spegazzini as Echinocactus platensis leptanthus. Figure 177 is from a photograph contributed by Dr. Spegazzini; figure 178 is from a photograph also from Dr. Spegazzini, illustrating Echinocactus baldianus.

21. Gymnocalycium schickendantzii (Weber).

Echinocactus schickendantzii Weber, Dict. Hort. Bois 470. 1896.

Echinocactus delaetii Schumann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. II: 186. 1901.

Usually simple, sometimes depressed, up to 10 cm. in diameter; ribs usually 7, broad, more or less tuberculate; spines 6 or 7, all radial, more or less spreading, the larger ones flattened; flowers often from the side of the plant as well as central, white or pinkish in age, 5 cm. long; inner perianth-segments oblong to spatulate, obtuse; scales on the ovary and flower-tube purplish, broad and rounded.

Type locality: Catamarca, Tucuman, Argentina.

Distribution: Northern Argentina.

BRITTON AND ROSE, VOL. III

PLATE XIX

1. Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalicium platense.

2. Top of flowering plant of Gymnocalicium schickendantzii.

3. Top of flowering plant of Homalocephala texensis.

4. Fruite of same.

(All natural size, except seeds.)

Shafer's No. 103 from Trancas flowered in Washington in June 1920. The flowers were erect and the perianth-segments waxy, becoming pinkish; the ribs were strongly tubercled.

Fig. 178.—Gymnocalycium Fig. 179.—Gymnocalycium platense. schickendantzii.

Fig. 178.—Gymnocalycium Fig. 179.—Gymnocalycium platense. schickendantzii.

Illustrations: De Laet, Cat. Gén. f. 19; Schumann, Gesamtb. Kakteen Nachtr. f. 29; Schelle, Handb. Kakteenk. 191. f. 124, as Echinocactus schickendantzii, Monatsschr. Kak-teenk. 11: 187; Gartenwelt 7: 279; Gard. Chron. III. 33: suppl. plate, as Echinocactus delaetii.

Plate xix, figure 2, shows a plant collected by Dr. Shafer at Andalgala, Argentina, in 1917 (No. 15), which flowered in the New York Botanical Garden in July 1918. Figure 179 is from a photograph contributed by Dr. Spegazzini, showing a plant from Córdoba, Argentina; figure 181, also from one of Dr. Spegazzini's photographs, shows another plant from Córdoba.

Fig. 180.—Gymnocalycium stuckertii. Fig. 181.—Gymnocalycium schickendantzii.

22. Gymnocalycium stuckertii (Spegazzini).

Echinocactus stuckertii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 502. 1905. Plant globose, sometimes depressed, dull green, 6 to 6.5. cm. in diameter, 3.5 to 4 cm. high; ribs 9 to 11, obtuse; spines all radial, pinkish to brown, flattened, puberulent, 1 to 2.5 cm. long, somewhat spreading; flowers 4 cm. long, the tube rather short; inner perianth-segments nearly white; scales on the ovary and flower-tube scattered, broadly ovate, scarious-margined. Type locality: Province of San Luis Potosí, Argentina. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

Fig. 180.—Gymnocalycium stuckertii. Fig. 181.—Gymnocalycium schickendantzii.

22. Gymnocalycium stuckertii (Spegazzini).

Echinocactus stuckertii Spegazzini, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires III. 4: 502. 1905. Plant globose, sometimes depressed, dull green, 6 to 6.5. cm. in diameter, 3.5 to 4 cm. high; ribs 9 to 11, obtuse; spines all radial, pinkish to brown, flattened, puberulent, 1 to 2.5 cm. long, somewhat spreading; flowers 4 cm. long, the tube rather short; inner perianth-segments nearly white; scales on the ovary and flower-tube scattered, broadly ovate, scarious-margined. Type locality: Province of San Luis Potosí, Argentina. Distribution: Northern Argentina.

This species was named for T. Stuckert who aided Dr. Spegazzini in his studies of the cacti of Argentina.

Figure 180 is from a photograph of an Argentine plant contributed by Dr. Spegazzini. 23. Gymnocalycium joossensianum (Bodeker).

Echinocactus joossensianus Bodeker, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 28: 40. 1918.

Simple, depressed-globose, somewhat umbilicate at apex; ribs 6 to 9, obtuse, straight, somewhat tubercled; spines 6 to 9, the lower ones a little longer than the upper; flowers wine-red, nearly central, campanulate with a short tube; inner perianth-segments longer than the outer, oblong-obtuse; stigma-lobes 6; fruit fusiform; scales on the fruit few, red-tipped; seeds brownish yellow.

Type locality: Not definitely cited.

Distribution: Paraguay or northern Argentina.

We have not seen specimens of this plant, but from the illustration it is clearly a species of Gymnocalycium.

Illustration: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 28: 41, as Echinocactus joossensianus.

19. ECHINOCACTUS Link and Otto, Verh. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 420. 1827.

Plants very large, thick, cylindric and many-ribbed, or low and several-ribbed, the top clothed with a dense mass of wool or nearly naked; areoles very spiny, large, those on the upper part of old plants sometimes united; flowers from the crown of the plant, often partly hidden by the dense wool at the top, these usually yellow, rarely pink, of medium size; outer perianth-segments narrow, sometimes terminating in pungent tips; inner perianth-segments oblong, thinner than the outer, the inner ones obtuse; scales on the flower-tube numerous, imbricate, persistent, pungent; scales on the ovary small, often linear, their axils filled with matted wool; fruit densely covered with white wool, thin-walled, oblong; seeds blackish, smooth, shining, or rarely papillose, with a small subbasal hilum.

The generic name is from kxivog hedgehog, and KaKtog cactus, referring to the spiny armament.

The genus Echinocactus, as treated by Karl Schumann in his monograph (Gesamtb. Kakteen 290 to 452. 1898), contains 138 species, while more than 1,025 names have been used in the genus. Our review of Echinocactus convinces us that there is a number of distinct genera, several of which have already been proposed and others entirely new. Before making these segregates it was necessary to establish the type of the genus which was proposed in 1827. Before that time the species of Echinocactus were usually considered as belonging to the genus Melocactus. In that year Link and Otto* established the genus Echinocactus, describing and illustrating 14 species. The illustrations, however, must have been made and engraved before it was decided to establish the genus for they all bear a Melocactus legend. Since these 14 species do not belong to the same genus, it is important to establish the type.

In their introduction Link and Otto state that Echinocactus tenuispinus and E. platyacan-thus have the flowers of a Cereus and, for this reason, as well as the absence of a cephalium, were separated as Echinocactus. The other 12 species referred there, whose flowers they did not know, were evidently thus referred from the supposed lack of a cephalium. It seems, therefore, the type of the genus Echinocactus should be either E. tenuispinus or E. platyacan-thus. In the last paragraph of their paper they state that E. tenuispinus should probably be referred to Cereus and that E. platyacanthus and 7 other species belong to Echinocactus. We therefore designate Echinocactus platyacanthus Link and Otto as the type of the genus. We recognize 9 species of Echinocactus.

This group to which E. platyacanthus belongs is characterized by a densely woolly crown to the plant, very woolly, thin-skinned fruit, and smooth seed, with a lateral hilum. As thus characterized, the genus contains at least 6 Mexican species, although there are

about a dozen species of this relationship which have been described; to these we append 3 species of the southwestern United States and border states of northern Mexico, one with smooth, the others with papillose seeds.

Echinocactus texensis has a similar woolly ovary, but the fruit is fleshy, with different seeds and purple flowers; this we regard as a new generic type.

Astrophytum with its 4 species, usually classed as Echinocactus, also has pubescent fruit, but is very different in other respects.

There are 2 other cacti from North America which bear wool on the ovary, E. whip-plei and E. polyancistrus. These have only small scales on the ovary, bearing minute tufts of hairs in their axils and have very different seeds. We refer them to a new genus (see p. 212).

In South America there are 2 old genera with woolly fruit which have been associated with Echinocactus, namely, Malacocarpus and Eriosyce, both of which, in our opinion, are generically distinct.

Key to Species.

A. Plants very large, often becoming cylindric (see No. 5).

Spines all bright yellow

Spines brown to gray, rarely some of them yellowish.

Inner perianth-segments linear-oblong, entire

Inner perianth-segments oblong, more or less toothed or lacerate.

Spines all of one kind

Spines both radial and central. Central spine solitary.

Flowers 4 to 5 cm. long; central spine 4 to 5 cm. long, nearly black

Flowers 3 cm. long; central spine 3 cm. long, grayish in age

Central spines several

AA. Plants relatively small, subglobose.

Seeds smooth and shining

Seeds papillose.

Flowers yellow

Flowers pink

1. Echinocactus grusonii Hildmann, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 4. 1891.

Plants single, depressed-globose, large, 2 to 13 dm. high or more, often 4 to 8 dm. in diameter, light green; ribs 21 to 37, rather thin and high; spines when young golden yellow, becoming pale and nearly white, but in age dirty brown; radial spines 8 to 10, subulate, 3 cm. long; central spines usually 4, up to 5 cm. long; flowers 4 to 6 cm. long, opening in bright sunlight, 5 cm. broad at top, the segments never widely spreading; flower-tube 3 cm. broad, covered with lanceolate, long-acuminate scales; outer perianth-segments long-acuminate, brownish on the outside, yellowish within; inner perianth-segments cadmium-yellow, with a silky luster, erect, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, much shorter than the outer segments; stamens numerous, yellow, connivent, forming a thick cylinder in the center of the perianth; style yellow; stigma-lobes 12; ovary spherical, bearing acuminate scales with an abundance of wool in their axils; fruit oblong to spherical, 12 to 20 mm. long, thin-walled, covered with white wool or becoming naked below; seeds smooth, dark chestnut-brown, shining, 1.5 mm. long.

Type locality: Central Mexico.

Distribution: San Luis Potosí to Hidalgo, Mexico.

This is a very attractive species and is much grown in collections, but usually only small plants are seen.

We are greatly indebted to Mr. E. C. Rost, a private grower of cacti in southern California and a very keen observer, not only for procuring for us flowers, fruits, and good photographs, but also for valuable observations. He writes that the flowers are deeply imbedded in the dense felt cushion and must actually be dug out. The depth to which the flowers are sunk is shown by a definite band near the top of the ovary. The flowers open in sun-light and the perianth-segments are nearly erect or slightly spreading. The stamens and style are erect. Under date of October 9, 1919, Mr. Rost sent us the following statement regarding this plant:

1. E. grusonii

5. E. platyacanthus

7. E. xeranthemoides

8. E. polycephalus

9. E. horizonthalonius

"In my garden these plants bloom at irregular intervals for a period of about six months each year. The first flower of the current season opened on May 15 and one is in blossom today, while a number of well-developed buds will open unless killed by unseasonable frosts. The hour of the day that the flower opens varies according to the time that the warm rays of the sun reach the plant. Just as soon, however, as the sun-light leaves the flower, it closes whether it be in the forenoon or afternoon. Clouds obscuring the sun for more than a few minutes or any artificial shade will cause the flowers to close. If conditions are suitable, the flowers will open for three consecutive days, closing each night. The perianth-segments of the flower separate very little.

"New plants can easily be obtained either by means of seeds or from cuttings. I have been very successful in obtaining cuttings by slicing off the top of a large plant which causes it to bud freely, and these buds can be cut off and will develop into good plants."

Figs. 182 and 183.—Echinocactus grusonii. cactus grusonii. X0.8.

Echinocereus grusonii azureus is a form incidentally mentioned by Von Zeisold (Monats-schr. Kakteenk. 3: 141. 1893), while Nicholson refers here, as a synonym, Echinocactus aureus (Dict. Gard. Suppl. 334. 1900).

Echinocactus corynacanthus Scheidweiler and Echinocactus galeottii Scheidweiler (Allg. Gar-tenz. 9 50. 1841), while doubtless referable to this genus, are more likely to belong to Echinocactus grusonii than to E. ingens where they are referred by Schumann.

Illustrations: Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 1: 4, 7; Gartenwelt 1: 429; Dict. Gard. Nicholson Suppl. 335. f. 356; Cact. Journ. 1: pl. for March; 165; 2: 42; Wiener 1ll. Gart. Zeit. 29: f. 22,

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